Luis Trenker

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Luis Trenker at a book signing in Freiburg im Breisgau, 1982
Original sound of Luis Trenker's speech on the occasion of his 80th birthday in 1972 in Ortisei in Val Gardena

Luis Trenker , born as Alois Franz Trenker (born October 4, 1892 in Ortisei in Val Gardena , Tyrol , Austria-Hungary ; † April 12, 1990 in Bozen , Italy ), was a mountaineer , actor , director and writer . He is best known for his films about the Alps .


Training and First World War

Advertisement by Clemens Holzmeister and Luis Trenker's joint architecture office in the Bozen telephone directory from 1925

Alois "Luis" Trenker was the son of the wood sculptor and painter Jakob Trenker and his wife Karolina geb. Demetz. He grew up bilingual, with his father from North Tyrol he spoke German, Tyrolean dialect , with his mother and the other children in the village he spoke mostly Ladin . After attending the local elementary school and the community school at the Josefinum boys' seminar in nearby Bolzano, Trenker was briefly an engineer apprentice at his grandfather's power plant, Ferdinand Demetz , in Ortisei. From 1903 to 1905 he attended the building and craft school in Bolzano. This was followed by the visit of the k. u. k. Secondary school in Innsbruck , where he learned Italian as a foreign language . There he joined the Catholic secondary school association K.Ö.St.V. Cimbria Innsbruck in the MKV . Already in his school days he worked as a mountain guide and ski instructor during the holidays . Trenker studied after the final examination at the Vienna University of Technology Architecture .

He took part in the First World War from the beginning. First he fought as an officer cadet in the Austro-Hungarian heavy artillery on the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland . Then he was deployed in the mountain war of 1915–1918 against Italy, first as an artillery ensign in the Verle fort near Trento and, after being wounded, from 1916 as a mountain guide in a mountain guide company in the Dolomites . At the end of the war he had the rank of first lieutenant .

After the end of the war, Trenker made unsuccessful attempts to set up a business in Bolzano . Finally he took up his architecture studies again, which he finished in 1924 at the Technical University of Graz . He then worked as an architect in Bolzano in an office run jointly with Clemens Holzmeister . Trenker took part in the 1924 Olympic Games in Chamonix as a member of the Italian five-man bobsleigh team. The team, consisting of the South Tyroleans Ludwig Obexer, Max Fink, Paul Herbert and Josef Steiner in addition to Trenker, took sixth and last place. In 1928 Trenker married Hilda von Bleichert (1903–1988), daughter of the Leipzig industrialist Paul von Bleichert (1877–1938), with whom he had four children: Florian , who would later follow in his footsteps, Ferdinand, Barbara and Josef Trenker. These children brought him a number of grandchildren and great-grandchildren.

Contacts to the film

The first contact with the film came about in 1921. Trenker was hired by Arnold Fanck as a mountain guide for the film Berg des Schicksals . When Fanck discovered that the intended lead actor could not climb, Trenker took over the lead role. This was quickly followed by other films, initially as an actor, and from 1930 also as a director . In these, Trenker is often the main actor, director and screenwriter rolled into one. A new law of 1927, according to which only domestic degrees were recognized in Italy, made it difficult for Trenker, who had studied in Austria, to work as an architect. A short time later he gave up his architectural office, only worked as an artist and lived in Berlin until 1940.

He made his debut as a director in 1930 with The Son of the White Mountains . It is thanks to the commitment of Carl Laemmle that Trenker was able to produce English-language versions of his first two sound films in Hollywood. His subsequent works are set entirely or partially in America, the life plans of two emigrants who failed in the USA and who develop a splendid visual quality in their descriptions of foreign cities and nature. New York revealed itself as a landscape to the alpinist's competent gaze at skyscrapers and in street canyons, the hidden camera documented neorealist traces of the Great Depression ( The Prodigal Son , 1933/34). The deserts of the west, on the other hand, appeared to him as vast expanses that harbor dangers ( Der Kaiser von California , 1935/36).


In addition to his films, Trenker published a number of novels, articles and reports. His first publication was a report on the shooting of the fight for the Matterhorn , which he wrote for the Berliner Tageblatt at Theodor Wolff's suggestion . After the great positive response to this article from the audience, Trenker set mountains aflame in 1931 . A novel from the fateful days of South Tyrol based on the cinema success of the same name, which received the City of Vienna award for “Best Book of the Year”. With this as well as with other publications, Trenker ensured the collaboration of experienced " ghostwriters ". He was first helped by the Munich author Walter Schmidkunz , who had known Trenker from mountain tours since 1913 and had received the City of Munich's Poetry Prize in 1928, and from 1935 onwards Trenker worked with the self-confessed National Socialist Karl Springenschmid from Salzburg. Essential parts of Trenker's war memories for the Rocca Alta fort . The hero battle of a tank factory (1937) and other works, which later under Trenker's name a. a. the Franz Eher Verlag published the NSDAP, his comrade, the writer had Fritz Weber wrote. Trenker alone revised the later editions of his books, which appeared after 1950, primarily by revising or deleting politically compromising passages.

Trenker's way of making use of other authors or foreign material also brought him to court. At the end of the 1920s, Arnold Fanck accused him of having taken over a film from Fanck's scripts. The testimony of two of Fanck's employees, who from then on worked for Trenker, prevented a conviction. In 1937 Trenker was less fortunate. He was convicted of plagiarizing a work by the Carinthian pastor Michael Paul Moser for his historical film Condottieri . This criminal record was canceled when Hitler was pardoned on July 19, 1940. In 1954 Fritz Weber then filed a declaratory action that he was the author of some works that had appeared under Trenker's name. This litigation was settled with a settlement.

National Socialism and Italian Fascism

A main theme in Trenker's artistic work is the idealization of a life connected to the home and mountain world, which is often contrasted with the decadence of cities and townspeople. This is one of the reasons why the fascist regime in Italy and the Nazi regime in Germany were able to instrumentalize Trenker's works. Above all, Adolf Hitler was one of Trenker's admirers for a long time. A few weeks before the Nazi takeover of power , Joseph Goebbels wrote in his diary on January 19, 1933: “In the evening, film. Luis Trenker, The Rebel. The top performance. A nationalistic Tyrolean awakening. Very large crowd scenes [...] Hitler is fire and fat. "

His filmmaking in Italy had met Benito Mussolini's ideological expectations . When the emigrant Paul Kohner remarked that Condottieri (1937) was really a fascist film, Trenker answered openly: “You are surprised? I was commissioned to make this film, and the Italian government largely financed the work on it. How should a film be different? ” This film, a German-Italian co-production, for whose mass scenes 60 men from the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler were assigned, is regarded by film scholars today as an example of“ Italian film in the Fascism". An interesting detail was that Trenker also recorded his films in Italy in his native German; this does not seem to have bothered the fascist rulers any further. Trenker also particularly campaigned for the planned film city in Bolzano, which, however, was never built.

Trenker, who lived in Berlin from 1927, joined the National Socialist Reich Film Department as early as September 1933 . At the beginning of April 1933, the magazine Kinematograph reported that Trenker, together with Carl Boese , Victor Janson and Fritz Lang, had founded the directing department in the National Socialist Company Cell Organization (NSBO), but there is no further evidence of this. At least Lang stated in an interview in 1962 that he did not hold a leading position in an organization closely related to the NSDAP. Contrary to his later assertions, Trenker opted for the German Reich in March 1940 after long hesitation in the course of the South Tyrolean option agreement . In the summer of 1940 he also joined the NSDAP .

Trenker tried to resist the pressure of artistic subordination in part; he felt himself increasingly cornered by the German Nazi regime. The NS authorities received complaints about Trenker at an early stage, but these had no direct consequences and did not affect its status for the NS leadership for many years. First he was denounced by P. G. Wohlhuber ( Reich Propaganda Head Dept. IV) in February 1934. Trenker had overheard him when he vented his anger in an inn. Trenker complained about the strict German laws and said that he didn't want to make any more films and that they could “cross” him in Berlin. Fred Lyssa , production manager at UFA , denounced him only a little later (March 1934) in a detailed letter in which he reproduced a statement by Trenker while driving together in New York: “I spoke to a Swede yesterday - well, he did Right, it's also a shame that the Germans burned literature and that Germany throws the Jews out ”.

In 1934 complaints had been received by the Reichsfachschaftleiter film about the squandering of the German capital that Trenker had brought to South Tyrol. When asked about it by his employees, Trenker replied verbatim: “I'm a Tyrolean here in Tyrol, and I don't care about 'German capital'!” And thus made it clear that he would continue to use it as he sees fit. He was also criticized several times by employees for employing too many foreigners in his films. There was also a warning (February 1938) from the Reichstheaterkammer, since Trenker was employing Jewish actors in Vienna.

Nevertheless, Trenker retained the “appreciation of the National Socialists” for a long time. In 2005 Die Welt summarized the relationship between the Nazi leaders and Trenker, she learned “only a clouding over when, after the agreement between Mussolini and Hitler, he was unable to decide whether he, the South Tyrolean, would go for Italy or the German Reich should vote. The washing earned him angry comments from Nazi officials. "

Because of his hesitation on the difficult question of options, Trenker fell out of favor with the Nazi leadership in the spring of 1940. On March 5, 1940, Goebbels wrote in his diary: “I bring the Trenker case to the Fiihrer. This piece of pig did not opt ​​for us in South Tyrol. Hold off, be friendly, but ditch. ” Shortly afterwards, at the direct instruction of Goebbels, all of his film projects were frozen or canceled. In 1940 Himmler commissioned his secret service SD to investigate Trenker's earlier "anti-German" statements again.

In 1994 Der Spiegel described Trenker's further political action as “courting the favor of the Nazi greats” and as “a servile effort to regain the goodwill of the Nazis”. At the end of March 1940 he finally opted for the German Reich, but made sure that his parents could continue to stay in their house in South Tyrol. He presented to Goebbels, to whom, according to his notes, he had “talked about something of his Germanism” .

This and his letters of appeal to Hitler, Goebbels and Himmler were all unsuccessful. In order to justify his decision-making crisis in the South Tyrolean option question, for example, he wrote another letter to Hitler, in which he describes his inner bond with his native country and his mountains, but also stated: "You, my Führer [...] can rely on me knows exactly where I belong and where I have to stand when the hour is right. "

In 1941, the Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum sent a letter to Himmler's personal staff, in which all of Trenker's violations are listed: Trenker's ambivalent courting of the Italian rulers, his statements against the emigration of the South Tyroleans from their area and the reference to "anti-German" Activities abroad. In his index card deposited with the security service you can also find the term "anti-German".

In 1941, the script and funding for a new film were rejected because Trenker insisted on shooting in the Italian Alps. Other film projects were also rejected by the Reich leadership. In 1942 he played the leading actor in the National Socialist propaganda film Germanin - Bayer 205 with the approval of the Reichsfilmkammer . This time the script did not come from Trenker himself; It was directed by Goebbels' brother-in-law Max W. Kimmich . After 1945, Trenker earned the leading role in Germanin "the reputation of a Nazi actor" (König, F. Trenker: Bera Luis. 2006, p. 219). According to a letter to Himmler's staff, Trenker was officially banned from working after this film.

In 1940 he left Berlin and moved to Rome, where he hoped for better conditions and in 1942 he shot Pastor Angelicus . He was able to start shooting the film Im Banne des Monte Miracolo in Italy in 1943, this time again in the role of director and author , which he was only able to finish six years later in Austria. König / F. Trenker ( Bera Luis. 2006, p. 221) describe this film as “Trenker's last cinematic activity during the Third Reich”. He eventually retired to Bolzano and continued to try to raise funds for new film projects.

Based on the files about Trenker in the Berlin Document Center , according to the author Florian Leimgruber, the following picture emerges during the Nazi era: “We do not encounter a crawling freedom hero or a cringing, submissive handyman or collaborator. [...] a normal, average person who, even in the most difficult situations, is primarily concerned with getting himself and his flock out of the water and not letting his economic opportunities and professional development be spoiled. "

post war period

Trenker is accused by critics of opportunistic behavior towards the Hitler regime despite his de facto professional ban. In vain did he point out that Adolf Hitler later called his films “worm-eaten” and Goebbels called him a “scoundrel and a fellow without a fatherland ” who had to be put off and then done.

As an Italian citizen, Trenker was not affected by denazification .

After 1945 he first sold carvings from Val Gardena. He sold new carvings as antiques after blasting them with shot, scorching them with a soldering iron, or temporarily burying them in the ground.

From 1946 he tried to sell the manuscript of Eva Braun's diaries in Europe and the USA. In 1948 the diaries first appeared as a book in France and Italy . Books in the Netherlands and Great Britain followed in 1949 . When, after the Wiener Zeitung Welt am Abend , the Nuremberg magazine "Wochenend" began in September 1948 with a German-language preprint of the alleged diary, this was after the first edition of the Braun family with Leni Riefenstahl as a joint plaintiff through an injunction of the Munich I district court stopped. Decades later, Trenker didn't want to have anything to do with this episode either. When asked about the forged diaries, he explained in 1976: “I have never published an Eva Braun diary, that was an allegation by some press people who published the alleged diary notes against my will because they then sold them more easily. I have never read or heard of a diary of Countess Larisch in my life. ”The true authorship of the forgery remained unclear. To this day, Trenker's authorship is usually assumed.

In 1949 he continued his film work in Munich with Luis Trenker-Film GmbH, founded in Berlin in 1937. Initially in coproduction with Olympia-Film GmbH Munich, he shot short films about the mountains and portraits of the people living there. It was not until the 1950s that Trenker, who commuted between Munich and Bozen , was able to pick up on old film successes. He first made documentaries that deal with the mountain world, and from 1955 again made movies.

Comrades of the Mountains by Luis Trenker

In the Soviet occupation zone , his works, Kampf in den Bergen (Neufeld & Henius, Berlin 1932), Berge in Flammen ( Knaur , Berlin 1935), Sperrfort Rocca Alta (Knaur, Berlin 1938), Leuchtendes Land ( Eher , Munich 1941) and Hauptmann became popular Ladurner (Rather, Munich 1943) and in the German Democratic Republic, Kameraden der Berge (Knaur, Berlin 1935) and Tiroler Helden (Knaur, Berlin 1942) were placed on the list of literature to be sorted out.

In 1959 the program Luis Trenker told was started on Bayerischer Rundfunk , in which Trenker spoke lively and grippingly about his life. From 1965 he mainly made documentaries about his homeland South Tyrol. He also appeared regularly in the children's TV program Sport-Spiel-Tension . In the 1970s he had his own program on public television ("Mountains and Stories"). Trenker also had success as an occasional actor (such as in the television series Air Jumps , 1969) and as a marketer of his undisputed reputation as a specialist in everything Alpine (Trenker hat , Trenker cord) . This also includes the numerous Alpine illustrated books edited in collaboration with Helmut Dumler (Bruckmann Verlag, Munich 1970–1980).

In 1974 he was one of the founding members of the Bavarian section of the Free German Authors' Association , which he later chaired.

Trenker discovered the open-air film , the film without make-up , and made it acceptable. To reduce it to the term mountain filmmaker is wrong. With Der Berg ruft he made an outstanding mountain film, but he also directed adventure films, comedies, crime novels and period films in which the mountain motif was one of many. The haunted hunger scene in The Prodigal Son was cited by Roberto Rossellini as an important impression on the way to neorealism .

In his last years, Luis Trenker began for Conservation and spoke about vehemently against by the Upper Puster leading realignment of the so-called " Alemagna " -Highway out. Luis Trenker died on April 12, 1990 at the age of 97 in Bozen and was buried in the family grave in the local cemetery of his home parish Ortisei in Val Gardena.


Under the title Luis Trenker - The Thin Line of Truth , Wolfgang Murnberger made a film about Trenker in 2014, in which Tobias Moretti played Trenker.

Awards and honors


Some of the works published under Trenker's name were largely written by ghostwriters and co-authors such as Fritz Weber ; Trenker's actual contribution to the works listed here is therefore not known. There were several legal disputes between Trenker and ghostwriters and co-authors.

Novels, short stories

Gravesite of the Trenker family
  • My mountains. The mountain book . Neufeld & Henius, Berlin 1931, DNB  361773463 (with the assistance of Walter Schmidkunz ).
  • Mountains on fire. A novel from the fateful days of South Tyrol . Neufeld & Henius, Berlin 1931, DNB  576716073 (latest edition morisel, Munich 2014. ISBN 978-3-943915-05-1 ).
  • Mountains in the snow. The winter book . Neufeld & Henius, Berlin 1932, DNB  36177348X .
  • Comrades of the mountains . Rowohlt, Berlin 1932, DNB  576716154 .
  • The rebel. A freedom novel from the mountains of Tyrol . Neufeld & Henius, Berlin 1933, DNB  576716294 .
  • Mountains and home. The book about the mountains and their people . Neufeld & Henius, Berlin 1933, DNB  361773447 (with Walter Schmidkunz).
  • The prodigal son . Ullstein, Berlin 1934, DNB  576716359 .
  • Heroes of the mountains . Knaur, Berlin 1934, DNB  576716111 (with Karl Springenschmid and Walter Schmidkunz).
  • Shining land . Rather, Munich 1937, DNB  57671626X (with Karl Springenschmid).
  • Rocca Alta fortress . The hero fight of a tank factory . Knaur, Berlin 1937, DNB  576716324 (mainly written by Fritz Weber. Latest edition morisel, Munich 2014. ISBN 978-3-943915-11-2 ).
  • Captain Ladurner. A soldier novel . Eher-Verlag, Munich 1940, DNB  576716219 (written by Fritz Weber as a ghostwriter).
  • The fire devil. A Speckbacher novel . Knaur, Berlin 1940, DNB  57671609X .
  • Stars over the peaks . Knaur, Berlin 1942, DNB  576716405 (together with Fritz Weber).
  • Home from God's hand . Wolff, Flensburg 1948, DNB  455105332 .
  • Duel in the mountains. A novel from the Dolomites . Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1951, DNB  455105235 .
  • Bells over the mountains. Novel . Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1952, DNB  455105308 .
  • Sun over Sorasass. A cheerful novel from the Dolomites . Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1953, DNB  455105596 .
  • Heroes on the mountain . Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1956, DNB  455105391 .
  • Fate on the Matterhorn. Novel . Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1957, DNB  455105464 .
  • The miracle of Oberammergau. Novel . Rütten & Loening, Hamburg 1960, DNB  455105650 .
  • The farm on Kilimanjaro . Hoch, Düsseldorf 1960, DNB  455105294 .
  • Son without a home. Novel . Rütten & Loening, Hamburg 1960, DNB  455105502 .
  • The Emperor of California. Novel . Verlag der Freizeit-Bibliothek, Hamburg 1961, DNB  455105421 .


  • Everything went well. Stories from my life. Mosaik-Verlag, Hamburg 1965.

Scripts / feature films

Television series

  • 1969–1970: Jumps in the air ( ZDF )


  • Travel routes South Tyrol - In the footsteps of Luis Trenker. Documentation, 2007, 45 min., Director: Vera Meyer-Matheis, production: SR , first broadcast: February 21, 2007, summary of the SR.
  • In the Val Gardena Museum in Ortisei in Val Gardena numerous personal details of Luis Trenker are on display. The museum also looks after the digitized “Luis Trenker Archive”.
  • Pastor Angelicus. Pope Pius XII in the Vatican (excl. cover text: historical documentary film about the life and the first years of pontificate from Pope Pius XII. until the end of the Second World War) n.d. (fragments published from 1942), 76 min., director: Luis Trenker , DVD: morisel 2013.


  • Franz A. Birgel: Luis Trenker: A Rebel in the Third Reich? In: Through a National Socialist Lens: Cinema in Nazi Germany. Ed. Robert Reimer and intro. David Bathrick. Camden House, Rochester NY 2000, pp. 37-64.
  • Julia Friehs, Daniel Winkler, Marie-Noëlle Yazdanpanah: Alpine media avant-garde? Luis Trenker, the John Wayne of the Dolomites . In: Sinn -haft. Journal for Cultural Studies. 21 (Alpine Avant-garde and Urban Alps) , 2008, ISSN  1605-6027 , pp. 80-91.
  • Julia Friehs, Daniel Winkler, Marie-Noëlle Yazdanpanah: South Tyrol / Trentino, Heimatfilm and post-war cinema . Prigioniero della montagna / Escape into the Dolomites by Luis Trenker, Pier Paolo Pasolini and Giorgio Bassani (1955). In: Zibaldone. Magazine for contemporary Italian culture. No. 49, 2010, ISSN  0930-8997 , pp. 61-72.
  • Wolfgang Gorter : My friend Luis Trenker. With a chronicle of the international mountain, ski and expedition film. Heering, Seebruck am Chiemsee 1977, ISBN 3-7763-5150-0 .
  • Stefan König , Florian Trenker: Bera Luis. The Luis Trenker phenomenon. A biography. Berg und Tal, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-939499-02-1 .
  • Gerhard Köpf : Ezra & Luis or the first ascent of the Ulm Minster. A game. With essayistic climbing aids on Pound and Trenker. Edited by Christina Karafiat and Fabian Kametz. Edition Löwenzahn u. a., Innsbruck a. a. 1994, ISBN 3-900521-33-6 .
  • Antonín Kratochvil : Evening talks with Luis Trenker. Athos-Verlag, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-88499-008-X .
  • Florian Leimgruber (ed.): Luis Trenker, director and writer. The Trenker personnel file in the Berlin Document Center. Frasnelli-Keitsch, Bozen 1994, ISBN 88-85176-04-6 .
  • Roderich Menzel : Luis Trenker. Hoch, Düsseldorf 1982, ISBN 3-7779-0302-7 .
  • Rudolf Nottebohm, Hans-Jürgen Panitz: Almost a century Luis Trenker. Herbig, Munich a. a. 1987, ISBN 3-7766-1489-7 .
  • Hans-Jürgen Panitz: Luis Trenker without make-up. Pictures, stations, encounters. With great filmography and DVD His last interview . Tyrolia-Verlag u. a., Innsbruck a. a. 2009, ISBN 978-3-7022-3041-8 .
  • Hans Thalhammer: Luis Trenker, the mountain guide. Waldland-Verlag, Lilienfeld 1933.
  • Hansjörg Waldner: Luis Trenker: Mountains in Flames (p. 49–65), Luis Trenker: The Rebel (p. 124–130), Luis Trenker: The Fire Devil (p. 130–142), Luis Trenker: Shining Land (p 180-185). In: "Germany looks at us Tyroleans". South Tyrol novels between 1918 and 1945. Picus-Verlag, Vienna 1990, ISBN 3-85452-210-X .
  • Daniel Winkler: Futurism & Alpinism. Scenarios of intensity with FT Marinetti, Angelo Mosso and Luis Trenker. In: bodies in motion. Models and impulses of the Italian avant-garde. Ed. Marijana Erstic, Walburga Hülk, Gregor shoes. Transcript, Bielefeld 2009. pp. 311-332. ISBN 3-8376-1099-3 .
  • Daniel Winkler: Drafts of masculinity between futurism and fascism. From the Freiburg camera school to Trenker's / Hartl's war film Mountains in Flames (1931) In: Futurismo al 100% - 100% Futurism. Ed. Sabine Schrader and Barbara Tasser. Innsbruck University Press 2012. pp. 119-134. ISBN 3-902811-38-2 .
  • Daniel Winkler: Empereurs de Californie? Blaise Cendrars and Luis Trenker à la recherche littéraire et cinématographique de L'Or. In: BlaiseMédia. Blaise Cendrars et les médias. Ed. Claude Leroy and Birgit Wagner. Publidix, Paris X 2006. ISBN 978-2-904906-41-1 .

Web links

Commons : Luis Trenker  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Alex Moroder's inventory , Radio Ladin de Gherdëina, file at Mediathek Bolzano, call number CRLG_420
  2. ^ Janina Lingenberg: Luis Trenker. The mountain uncle. In: G / Geschichte , No. 2/2017, pp. 46–47.
  3. a b Luis Trenker. Münchhausen the mountains. In: Der Spiegel . 36, 1954; Leopold Steurer : The 'King of the Mountains' as the “chameleon politicon” of world history. In: Gerhard Köpf: Ezra and Luis or the first ascent of the Ulm Minster. 1994, pp. 137-153; Gudrun Pilz: The storyteller. In: Gerhard Köpf: Ezra and Luis or the first ascent of the Ulm Minster. 1994, p. 167 ff .; Martin Hanny: The storyteller. In: ff. 02/2007, pp. 38–41.
  4. Luis Trenker Trial in Wels , pictures by press photographer Alfred Harrer, Lentia Verlag In: 150 Jahre - Upper Austria in pictures, accessed July 18, 2015.
  5. Fire and Fat. Der Spiegel , April 11, 1994, accessed July 31, 2020 .
  6. Angela Hermann: The Diaries of Joseph Goebbels: October 1932 - March 1934 . Ed .: Walter de Gruyter. 2013, ISBN 978-3-11-095729-7 , pp. 109 ( ).
  7. Larissa Schütze: Fritz Lang in Exile. Film art in the shadow of politics (= Forum Kulturwissenschaften. Vol. 4). M-Press Meidenbauer, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-89975-587-1 , pp. 21-22.
  8. Jan Friday: "Luis Trenker": He's back Die Zeit , November 17th, 2015
  9. Susanne Wittlich: A pioneer and steamy chatterbox. Focus 47/2015, pp. 108-109.
  10. Heike Klapdor: I am an incurable European: letters from exile. Berlin 2007, p. 461.
  11. cit. n. Brigitte Sokop: That Countess Larisch. Marie Louise Countess Larisch-Wallersee, confidante of the Empress - ostracized after Mayerling. Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 1985, 4th edition 2006, p. 520.
  12. So Guido Knopp on ZDF, August 15, 2010 .
  13. ^ German administration for popular education in the Soviet zone of occupation: List of the literature to be sorted out. Deutscher Zentralverlag, Berlin 1946, pp. 414-423
  14. ^ German administration for popular education in the Soviet zone of occupation: List of the literature to be sorted out. Second addendum. Deutscher Zentralverlag, Berlin 1948, pp. 290–298
  15. ^ Ministry of National Education of the German Democratic Republic: List of literature to be sorted out. Third addendum. Deutscher Zentralverlag, Berlin 1953, pp. 193–198
  16. Cf. Luis Trenker: Sexten must not be concreted over! White paper on the Autostrada Alemagna. Municipal administration, Sexten 1979
  17. Luis Trenker's grave
  18. Hans Holzhaider: A dream in deer leather. Did Luis Trenker write Eva Braun's diaries? A rumor turns into terrific film material. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . July 7, 2014, p. 35.
  19. Luis Trenker - The fine line of truth. Internet Movie Database , accessed May 22, 2015 .
  20. Christa Hämmerle: "Forty months ago we were soldiers, six months ago we were men ..." On the historical context of a "crisis of masculinity" in Austria. In: Christa Hämmerle, Claudia Opitz-Belakhal (Hrsg.): Crisis (s) of masculinity? (= L 'homme. Vol. 19, Issue 2). Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 2008, ISBN 978-3-412-20215-6 , pp. 51-79, here p. 67.