The school ( Latin schola from ancient Greek σχολή [ skʰoˈlɛː ], original meaning : " idleness ", " leisure ", later " study ", " lecture "), also called educational institution or teaching institution , is an institution whose educational mission is teaching and learning, so consists in the imparting of knowledge and skills through teachers to students , but also in the imparting of values and in upbringing and education, personalities who contribute themselves responsibly to society .
Word lists from Sumer suggest that schools have existed since the 4th millennium BC. Chr. Are. School texts from the 3rd millennium BC BC as direct evidence were found in the Sumerian Shuruppak (in today's Iraq ). The Sumerian schools, in which the school desks were made of adobe bricks, were called panel houses. The subjects can be arithmetic, drawing and Sumerian , i. H. Read and write, determine. In class, essays , fables , wisdom teachings , hymns and epics were written. Some of the teachers known as “fathers” showed a sense of humor, as the teaching story, Fable of the Clever Wolf and the Nine Stupid Wolves, shows that the students had to copy.
In ancient Egypt , school attendance was only possible for the wealthy, as the children of the lower social classes, mostly farmers and simple craftsmen, mostly had to help their parents with their work. Those who could write enjoyed a high reputation and thus had the opportunity to become priests or officials. In ancient Egypt, girls also went to school, although this was less common than boys. Teaching was usually given in temple schools and administrative buildings. The education in these institutions was very strict, so that corporal punishment was an integral part of them. Was written on Ostracon because papyrus was too precious for simple writing exercises. Subjects were reading and writing, math, geography, history, astronomy, sculpture, painting and also sports.
In ancient Greece , there was no uniform form of government, as the country was made up of numerous city-states, the so-called "Poleis" (singular: " Polis "). Therefore, life there varied from region to region. While Sparta, as a war-oriented nation, focused the education of the boys on military goals, the children of wealthy families in Athens were able to attend general schools. Nevertheless, there was neither compulsory schooling nor public school buildings in Athens. Instead, the children were taught at the teacher's home. Unlike in ancient Egypt, however, teachers in ancient Greece were not held in high esteem and were accordingly poorly paid. This only changed slowly around 500 BC. The students used wax tablets or papyrus as writing material . Music was perhaps much more important to the Greeks than reading and writing. Because there were no grades yet, the students had to play the teacher on their instruments. Singing was also taught, as singers were highly respected in ancient Greece, as well as sports, so that the students could take part in major competitions.
In the Roman Republic , the parents took over the lessons themselves. Thus there was still no compulsory schooling and no public school form. Public schools were not established until the Roman Empire . As in ancient Greece, the students wrote on wax tablets or papyrus. Mathematics was given little importance at the time and most teachers were still not well respected. Some of the lessons took place in the forum , but it was very noisy.
In medieval Europe there were initially only church schools in monasteries, in which teaching in reading and writing was reserved exclusively for priests and monks. In the 6th century Cassiodorus wrote a study regulation later called “curriculum”. This work represented a canonization of the essentials for the school. He saw his monastery academy as an educational community. His school practice was formally based on the Ciceronian rhetoric of conviction as an educational teaching approach. It was only after the author's death that this curriculum was passed down consecutively in various forms of school in the politically created occidental cultural area. It was not until the 13th century that public schools were slowly established. Wooden boards or wax sheets served as writing implements. Corporal punishment was not uncommon.
Although Geneva had introduced compulsory schooling as a smaller state unit in 1536 and subsequently other estates or the Duchy of Pfalz-Zweibrücken in 1592 , and the city of Strasbourg followed this with a corresponding law in 1598, most European states only existed From the 18th century , compulsory education or compulsory education ( Austria 1774, Switzerland, USA), which includes home tuition , or compulsory schooling through ( Liechtenstein 1805, France 1882, Germany 1919).
See also: Chengdu Shishi Zhongxue , List of the oldest schools in the German-speaking area , Paideia , Roman Education , Seven Liberal Arts , Humanism , German Education System , Educational Reform , Residential Schools (Canada)
The term school development refers to the further development of schools in terms of personnel ( personnel development in schools ) and from an organizational point of view. The aim is to change the content of schools in response to the general social conditions at the beginning of the 21st century. This concept arises from the internal discussion of the institutions involved in the school.
School in the German-speaking area
Schools are depending on school boards in schools maintained by public authorities or private schools distinguished. In the school and education system, there is a primary , secondary , postsecondary and tertiary sector, the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), these steps further subdivided and each stage several grades can include.
School in Germany
In 2010, Germany spent an average of around 5,800 euros per pupil at a public school, of which around 4,600 euros are staff costs, 700 euros for teaching materials and 500 euros for construction and property investments. The expenses vary greatly depending on the type of school and country.
An average of 6,400 euros was spent on pupils in general schools, compared to 4,000 euros at vocational schools. For elementary schools the average cost per student was 5200 euros, for integrated comprehensive schools and grammar schools the same amount was 6600 euros, for vocational schools in the dual system it was 2500 euros.
The state with the highest expenditure was Thuringia with 7700 euros, followed by Saxony-Anhalt with 7100 euros, while North Rhine-Westphalia had the lowest costs with 5000 euros. In general schools, the expenditure per pupil ranges from 8,600 euros (Thuringia) to 5,500 euros (North Rhine-Westphalia). Thuringia is also in first place for vocational schools (5300 euros), followed by Baden-Württemberg and Hamburg with 4700 euros each. In last place is Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania with 3100 euros per student.
These figures do not include the costs of student BAföG .
It should be noted that the expenditures for schools are not directly related to the learning success or the quality of the school system, since the efficiency in the use of funds is particularly important.
Mission and function
The social mission of the school, which in Germany is usually laid down in the school law of a federal state, lies in the development of the students into mature and responsible personalities. They should form, ie knowledge , skills and values in education convey targeted. The basic social values are given by the Basic Law . Other tasks mentioned variously are education in respect for life, preservation of the environment and responsibility for future generations.
At school, the state has the right to bring up children on an equal footing with the parents (BVerwG 6 B 65.07). The school personality development does not release the parents from their educational task , but complements it. Parents should have a moderating influence on their children in case of internal school conflicts. In the event of value conflicts between parents and society (e.g. in questions of sexuality, swimming lessons for Muslim girls, home tuition ), the school seeks a solution in the interests of the child, but if necessary must also provide school education against the will of the parents. In disputes, the competent administrative courts decide .
The classic school functions are:
- Qualification - preparation for later life requirements in work, private life and social functions
- Socialization - conveying socially desirable behavior
- Selection - selection and assignment of a social position or authorization
- Legitimation - conveying basic social values to ensure loyalty and integration (sociology)
In addition to their parents' contribution, qualifications and socialization convey the cultural capital of a society to adolescents, from basic skills such as writing and reading to promising appearance. Some social critics speak of an additional " secret curriculum ", which includes everything that is acquired in addition to the official learning program in order to be successful, for example building networks with classmates or cheating strategies.
In addition to providing support, the school also fulfills the function of selection, i.e. assessing the adolescents according to their productivity and assigning them a preliminary social position at the end of their school years by awarding school qualifications for further training courses. The school function of granting authorizations is traditionally more pronounced in the German school system than in the USA, for example, where other selection mechanisms apply. On the way there are school career decisions to be made. In a democratic society every student should be given a fair chance. The realization of equal opportunities is one of the central points of contention in education policy . The appropriate time for selection is also controversial. The personality of the students is mainly shaped to have a positive attitude towards performance requirements and how to cope with them. Critics of the selection function object that the school in fact largely reproduces the social class into which someone is born and that democratic equality of opportunity only exists on paper. The authorizations that a secondary school leaving certificate bestows have also become quite low.
Loyalty to social and political norms ensures that the existing institutions and procedures are accepted by the next generation and continue to function. Ensuring loyalty is a central function of the education system in all political systems. The GDR school was largely geared towards justifying the existence of the GDR (largely unsuccessful in the end). In democratic systems, the development of a democratic consciousness is a main task of the social science subjects. The emergence of youthful political extremism usually leads to an intensification of counteracting school activities in the endangered area. In this respect, the school proved to be a society-stabilizing system .
The state mandate to run schools can be fulfilled by the state itself ( public schools ) or by private sponsors (according to the Basic Law (4) ( private schools )). Compulsory schooling can also be fulfilled in non-schools within narrow limits. For example, children, adolescents and young adults with an intellectual disability in Lower Saxony can attend a day-care center instead of a regular school or a special needs school. According to Article 7 (1) of the Basic Law, the state is responsible for supervising all institutions in which pupils do their compulsory schooling.
The legal relationships between the members of the school are regulated in school law. School matters are regulated by the responsible state parliaments and ministries of education through the school act, decrees and ordinances as well as curricula. The school principal ensures that all provisions are complied with in accordance with the rule of law and is the recipient of complaints against the teachers. In the management of a school, hierarchical school administration law (the school principal runs the school) and the democratic school participation law (the school's decision-making bodies are the committees, for example the school conference ) compete with one another. The grading is the participation largely removed through conferences, while decisions on the non- dislocation are taken by school authorities.
The school supervision and the ministries responsible for schools (also with different names in the federal states) watch over the individual schools at different levels (depending on the type of school). The headmaster's direct superior is usually a school board member , a school authority director or a government school director.
Structure and organization
The organization of a school is based on a school community.
Depending on the type of school and equipment, it consists of:
- his deputy (usually in schools with more than 180 students)
- his second deputy (usually in schools with more than 540 students, not in all school types)
- The official title of the headmaster and deputy varies depending on the state and type of school . In some schools there are also functionaries in managerial positions (who have their own names depending on the federal state and school type), for example the department heads at comprehensive schools in North Rhine-Westphalia.
- Teaching staff as civil servants or employees
Depending on the school, this organization is supplemented by:
- School doctors (at Waldorf schools )
- School kindergarten directors at primary schools (no longer in all federal states)
- Socio-pedagogical specialists at primary schools (often former school kindergarten directors)
- Pedagogical teaching aids at certain special needs schools
- Social pedagogues / social workers, school psychologists (mostly at secondary and comprehensive schools)
- School assistants (possibly under different names)
Schools as democratic institutions are subject to the participation of employees (teachers) as well as parents, students and other social groups:
On the side of the school authority, the council determines after the preparatory work in the school committee (which can also be called differently depending on the particular school authority). Other social groups are also represented in this (churches, local teachers, sports association ...).
There are organizationally complementary
- the secretariat
- the caretaker (caretaker, school caretaker)
- Staff for open all-day primary schools, in all-day operations in secondary schools
- other staff (school gardeners, cleaning staff ...)
Cooperation in the school is organized in conferences. The deliberations are not public. The conferences have different names in the various states and countries:
- School conference : It is the highest decision-making body. Teachers, parents and students are represented in it; As a rule, the headmaster is the chairperson. It has the task of promoting the cooperation between the school management, teachers, parents, students and those who are jointly responsible for vocational education.
- Teachers' conference / general conference : Members are all teachers. As a rule, the headmaster is the chairperson.
- Specialist conference : Members are all teachers who are qualified to teach the respective subject or who teach it. It is chaired by an elected teacher who is a member of the specialist conference. Executive board members can take part in specialist conferences at any time. Depending on the federal state, representatives of the parents and students also take part, either with voting rights or in an advisory capacity.
- Departmental conference : Consists of the teachers of a department (at vocational colleges e.g. economics / media, chemistry, social education, etc.). The head of department or one of the heads of department chairs it. The agenda consists of educational and organizational aspects that affect the department.
- Class conference : It consists of all teachers who teach in a class. As a rule, the class teacher chairs the meeting. When making decisions such as B. in the case of certificates, repetitions or educational recommendations, however, in some federal states the head of the school presides. Depending on the federal state, parent and student representatives are also voting or advisory members.
- Year conference : All teachers of the parallel classes in the year (not at all schools) are members. As a rule, the chair is chaired by a member of the Executive Board.
- Level conference : Depending on the federal state and school type, a level conference will be set up. All teachers of a school level (grades 5, 6, 7; grades 8, 9, 10; grades 11, 12, 13) take part. As a rule, the chair is chaired by the ladder.
Attending school is compulsory in Germany . Full-time compulsory schooling usually applies up to the ninth or tenth year of compulsory schooling, i.e. from six to fifteen or sixteen years of age. Provisions are possible under certain circumstances, new trends suggest that school may start in the fifth year of life. In Germany, compulsory full-time schooling is followed by compulsory vocational schooling, which generally applies until the end of vocational training or until the end of the twelfth year of school attendance.
Through the compulsory education in Germany, the state as opposed to a write education compulsory even before, has to be made how and in what form education. Home schooling in which students are taught by their parents or private teachers is - with a few exceptions - not permitted in Germany. Compulsory schooling is followed by the school's duty to supervise children and young people.
It is therefore also wrong to regard school as a purely state service, but it also represents an exercise of legitimate power and restricts some basic rights of parents and children according to legal norms (freedom of movement, free choice of occupation). This is also clear from the prohibition of child labor , which is closely related to full-time compulsory schooling. In this respect, the school has a sovereign function that can ultimately only be regulated by the state.
Since the 18th century, school enrollment has only taken place once a year. There are current considerations to change this.
There are around 47,000 general and vocational schools in the Federal Republic of Germany. The education system is under the cultural sovereignty of the federal states . The names and course content of the individual school types can therefore differ from state to state. The Standing Conference of Ministers of Education agrees rules on the comparability of degrees and other key points.
School types (incomplete):
- primary school
- Special school / special school
- Secondary school , completion of secondary school / vocational qualification, secondary school leaving certificate
- Realschule , secondary school leaving certificate
- Comprehensive school (in Hamburg: district school ) Completion of secondary school, secondary school leaving certificate, technical college entrance qualification , high school diploma
- Technical college , completion of technical college entrance qualification
- Vocational school , vocational college degree
- High school , technical college , graduation from high school
- College , vocational college, vocational and technical college qualifications (also in connection with general school qualifications)
School types in Austria
In Austria the school system is regulated nationwide.
School types in Switzerland
In Switzerland, the cantons are responsible for the school system.
School types in the Principality of Liechtenstein
The school system is uniformly regulated in the Principality of Liechtenstein.
School in foreign language countries
School in Finland
According to PISA studies , Finland has the most successful school system in the world. One of the models was the school system of the GDR. Today, Finnish education policymakers are looking for new role models to save costs and introduce more effective selection in Finland.
90% of Finnish pupils attend a qualified pre-school by the age of six. Compulsory schooling begins at the age of seven. The class size is around 20 students.
School in Developing Countries
As these countries mostly have neither the necessary budget nor a real interest in the “reading people” due to political instability and undesirable developments, qualified school systems are rare in these countries. The level of education in these countries has been catastrophic for decades and is one of the main reasons for a lack of democratization processes and a lack of economic success.
In the former English colonies such as Tanzania , Kenya and Gambia , the school system is based on that of the former colonial power. There is also the classic school uniform. Compulsory schooling is not enforced here. In addition to a monthly school fee, the students also have to pay for the school materials and provide financial support to the teachers. Children from affluent families mostly go to school in England.
School systems in other countries
- Education system Denmark
- French school system
- Education system in Ghana
- Italian school system
- Education system in Japan
- School system in Canada
- School system in Nauru
- School system in New Zealand
- Education system in the Netherlands
- Education system in Poland
- School system in Spain
- School system in the UK
- United States School System
- School system in the People's Republic of China
The way in which knowledge is imparted and the educational mandate of the schools were and still are in public criticism. In the 20th century in particular, the traditional school forms (elementary school - secondary school - grammar school / vocational school), but also the existing university system, were criticized and changes were demanded. The youth movement was followed in the Federal Republic of Germany progressive education . In the 1970s, in connection with the social discussions about anti-authoritarian education, alternative schools such as secondary schools and comprehensive schools were founded. B. the Glockseeschule in Hanover.
The American psychologist David Keirsey shows in his critical essays that the school system only encourages certain types of temperament, while others are inhibited. He also speaks out clearly against behavior- changing pharmaceuticals , which are often used, especially in America.
The German psychologist Thomas Städtler criticizes the fact that more and more material ends up in the curriculum without old material being mucked out, which ensures that more and more bulimia learning is necessary to pass school. In his book Die Bildungshochstapler: Why our curricula must be cut by 90%, he calls for curricula to be cut by at least 90 percent.
Many psychologists, educational and neuroscientists who are concerned with the question of better education believe that students could know a lot more if they had less material to learn, because because of the large amount of material, most of it is forgotten in an ever shorter time and often, whether consciously or unconsciously, bulimia learning is used as the primary learning method.
In the eyes of many critics, learning by heart and pure reproduction of facts, formulas, facts, knowledge, etc., as required by most state schools, is no longer up-to-date in the eyes of many critics in times of rapid information retrieval via the Internet and arte not least because of a lack of interest on the part the student and time pressure mostly in bulimia learning. Today, according to many parents, the focus is instead on competencies , skills and the promotion of creativity for later professional life as a learning goal .
Gerald Lembke , Professor of Business Administration, Media Management and Communication at the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University, is of the opinion that today's education system does not meet the requirements of the future world of life and work. Instead, the school system would train the students for an old time, which ensures that many students memorize the material to be learned without understanding it. This leads to "that we produce people who cannot cope with the demands that are now being thrown on us socially and economically, including by digitization." "Our work culture will change radically," says Gerald Lembke in his book Verzockte Future. How we gamble away the potential of the younger generation .
The German brain researcher Gerhard Roth criticizes the school system and the way knowledge is conveyed in his book Education Needs Personality - How Learning Succeeds . "All tests of the knowledge that young people still have five years after leaving school" showed that "the school system has an efficiency that tends towards zero". Schoolchildren would quickly forget what they have learned due to poor knowledge transfer. In order for students to remember what they have learned for longer, “we have to say goodbye to the delusion of pouring as much material as possible into the student's brain in the shortest possible time”, because “less material that is systematically repeated is stored more effectively”.
The German neurobiologist Gerald Hüther also criticizes the fact that just two years after graduating from high school, high school graduates would only know ten percent of what they learned in school. In his opinion, 100 percent must be aimed for. This is to be achieved by letting students be guided more by their interests rather than by the requirements of the ministry of culture. The existing school system is designed for the problems of the last century, but fails with today's tasks. In an interview from 2012 he assumed that in six years there will be no more school as we know it. He ended the interview with the sentence "We can no longer afford to smuggle students through systems where they lose exactly what they urgently need for their future: passion, personal responsibility and the desire to shape the world together." He advocates the conspiracy theory that schools are deliberately so bad that they produce as minor voters as possible and thus the needs of as many people as possible are disregarded, whereby they seek as many substitute gratifications as possible, "[...] so that we have enough customers for have the rubbish that we want to sell them here ”.
The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu showed in his book The Subtle Differences (French, 1979) how schools contribute to the maintenance of class structures.
It is often criticized by students, teachers and parents that some things that students have to learn in schools are perceived by some students as not meaningful for them, for example because they have too little user base or are relatively unrelated to everyday life becomes. It is also criticized that some topics with a comparatively high user base are not taught in many state schools in Germany. Federal school spokesman Felix Wagner is of the opinion that a student must see the meaning behind what he is learning in order to keep the subject matter in his head for a longer period of time. In a survey conducted by the Austrian Federal Student Council with 4,500 high school students, 87 percent of the students stated that they did not consider the subject matter taught in their school to be useful. 50 percent of the students said that they feel demotivated by their everyday school life. 50 percent stated that they found school to be a good preparation for further education and life and 63 percent of the students stated that they no longer knew what they had learned shortly after the exam. “If I don't see the meaning of what I'm learning, then I won't try to keep the material for long. Meaningful and efficient learning looks different, ”says Wagner.
General education schools are often accused of preventing rather than promoting learning in children, especially as the classroom creates fear , stress and pressure. Educators like Francisco Ferrer or Alexander Sutherland Neill founded freer schools ( Summerhill ), while others such as John Caldwell Holt in Unschooling saw an alternative (see also: Deschooling and home schooling ).
Conversely, the alternative schools tending towards anti-authoritarian or permissive education are criticized by authoritative scholars for disregarding the actual needs of both the child and society. For example, psychologist Alice Miller sees these approaches as a mere reversal of the “power relations” from educator to child and thus neglecting the actual educational tasks. The pedagogue Bernhard Bueb speaks of "the duty to lead" and to give adolescents an ethical orientation.
In addition, some alternative schools, which are critical of general education schools, have come under public criticism over the years and have lost pupils and teachers, or have to close because the anti-authoritarian educational principle has not proven itself in practice, because an ideological orientation that is too strong has emerged. because the degrees were not recognized by the state or because in these schools under the guise of freedom of movement, cases of abuse of children and young people became apparent in large numbers and brought the reform character into disrepute, as was the case with the Odenwald School .
In his book Anna, die Schule und der liebe Gott: The betrayal of the education system to our children, the German philosopher and publicist Richard David Precht sharply criticizes the entire school system and the way in which knowledge is imparted. In his opinion, too much time is wasted in today's school system memorizing facts and circumstances , which usually degenerates into bulimia learning, and the whole material of the curriculum is too rigid and no longer up-to-date. He is of the opinion that the existing school system confuses quality and quantity when it comes to the material to be learned. In his opinion, the regulation of lessons, which always last 45 minutes, is outdated. In contrast to some other critics, he calls for a new educational revolution instead of an evolution because, in his opinion, the existing school system is neither child-friendly nor effective. The demands of the future world of life and work demand “not for heads that are filled with dead knowledge like files,” but for “creative problem solvers”, which today's school system does not produce. He criticizes the fact that in today's German school system, subjects are taught that have no connection whatsoever, which corresponds to a long outdated notion of learning. Precht suggests learning in interdisciplinary phenomena in order to understand topics in their real context. When today's school system came into being, “you didn't know anything about learning”. Today we know much better how the process of learning works, but none of this scientific knowledge is implemented in schools.
The personal opinion published by Precht, however, lacks the scientific basis in the form of solid empirical research with corresponding representative, statistically founded data and findings. He misjudges z. For example, that “the” school does not even exist and narrows the view of an outdated, long no longer taught and at most sporadically practiced school didactics and way of learning that is based on memorization. He overlooks today's variety of school types in Germany and Europe, the very broad-based school and education system with its numerous content-related, structural, methodological and didactic variants such as the flexible time rhythms provided and practiced from elementary school to the upper level of secondary schools, the forms of open working groups or the principle of multi-dimensional learning in project-oriented teaching and project teaching . Precht's criticism of today's school reality largely bypasses it by criticizing structures that have long been outdated.
School marketing, advertising and sponsorship
Most federal states in Germany prohibit advertising in schools, but sponsorship is allowed. Critics complain that school principals and teachers currently only give rough guidelines on how to handle advertising and sponsorship in schools.
- Evening school
- Unit school
- European school
- European school in Germany and Austria
- Gifted School
- Hunting school
- Clip school
- Colonial school
- Girls school
- Private school (independent school)
- Sudbury Schools
- Waldorf School
- School (science)
- Homework , learning method , performance assessment (school) , written proof of performance in school , school report , school grade , school cone
- Mannheim school system , school law , timetable
- School network
- Bullying at school
- Kindergarten , preschool
- Pedibus (way to school)
- School center
- Personnel development in schools
- Violence in schools
- Philippe Ariès : Childhood Story. dtv, Munich 1978, 2003 (Ariès goes into detail about the history of schools in France).
- Sabine Czerny: What we do to our children at school ... and how we can change that. Südwest Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-517-08633-0 .
- Timo Hoyer : Social history of education. From antiquity to modern times . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2015, ISBN 978-3-534-17517-8 . (The book includes the history of the school)
- Hans-Georg Herrlitz a. a .: German school history from 1800 to the present. An introduction. Juventa Verlag, Weinheim 2005 (4th edition), ISBN 3-7799-1724-6 .
- Günter Ludwig : Cassiodor. About the origin of the occidental school. Academic Publishing Company, Frankfurt am Main 1967.
- Annette Pfisterer: School criticism and the search for school alternatives - a motor for school development? Review and outlook on the threshold of the 21st century. Kovac Verlag, Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-8300-0881-3 .
- Horst F. Rupp: School / school system. In: TRE - Theologische Realenzyklopädie, ed. by Gerhard Müller. Volume XXX. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1999, pp. 591–627.
- Wolfgang Schmale (Ed.): Revolution of Knowledge? Europe and its Schools in the Age of Enlightenment (1750–1825). A handbook on European school history. Winkler Verlag, Bochum 1991, ISBN 3-924517-33-9 .
- Bertrand Stern : No more school! - the human right to freely educate. Tologo Verlag, Leipzig 2006, ISBN 3-9810444-5-2 .
- Friedrich H. Steeg: Learning and selection in the school system using the example of "arithmetic weakness". Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-631-30731-4 .
- Ingeborg Thümmel: Social and intellectual history of the school for the mentally disabled in the 20th century - central lines of development between exclusion and participation. Beltz Verlag, Weinheim 2003, ISBN 3-407-57205-0 .
- Franz-Michael Konrad: History of the school. From antiquity to the present. CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-55492-6 ( limited preview in Google book search).
- Oliver Hauschke: Abolish school: Why our school system does not educate our children and has to be radically changed. mvgverlag, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-7474-0042-5 .
- Jürgen Kaube : Is school too stupid for our children? Rowohlt, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-7371-0053-3 .
- Richard David Precht : Anna, the school and the good Lord: The betrayal of the education system to our children . Goldmann, Munich 2013, ISBN 978-3-442-15691-7 .
- Bertrand Stern: School? No thanks! For a right to free education! In: Kristian Kunert (ed.): School in the cross fire. Mission - tasks - problems. Lecture series on basic questions of school education at the University of Tübingen. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren , Baltmannsweiler 1993, ISBN 3-87116-918-8 .
- Bertrand Stern: Dear Federal Minister for the German School System ...: Thoughts about the educational republic. tologo, Leipzig 2008, ISBN 978-3-940596-03-1 .
- Bertrand Stern: School - a tragic accident? In: Ulrich Klemm (Hrsg.): Education without compulsion. Texts on the history of anarchist education. Edition AV, Lich 2010, ISBN 978-3-86841-037-2 .
- Bertrand Stern: (with Franziska Klinkigt): Attempts to defend freedom. Discussions on the "educational republic". Klemm + Oelschläger, Ulm / Münster 2013, ISBN 978-3-86281-060-4 .
- Bertrand Stern: Freedom to form - apologetic perspectives. tologo, Leipzig 2015, ISBN 978-3-937797-34-2 .
- Bertrand Stern: seeds of freedom. Impulses for a blossoming educational landscape. Klein Jasedow 2016, ISBN 978-3-927369-96-2 .
- Bertrand Stern: On breaking out of the schooling ideology: Good reasons, also legally, to give our prospective trust to those who refused to attend school. In: Matthias Kern (Ed.): Self-determined and self-organized education versus compulsory schooling. tologo, Leipzig 2016, ISBN 978-3-937797-59-5 .
- Jutta Allmendinger : School assignments: How we have to change the education system in order to do justice to our children , 2012, ISBN 978-3570551875 .
- Thomas Städtler : The educational impostors: Why our curricula have to be cut by 90% , 2010, ISBN 978-3827421500 .
- Gerhard Roth : Education needs personality: How learning succeeds , 2011, ISBN 978-3608946550 .
- John Taylor Gatto : Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling , New Society Publishers, 2Rev. Ed. 2002, ISBN 0-86571-448-7
- John Taylor Gatto: Dumb it up! Dumbing us down: The invisible curriculum or what children really learn in school , Genius Verlag, Bremen, 1st Ed. 2009, ISBN 393471935X
- Henry Bernhard : Digitization - Going to school with a tablet instead of pen and paper , Deutschlandfunk - “ Background ” from August 27, 2018
- Literature about schools in the catalog of the German National Library
- German education server
- Federal Statistical Office - data on the subject of "schools" Schools: data & facts
- Swiss school platform
- Pedagogy specialist portal
- Education expenditure as% of GDP
- School Museum Nuremberg
- The (educational) system film 2016 (YouTube)
- see Ludwig, 1967, pp. 4, 74, 160–166.
- Hans Stadler, Hans-Ulrich Grunder: School system. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Emil Sehling: The Protestant Church Orders of the 16th Century. Volume 18: Rhineland-Palatinate I. Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 2006, p. 406
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