Examples in different languages
In Afrikaans , Aberjetze stands for an impatient German. In the colonial days, the Germans often used Boers in South West Africa . If they worked too slowly, they were more often prompted with “But now!”.
Albanian guest workers in Kosovo have brought many German words back home with them. The beer mug is called krikëll in Kosovo , as it is derived from the Bavarian "Krügerl". It is interesting that the loan word shalter in Albanian has retained the double meaning of “light switch” and “post office counter”. In Kosovo there are also the words srafciger ("screwdriver"), speis ("pantry") and virsle ("Würschtle").
There are numerous Germanisms in the Bosnian language, which is mainly due to the incorporation of Bosnia into the Austro-Hungarian monarchy (1878-1918). The term švabo is a slang term for a German and can be traced back to the many Swabians who settled in Bosnia and its neighboring countries during the Napoleonic wars. A cultural and linguistic exchange is also documented in the 13th and 14th centuries, for example by the German immigrants who enjoyed a reputation as mine managers in Bosnia, so-called sasi ("Saxons"), for example in Srebrenica, where silver mining flourished . German also had strong linguistic influences on Bosnian through the large number of refugees who came to Germany as a result of the Bosnian War (1992–1995).
Before going into the individual terms, a few (non-exhaustive) notes on the pronunciation of the Bosnian words from this article:
- “š” is pronounced like the German “sch”
- "c" is pronounced like the German "z"
- “v” is pronounced like the German “w”
- "z" is pronounced like the German "s" in "Pause"
The world-famous car model Beetle from Volkswagen is called in Bosnian folcika (pronounced: “Vollzicka”), which is an onomatopoeic reproduction of the Volkswagen company name. In Bosnian, rikverc describes the reverse gear of a vehicle, which is best to be rosfraj ("rust-free"). The word šina denotes any type of splint in technology. The word hoštapler denotes a fraudster ("impostor"). The term ofinger means “clothes hanger” and probably goes back to the noun to the verb “hang”, ie “hangers”. The Bosnian word auspuh means "exhaust". The term escajg means “cutlery” and comes from the word “food”. Cigla means "brick". Farba means "color", flaša means "bottle". The term house gate describes the stairwell of an apartment building or a high-rise building. The Bosnian verb glancati means "polish" and goes back to the German word "shine". The term fajront is a slang word that is used in Bosnia to say that an event is over, and it obviously comes from the German word “Feierabend”. The verb izluftirati in Bosnia describes the ventilation of an apartment. In Bosnia, properties are recorded in the grunt , which goes back to the German term for the “land register”. Rošle means “roller skates” in Bosnian. Šalter means “switch”. The word šarafciger means “screwdriver”. There is a mašina za veš (“washing machine”) in every Bosnian household. The word veš is also used outside of this fixed term to denote “laundry”. The Bosnians also dry their hair with a fen ("hair dryer"). In Bosnia, too, šnicla (“schnitzel”) and viršla (from Swabian “Würschtle”, High German “sausage”) are popular, and you can also eat frtalj (“quarter”) bread with it. You pay for everything together - at least in the jargon of the capital Sarajevo - with a cener ("tens") or cvanciger ("twenties"). The term špaiz means "pantry". Smuggling means švercovati in Bosnian , which indicates a connection with the word “black” or “black market”. Anyone who gets into the hands of the Bosnian judiciary has to pay the "bill" in Bosnia (in Bosnian: ceh ), whereby it is noteworthy that the Bosnian word ceh , like the German "bill", is used exclusively to express that someone will have to answer for a mistake. And if a Bosnian soccer player misses a sure chance, then they say colloquially that he has given a zicer (from the German "safe").
German words that have been adopted almost unchanged in the Bulgarian language are, for example, "Bohrmaschine" (бормашина, bormaschina ), "Auspuff" (ауспух, auspuch ) and "Schiebedach" (шибидах, schibidach ). The German word “suit” (анцуг) is also used in Bulgarian. However, it then means "tracksuit".
One of the very few German loan words in Chinese is the word for “ gully cover ” (雨水 口yushuikou “rainwater hole ”), which in Qingdao is called guli (骨 沥) , which differs from the language used in the rest of China . The Chinese got to know gullies with the sewer system in the German leased area of Jiaozhou . The 40 or so German loan words that are still used in Qingdao today include the word 大 Damen daman for "women" (胶州 大 嫚 Jiaozhou women). In addition, the aspirin is known under the name 阿司匹林 (āsīpínlín).
Company names usually have to be translated, and a good translation is very important for business success. In China, for example, Opel is called 欧宝Oubao (“European treasure”), Adidas愛迪達Aidida, Puma AG彪馬, Metro AG麦德龙Maidelong and Commerzbank商业 银行Shangye Yinhang (“trading bank”). The Koenig & Bauer AG has its name from the first syllables with高宝Gaobao ( "high" and "treasure") translated. The Bayer AG is in Chinese拜耳Bai'er ( "visit, welcome" and "ear"). In the case of Volkswagen , 大众 汽车Dazhong qiche (“car of the great crowd”), it is not a sound translation, but a purely analogous translation, which uses the similarity of the Chinese character for crowd 众zhong to the VW logo has made.
In Danish, the German term “ Hab und Gut ” is used in the form habengut when you want to express what you have and can carry with you. The word came to Denmark with journeymen who carried all their possessions with them.
Bundesliga-hår ( "Bundesliga Hair") is the Danish word for a mullet hairstyle, because this type hairstyle (as in Hungary) as characteristic of the Bundesliga was seen. The Italians also saw this connection and used the expression capelli alla tedesca (hairstyle according to German style) for the same situation .
Probably the best known German word in English is the word " Kindergarten ". The first kindergarten outside the German-speaking area was founded in London in 1851. Five years later Margarethe Schurz introduced the first kindergarten in the USA in Watertown . The language in the first kindergartens was German, as these were intended for the children of German immigrants. In 1882 the number of kindergartens in the USA was already 348. Most Americans are no longer aware of the German origin of the word. The kindergarten teacher was initially called kindergartner, later kindergarten teacher . Kindergartner is the child who goes to kindergarten today.
In English, the German will exceed even sometimes (often called over ) used in compositions such as in ubergeek , to express extreme increase.
American students occasionally use the word foosball in addition to the term table football for the table football game, which has the English name kicker in German . In the sporting sector, the terms foosball and increasingly table soccer are mostly used, the latter being due to the increasing internationalization of table soccer associations.
In English one says bless you ("... bless you") when someone has sneezed, the full form being God bless you ("God bless you"). Sometimes the German word Gesundheit is also used.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary contains the German word “forbidden”, defined as something that is forbidden by an authority .
A quantitative study of the borrowing of German words into English from the beginning of the 16th century to the 1990s is contained in Best (2006); it contains 4837 words, spread over 68 subject areas.
There were long-lasting contacts between Estonian and German. Estonia was conquered by knights of the Teutonic Order in the 13th century and then settled by clergymen, merchants and craftsmen. As a result, Estonian has taken many loan words from German. Examples are vein ("wine"), klaver ("piano"), "sink" (ham) rice ("travel") and kunst ("art"). Modern borrowings from German are reisibüroo ("travel agency") and kleit ("dress"). Slogans such Politsei on patrol cars, info point and Kaminameister provide German-speaking tourists in front of small challenges.
The term pompe gasoline is used in Iran for "gas station". Engineers are familiar with technical terms such as “pump”. The military term punishment was introduced under Reza Shah and is still in dictionaries. In music, the word wrong is used for a wrong note or note. Mentsch (منچ) is the name of the game “Mensch ärgere Dich nicht” in Persian. Only the word “human”, slightly changed to Mentsch , was adopted.
Finnish words borrowed from German include braatvursti and know-it-all . In contrast, the word kaffepaussi, which was chosen by the German Language Council as the winner of the “Hike in words” competition in 2006 , is not Germanism, but with a high degree of probability comes from Swedish .
In French there are some Germanisms linked to the experiences in World War II, such as joke for a bad, threatening joke or substitute for replacement coffee or, today, colloquially as a term for a second-rate imitation or "botch". The word lied in French means an art song , just like chanson in German has a specific meaning. The word trinquer ("to bump ") has the German origin "drink".
In French dictionaries, the word vasistas is recorded as “ skylight ”. The word originally goes back to the Napoleonic wars, when French soldiers asked in German “What is that?” When they saw the hinged windows installed in German houses. This question then became the French word for this type of window. Drawer (" drawer ") is the French term for when you want to put something on the file or put it on the back burner. As a noun, the word is called schubladisation ("drawerisation").
Many words have been taken from the Germans because the French language does not know: le liquor, les naysayers la belief, le bloedmann, le homesick, wanderlust le or le bunker (also as a nickname for the film festival building of Cannes ).
A special feature from the technical context is le kaercher for a high-pressure cleaner from the manufacturer Kärcher ( generic name ). The French also use karcher or kaercheriser as a verb for cleaning or cleaning. It became famous through Nicolas Sarkozy . In June 2005, Sarkozy sparked a lively debate in the French public when, on two visits to the Paris suburb of La Courneuve, he declared that in view of the high (youth) crime rate there, the phrase "clean with a high-pressure cleaner" was necessary for him (" Le terme 'nettoyer au karcher' est le terme qui s'impose, parce qu'il faut nettoyer cela. ").
In Swiss French there are some terms derived from (Swiss) German such as poutzer instead of nettoyer or bacon instead of lard .
In the Franco-German border areas, naturally, many words have crossed the language border, for example in Lorraine . There, for example, “das spritzt” means ça spritz (instead of ça éclabousse ). Spritz , which means “shortbread”, can be found all over France.
In addition, there are direct copies of words such as le waldsterben or le schuss (weft run while skiing).
(New) Greek has borrowed words from German mainly through γκασταρμπάιτερ 'gastarbáiter' ("guest workers"), who have spent part of their lives in Germany or Austria. This includes words like σνίτσελ 'snitsel' ("Schnitzel").
Colloquial Hebrew has a number of Germanisms that have found their way into Yiddish . In the craft sector, there are some German expressions such as 'stecker', 'spatula' and 'dowel', which - due to the lack of a Ü-sound - is pronounced “diebel”. Just like in Greek, the word “schnitzel” is also known in Hebrew as שניצל, which is often transferred back from Hebrew to the Latin script on menus, but then in the spelling “shnitzel”, which has been adapted to English. The dish, its name and the Anglicized spelling were then in turn transferred from Israel to families and restaurants in Jewish residential areas outside the country, such as New York .
The Hebrew word for siesta , which is taken after lunch in many religious families especially on Shabbat, is 'sleep hour', although it is not clear whether the Jeckes adopted this custom in Israel or brought it with them from Germany. The modern names of the months in Israel correspond to the German terms January, February, March, etc. The only modification occurs in the month of August, which is pronounced “Ogust”, as the vowel connection “au” is unusual in Hebrew and cannot be represented in Hebrew transcription.
It is interesting when language communities take a word from the other language for the same term. This is what the Germans use the Italian word raid (originally Arabic غزوة ghazwa 'Raubzug'), in Italy il blitz (after the German word "Blitz", "Blitzkrieg"). In Italian, 'Un lager' - unlike in English - is not a lager, but the abbreviation of "concentration camp". As a result of their demand, German tourists brought il wurstel , the sausage, to Italy; the German word sauerkraut was translated as i krauti.
Furthermore, the Italian word for toast, il brindisi, derives from the German bring dir’s .
Other transferred into Japanese words coming from the area of the mountaineering (, Hyutte 'ヒュッテfor "mountain hut", gerende'ゲレンデ( "site") for the ski slope , aizen 'アイゼンfor " irons ", ēderuwaisu'エーデルワイス" Edelweiss " 'Ryukkusakku' リ ュ ッ ク サ ッ ク for "backpack" and probably also 'shurafu' シ ュ ラ フ for " sleeping bag )".
Since medical training was initially strongly influenced by German teachers, many German medical terms have found their way into the Japanese language. These include 'kuranke' ク ラ ン ケ as a designation for the sick person, 'karute' カ ル テ, card in the sense of "sickness card" for recording the medical history, 'gipusu' ギ プ ス " plaster cast ", 'arerugī' ア レ ル ギ ー for "allergy" and ' noirōze 'ノ イ ロ ー ゼ for "neurosis". Even the word 'orugasumusu' オ ル ガ ス ム ス “ orgasm ” was taken from German.
In order to erase the last remnants of the Japanese occupation, Japanese loanwords are also being removed from the vocabulary in South Korea . This does not affect the word 아르바이트 areubaiteu, which Korean has in common with Japanese. 'Arubaito' ア ル バ イ ト is derived from the word “work” and describes the vacation job of a student or pupil.
- areubaiteu 아르바이트 (work in the sense of secondary employment, temporary work)
- allereugi 알레르기 (allergy)
- noiroje 노이로제 (neurosis)
- gaje 가제 (gauze, wound dressing)
- gipseu 깁스 (plaster)
- aijen 아이젠 (crampons)
- jail 자일 (rope)
- bibak 비박 (bivouac)
- kopel 코펠 (cooker for leisure, mountaineering)
- hopeu 호프 (beer hall, beer pub; from courtyard or beer courtyard? Or eng. hop? (hops))
- shutollen 슈 톨렌 (studs)
- geullokensyupil 글로켄슈필 (carillon)
- raiteumotibeu 라이트 모티브 (leitmotif)
- rumpen 룸펜 [homeless person] (rags)
- peurolletaria 프롤레타리아 (proletarian)
- peurolletariateu 프롤레타리아트 (proletariat)
- ideollogi 이데올로기 (ideology)
- shale, shaale 샬레, 샤 알레 (Petri dish)
- peureparateu 프레파라트 (preparation for microscope)
- meseushillindeo 메스 실린더 (measuring cylinder)
- hallogen 할로겐 (halogen)
- geullicogen 글리코겐 (glycogen)
- ripaje, ripaaje 리파제, 리파아제 (lipase)
- amillaje, amillaaje 아밀라제, 아밀라아제 (amylase)
- metane 메탄 (methane)
- putan 부탄 (butane)
Through the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, specific Austrian words were often adopted: paradajz (" Paradeiser ", the literal translation rajčica is used more and more often), špajza ("food", pantry), knedli ("dumplings"), putar ("butter") , actually maslac ), ribizli ("currant", currants), šnicla ("schnitzel", actually odrezak ), fijaker (" Fiaker "), foranga ("curtains"), herceg ("duke"), majstor ("master" ) or tišljar ("carpenter", actually stolar ).
There are also terms such as pleh (“sheet metal”), cajger (“pointer”), žaga (“saw”), šalter ‚(“ switch ”), šrafciger (coll.“ Screwdriver ”, actually odvijač ) or curik and rikverc (“ back "and" backwards ", for the reverse gear in the car) generally used in Croatia. Especially in the technical area there are almost no phonetic differences to German; Most Croatians are familiar with these German technical terms even without a good knowledge of the language. The expressions špajscimer (“dining room”), badecimer (“bathroom”), forcimer (“anteroom”), šlafcimer (“bedroom”) and cimer fraj (“room free”) are used in colloquial language (more recent borrowings from tourism Communication with German speakers). The washing machine is often colloquially called vešmašina (actually perilica za rublje ). The term cušpajz ("addition"), which is used for a kind of vegetable stew, is also interesting .
Some German wandering words have entered the Kurdish language through Turkish . The best known is sobe (" oven "), which goes back to the ahd. "Stuba" (nhd. " Room "). As in Persian , pûmpe is also used .
As in Estonian, there are some Germanisms in Latvia, especially due to the large role of the Teutonic Order in Latvian history, such as poltergeists or vunderkinds .
The same applies to Lithuanian , which contains more than 3000 Germanisms, although most of them are no longer used in modern Lithuanian. German terms have found their way into the Lithuanian vocabulary mainly due to the connection to Prussia and later the German Empire through Prussian Lithuania and Memelland . Often they concern objects of everyday culture such as liktìs (light, candle), krūzas (jug, mug) or trepai (stairs). The largest group is made up of personal names, e.g. B. šneideris (tailor), gifreiteris (private) or burgelis (citizen). From the latter group, some words are still in use today; a typical example is the buhalteris (accountant).
In Macedonian , the corresponding meaning for the word joke is 'виц', as in French.
The Netherlands has adopted some words from German, as ever , anyway , and dexterity . These have long been naturalized. The word unheimisch (a combination of the German words “ unheimlich ” and “ heimisch ”) is used when something seems uneasy to one.
The words “ swallow ” (a faked football foul ), “solo effort” (also in a figurative sense), “connection hit” and “the team” (for the German national football team) were taken from the field of sport .
The words vorspiel - often shortened to "vors" - and nachspiel have a completely different meaning . They have no sexual connotation in Norwegian, but rather represent the common consumption of alcoholic beverages before or after a visit to the disco or a pub evening. Thus, Vors corresponds more to the German term "Vorglowh".
The German language has on the Polish acting and other Slavic languages: kajuta (dt. " Cabin ") sztorm ( " Storm "), burmistrz ( " Mayor "), szynka ( " ham ") or trade ( " trade ") . A sleepyhead - also in a figurative sense - is a szlafmyca in Polish and, by analogy, a pajama is a szlafrok ; but this can also be the name of the bathrobe.
A Polish craftsman uses a waserwaga (“level”), a śruba (“screw”), klajster (“paste”) or an obcęgi (“pliers”). But if he doesn’t think of the name of the tool he needs, he can ask for the wihajster , that is, the “Dingsbums” (from the German “What's his name?”) And is still understood: Podaj mi ten mały wihajster! (Eng. "Give the little thing here!"). Of course, he gets his tools before the fajerant (“ closing time ”) from the baumarket (“hardware store”). At a carousing binge , you can drink yourself bruderszaft ("brotherhood") and then part with a rausz ("intoxication").
Stachowski (2016) looked at the influence of German on Polish vocabulary: “a very significant influence over Polish”.
Portuguese uses German words like diesel and kitsch .
Into Brazilian Portuguese were the German immigrant few German words introduced. Blitz stands for a traffic control. The malt beer , the quark and the chopp (derived from “Schoppen”, but with the meaning “draft beer”) are well known. In addition, in Brazil the German “streusel cake” becomes a cuca , the spread over schmier (in Riograndenser Hunsrückisch ) becomes chimia . In the regions of the German immigrants, the oktoberfest and the kerb (southwest German for "Kirchweihfest") are celebrated. The chipa comes from the German "Schippe".
A language with a very high proportion of Germanisms is Rhaeto-Romanic . Germanisms in Rhaeto-Romanic emerged from close language contact since the Middle Ages and the bilingualism of the Rhaeto-Romanic. The Germanisms in Rhaeto-Romanic cover the whole range from heavily modified loan words, some of which are no longer perceived as foreign (e.g. forest ), to less modified foreign words ( e.g. landline, kraftraum, gleiti ). The first example of the German word "forest", which was adopted early on, shows the wealth of adaptation variants : guaud ( Rumantsch Grischun ), uaul ( Sursilvan ), gòld ( Sutsilvan ), gôt (Sursilvan) and god ( Vallader and Putèr ). The second example of the Sutsilvanian gleiti for German “soon” stands for one of the numerous takeovers that are not made from High German but from Swiss German (Swiss German glëiti , glëitig or glaitig for High German “fast”, “soon”). Some Germanisms are in constant competition with synonyms in their own language and are close to the phenomenon of code switching (example ils martels in exchange with ils hammers ).
In Romanian, the names for handicrafts such as bormașină (drilling machine), ștecher (plug), șurub (screw) and șurubelniță (screwdriver) have arrived. There is also cartof (potato), bere (beer), șnițel (schnitzel), lebărvurșt (liver sausage), crenwurst (wiener sausage), cremșnit (cream slices ), polițist (policeman), șubler ( slide gauge ), șanț (ski jump), șmirghel (Emery), maistru (master craftsman).
With the return of Tsar Peter the Great from Western Europe in 1698, the loanwords no longer came from Greek and Polish. With Peter, the Polish takeovers were replaced by words from Western European languages. Economists and administrators from Germany were recruited for the radical reforms in the military and administration. In 1716 he decreed that clerks should learn German. "Send to Königsberg ... some 30 young civil servants to learn the German language so that they are more suitable for the college." In some branches of the trade, the proportion of Germans predominated. At the end of the 18th century, 30 German watchmakers were working in Petersburg compared to three Russian ones.
The Russian has adopted many words from the military,, impact tree (маршрут) '(шлагбаум) and, marschrute'. Expressions like 'rjucksak' (рюкзак), 'masschtab' (масштаб), 'schtrafe' (штраф, meaning “fine”), or “ziferblat” (циферблат) also belong here.
Mikhail Wassiljewitsch Lomonossow , who learned and studied in Marburg and Freiberg , is considered the founder of Russian mining science, mineralogy and geology. In his depictions of mining and metallurgy, he uses German words, the names for metals and minerals Висмут 'bismuth', Вольфрам 'wolfram', Гнейс 'gneiss', Кварц' kwarz ', Поташ' potasch ', Цинк' zink ', Цинк' zinc schpaty ', as well as the pit expression' schteiger '(overseer in the pit, steiger ). The terms 'geolog' (geologist), 'glacier', 'metallurgia', 'nikel' (nickel), 'schichta' (ore layer and layer in the blast furnace) and 'schlif' ( grinding ) also fall under this category.
Note the criteria in the chess like, a tight spot '(цугцванг), time pressure ' (цейтнот), final '(эндшпиль), mid-game ' (мительшпиль), Grand Master '(гроссмейстер). Modern expressions are 'barcode' (штрихкод) and 'butterbrot' (бутерброд, actual meaning: sandwich without butter) or even 'firewall' for the term, which is translated in German as ' firewall '. Шрам ( schram ) means "scar" and goes back to the word " scratch ". A штольня ( shtolnja ) is a tunnel in mining. A шпагат ( schpagat ) is as in English a balancing act , a шпинат ( schpinat ) a spinach and a шпион ( schpion ) a spy. Even the ice hockey term for “ puck ”, шайба ( schajba ), comes from the German word “disc” meaning “ washer ”. The word шланг ( snake ) for “garden hose”, which is derived from the German word “snake”, is also informative . Similarly, the word штепсель ( schtepsel ) for a plug comes from the German word “plug”. The profession of hairdresser is called in Russian парикмахер ( parikmacher ) after the word “wig maker”. The Russian word for " Kurort " is completely taken from the German: курорт ( kurort ).
Because the German Reformation had a great influence on the Swedish language , especially through the Luther Bible , German loanwords are more common in modern Swedish than in the other Scandinavian languages. Use since the 19th century Sweden, the German word but in the sense of "obstacle" or "objection". For the covert research style in the manner of Günter Wallraff , the verb wallraffa is used , which has even been included in the Swedish Academy's word list. Further examples from the Swedish Academy's word list are broken and better-known , which are often used in their original meaning in everyday life.
An exhibition in Vienna about guest workers in Austria has the Serbian title 'gastarbajteri'. In Serbia, too, a particularly eager student is referred to as a 'grub'. , Slag ', the Austrian " whipped cream ", is in its shortened form for "sweet cream". Influenced by the Austrian word “ Paradeiser ”, the tomato in Serbia is called Парадајз (paradajz).
Everyday, craft and official terms were adopted from the German-speaking islands in Slovakia.
Slovenian has mainly adopted the Austrian version of German words from German. This includes the word 'nagelj' for ' clove ' (from the word 'spice nail'). In contrast, 'krompir' comes from the Palatinate word “Grumbeer” (“basic pear”) for “potato”.
In the Spanish of some South American countries there are Germanisms that were introduced by German immigrants, among others. In Chile, for example, culinary terms such as 'kuchen', 'strudel' and 'pretzel' have found their way into the general language, in Uruguay and many other Hispanic American countries also 'frankfurter' ( sausages ). However, the latter is often used to mean hotdog . In Argentina , the term 'pancho' is also used for this, actually a Spanish short form for the name Francisco , which has been transferred to the sausage roll because of the relationship between this name and Frankfurt .
In Chile, the German word “sucht” in the pronunciation “sutsche” stands for house servants (gardeners, messengers, caretakers). This can be explained by the fact that the German-Chileans put up German-language signs when looking for servants or published advertisements whose text always began with the conspicuous German word "Suche". The term 'kuchen' (for cake ), also adopted from German, is pronounced by the Chileans exactly as in German, i.e. not “kutschen”, as one would actually expect from a Spanish pronunciation. This is obviously due to the fact that the word, other than 'search', was taken over from the oral language.
In Mexico, the expression known in German as “ Kirmes ” is used in the spelling 'kermés' for neighborhood festivals where money is collected for charitable purposes. This Germanism is, however, a takeover from the Dutch of the 16th century ( netherlands kermis , historically kermiss ).
Swahili, the predominant lingua franca in East Africa, has many loan words from Arabic and English. On the other hand, the German word for school comes from 'shule' .
Czech has adopted words from neighboring German dialects, such as hajzl ("Häusl") for toilet. Hardly recognizable is hřbitov the German cemetery.
German word imports were so common that as early as 1412 Jan Hus ranted against it. There were words like hantuch , šorc (apron), knedlík (dumplings), hausknecht and forman (carter). In 1631 the school reformer Jan Amos Komenský (Comenius) had no qualms about transferring the biblical term “paradise” with lusthaus .
In the late 19th century, many Czech craftsmen worked in the German-speaking area of the Danube Monarchy. The Czech language declined to the language of servants and took over numerous loanwords from this area ermloch (sleeve hole), flikovat (patch) and piglovat (ironing).
The currently actively spoken Brno dialect Hantec makes use of numerous Germanisms.
Other Germanisms (some used colloquially) in Czech
- betla : bed
- biflovat : to buffalo
- calovat : pay
- cimra : room
- through : through
- flastr : ( adhesive ) plaster
- flek : stain
- fotr : father
- fuč : gone
- fusakle / fusekle : (foot) socks
- futro : Lining for textile articles
- hadr : rags , cleaning rags (Saxon "Hader")
- haksna : leg (from southern German "Haxe")
- hercna : heart
- hic : heat
- ksicht : grimace (of face)
- lochna : hole
- plac : place
- štamprle : shot glass (" Stamperl ")
- stangla : top tube (bar) on the bike
Even the Tok Pisin Creole language in the former German colony of Papua New Guinea borrowed words from German. This includes balais for “pencil”, which is now being replaced by the English pencil . Out means “go!” Or “get out of the way!”. Derived from this, rausim means “empty, discharge, throw away”.
The words bruda , pray and prista (priest) remind of missionary work by German Catholic lay brothers . Swear words like rinfi (cattle) or saise (shit) are reminiscent of the appearance of German colonial rulers .
When the founder of the state, St. Stephen , married Princess Gisela of Bavaria in 996 , the Hungarians adopted German words. This includes the word " Duke ". The Hungarian form herceg came about through vowel harmony , the alignment of vowels within a word. The landscape name Hercegovina later emerged from this Hungarian loan word .
There were German clergymen, courtiers, farmers and craftsmen especially in the 13th and 18th centuries. They all brought their technical vocabulary with them. These include the job titles bakter (night watchman, railway attendant), suszter (shoemaker) and sinter ( Schinder ) as well as the terms kuncsaft (clientele) and majszter (master). In some professions, much of the technical terms has been adopted, so there is in the field of carpentry lazur ( glaze ), firnisz (varnish), lakk (paint), smirgli (sandpaper) and colstok ( ruler ).
Later borrowings took place mainly during the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy. This association explains the large number of words that are mainly used in Austria. These include the expressions krampusz ( Krampus , the companion of St. Nicholas ), partvis (hand broom, from "Bartwisch"), nokedli (dumpling, from " Nocken "), smarni (pastry, from " Schmarren ") and ribizli (currant, from " Currant "); eszcájg is derived from "Esszeug". Second- hand goods dealers are called handlé . Chopped food is fasírt (Austrian “ minced ”), dumplings are called knődli . The word fírhang (curtain) was still used by the elderly until the middle of the 20th century. A ringlispíl (Austrian. Ringelspiel) describes a carousel.
The word kuplung ( clutch ) has almost completely replaced the actual word tengelykapcsoló in the automotive sector, especially in everyday language (although it describes its technical function quite precisely). The reverse gear is often referred to as lükverc or rükverc . The ending 'tsz', which corresponds to the German spelling, is rather rare.
Witz is also present in the Hungarian language in the form of the noun vicc , the adjective vicces (witty) and the verb viccel (witteln). Another example is suitcase , the suitcase.
Even a whole sentence became a Hungarian word. Vigéc , derived from the German greeting “How are you?”, Is the Hungarian word for a door seller. The word spájz stands for the pantry. Similar to French, the German question mark “Was-ist-das?” Is used as a word. However, it means “art” or “feat” in Hungarian. In the sentence it looks like this “Ez olyan nagy what-is-that? ("Is that such a great feat?" In the sense of "Is it really that difficult?") "
Trade and administration in Belarus were strongly influenced by Germans during the heyday of the Hanseatic League (14th century). This is indicated by words such as 'čynš' (чынш) for “interest”, “handal” (гандаль) for “trade” and “štempel” (штэмпэль) for “stamp”. This subheading also includes “hiešeft” (гешэфт) “business” and “falšavać” (фальшаваць) “falsify”.
Modifications of German words
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