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Sample sheet for school buildings ( Gustav Vorherr , 1821), was used to introduce building standards across the board in Bavaria .

As school buildings are buildings designated by a school to be used. Historically and in a narrower sense, this refers to the schoolhouse , i.e. a stand-alone building that primarily houses the classrooms. In the broader and current sense, school buildings include all other buildings and rooms that are used by a school, for example gyms, cafeteria, break rooms and specialist buildings. In addition to the school buildings, the school architecture also includes designed outdoor facilities such as sports fields and playgrounds. School buildings are maintained by the school authority . In the case of state schools, this can be a municipality or a district. In the case of private schools , it is a private or church sponsor.


Arrangement and development

School types: barracks type, gangway type and cobbler type
  • classrooms
  • Stairwells
  • Corridors
  • School buildings can be differentiated in terms of the arrangement and accessibility of the classrooms according to their design :

    • Central corridor school, also disparagingly called barracks type, multi-storey design with classrooms arranged linearly on both sides of a corridor
    • Aisle type, multi-storey design in which classrooms are arranged linearly on one side along a corridor
    • Pavilion school with low, decentralized low-rise buildings connected by arcades. The typical classroom wing of a pavilion school is single-storey
    • Schuster type , multi-storey construction wherein typically two per classrooms per projectile are opened up by a centrally arranged stairs, wherein any corridors omitted
    • Atrium type, also called hall type, in which the classrooms are accessed in a ring through a central hall


    The particular challenge in the design of school buildings lies in the joint consideration of educational , functional , aesthetic and economic considerations.

    The traditional school architecture in cities was often strictly structured, massive and representative. The “barracks type” associated with the authoritarian pedagogy of that time is still numerous today. The separation of the sexes was also noticeable architecturally (“double schools”).

    Alternatives were developed especially from the time of reform pedagogy at the beginning of the 20th century. The better known include the Waldorf schools , Montessori schools , the rural education centers , etc.

    In Bavaria, “with the introduction of compulsory schooling on January 1, 1803, numerous new school buildings were necessary. The top architect in the country, Gustav Vorherr , presented sample sheets that were staggered according to requirements, size of the community and financial resources. ”The orientation to the south ensured that the classrooms and the teacher's apartment above were bright.

    The following text reflects the high demands placed on the new school buildings in the Kingdom of Bavaria at the beginning of the 19th century:

    “Schools are points of light in a country; School buildings are venerable places of education for the blossoming generation. Therefore, according to their purpose, they should distinguish themselves from the other dwellings in a municipality in terms of location, surroundings, construction and furnishings. For the place where we first grasped certain doctrines expresses the mood with which we received them, and again the value they had for us, both an important influence and on our physical health, and much comes from it on whether these school buildings are spacious, bright and clean houses, or small, dark, dirty huts in which young people in their first bloom should spend the most beautiful years of their lives. "

    - Gustav Vorherr : Monthly newspaper for construction and state beautification in Bavaria

    To introduce the youngsters to the secrets of growing fruit and vegetables, there was often a school garden.

    Type schools

    See also: Type school building of the GDR

    In the years of reconstruction after World War II, in particular, type buildings were designed for the rapid construction of schools, which were often composed of precast concrete parts .


    • Monday Youth and Society Foundation / Urban Spaces (Ed.): Planning and building schools. Basics and processes. Jovis, Berlin, 2012.
    • RB Bechtel, A. Churchman: Handbook of Environmental Psychology. Wiley and Sons, New York 2002.
    • Bell PA, Fisher JD, Loomis RJ: Environmental psychology. Saunders, Philadelphia 1978.
    • Anette Dreier, Diemut Kucharz, Jörg Ramseger, Bernd Sörensen: Planning, building, redesigning primary schools. Recommendations for child-friendly learning environments. In: Board of the Primary School Association Berlin (ed.): Contributions to the reform of the primary school - special volume 59th Primary School Association. Working group elementary school e. V., Berlin 1999.
    • Michael Freyer: The school house. Development stages in the context of the history of the farmer and community center as well as school hygiene. Edited by Gundolf Keil and Winfried Nerdinger, Passau 1998.
    • HM Göhlich: The educational environment. Deutscher Studien Verlag, Weinheim 1993.
    • J. Kahlert, K. Nitsche, K. Zierer: Spaces for learning and teaching - perspectives for a contemporary school room design. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 2013.
    • Kähler in: Schools in Germany. New construction and revitalization. Wüstenrot Foundation, Stuttgart 2004.
    • Hildegard Kasper: From the classroom to the learning environment - building blocks for a supportive elementary school. Vaas Verlag, Ulm 1999.
    • Ludwig Klasen: Ground plan models of buildings of all kinds. Abth. III. School-building. Baumgartner, Leipzig 1884 ( digitized version (requires Java plug-in)).
    • Michael Luley: A little history of German school building. From the late 18th century to the present . (= Educational concepts and practice. Volume 47). Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2000, ISBN 3-631-36830-5 .
    • Marlene Noack: The classroom as an educational tool. The relevance of the learning location for learning. Deutscher Studienverlag, Weinheim 1996.
    • Heinrich Wagner u. a .: Lower and higher schools. In: Handbook of Architecture. Part 4: Design, layout and furnishing of the buildings, Vol. 6: Buildings for education, Book 1. Bergsträsser (Kröner), Stuttgart 1903 ( digitized OCR ).

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Doris Fuchsberger: First village schools in Bavaria . In: Heimat Forstenried . Collective booklet Volume 5, Munich 2011
    2. ^ Gustav Vorherr: Monthly Journal for Building and Land Beautification in Bavaria , Munich 1821

    Web links

    Commons : Schools  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
    Wiktionary: School building  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations