Waldorf School

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A Waldorf school (also: Rudolf Steiner School and in Germany Free Waldorf School ) is a school that teaches according to the Waldorf education established by Rudolf Steiner (1861–1925) . Waldorf education is based on Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophical study of the human being . In Germany , Waldorf schools are state-approved or state-recognized, privately owned alternative schools . Waldorf schools have spread to other countries since the second half of the 20th century.

The anthroposophical architecture is the basis of many Waldorf school buildings.

There are 1149 Waldorf schools worldwide, 779 of them in Europe. Most of them are in Germany (245 in 2018), followed by the USA (126) and the Netherlands (103). Most of the Waldorf schools in relation to the number of inhabitants are in Norway (32). In Switzerland there are 31 and in Austria 20 Waldorf schools (April 2018). After the end of the Soviet Union , 20 Waldorf schools emerged in Russia .


Foundation and growth until 1933

The Waldorf School was named after a cigarette factory in Stuttgart

The Waldorf School came into being in the upheaval after the First World War in Germany in connection with the threefolding movement, which was also developed from anthroposophy . Rudolf Steiner had published public lectures on education and school issues as early as 1906 to 1911, as well as a paper on raising children in 1907. These thoughts ultimately led to the founding of the Waldorf School and the establishment of Waldorf education.

The starting point for the founding of the school in Stuttgart on September 7, 1919 was Emil Molt's request , Kommerzienrat and director of the Waldorf-Astoria cigarette factory , to Steiner to take care of a school for the children of the workers he employed. Steiner took over the training and advice of the teaching staff and was spiritus rector of the school until his death in 1925 . The Astoria company school on Stuttgart's Uhlandshöhe , a model for all later Waldorf schools, taught co-educational from the beginning and was the first integrated or comprehensive school in Germany. The educational movement got its name from the cigarette factory.

In the following years, more Waldorf schools and kindergartens were established in Germany and abroad. In 1921 the first school (as a boarding school) outside of Germany was founded in Dornach near Basel, the Friedwart School at the Goetheanum . The first Waldorf school in North America was opened in 1928 in New York on Central Park. The first kindergarten was opened in Stuttgart as early as 1926. In 1928 there were finally other schools in Budapest, London and Lisbon, among others.

time of the nationalsocialism

During the time of National Socialism , all Waldorf schools in the German Reich were "gradually smothered". In 1934 there was a Ministry of Education decree that no first classes were allowed to be formed. In 1935 the Anthroposophical Society was banned. Regarding the Waldorf schools, the decree of Reinhard Heydrich (including head of the Reich Security Main Office) says: “The teaching methods based on the pedagogy of the founder Steiner and used in the anthroposophical schools that still exist today pursue an individualistic, individual-oriented upbringing that has nothing to do with the has in common with National Socialist educational principles. "

In 1936, six schools in Germany closed themselves under this external pressure, as did schools in Austria, Hungary and the Netherlands. The remaining three schools in Germany were closed until 1941. In 1942 only the Waldorf schools in Switzerland, England and the USA and a few small schools in Breslau, Amsterdam, Zeist , Oslo, Bergen and Buenos Aires were still working.

post war period

In September 1945, some German Waldorf schools reopened and new foundations soon followed, initially in a manageable number. In 1952 there were 24 schools in Germany and 25 in the rest of Europe; outside of Europe there were five. From the 1970s onwards, the number of start-ups increased on a large scale at home and abroad. In 1985 the Waldorf movement had arrived in the USA and Canada with a total of 65 schools, in Australia and New Zealand there were 19 schools. In 1989 there were 114 schools in Germany, 224 in the rest of Europe and 107 outside Europe.

In the area of ​​the former GDR , new Waldorf schools were only founded after the collapse of socialism . Shortly before German reunification , the first free school opened on September 1, 1990 at Zernsee in Werder . According to Hartwig Schiller, the spokesman for the Waldorf schools at the time, there were already start-up initiatives in more than 30 locations.

The number of Waldorf schools in Germany roughly doubled between 1990 and 2018. During this period there were 128 start-ups. In 1996 the first schools in Asia were founded. In 2017 there were 240 Waldorf schools in Germany, 497 in the rest of Europe and 358 outside of Europe. According to the Association of Independent Waldorf Schools, there was a Waldorf school in 39.6% of the rural districts and cities in the 2018/2019 school year . With around 1,100 schools and over 2,000 kindergartens, the Waldorf school movement is the largest free school movement in the world.

Claim and theoretical foundation

Steiner's esoteric teachings and his Goetheanist, holistic-oriented scientific methodology should, according to his claim, not be the subject of the Waldorf school. But they justify the view of people in their development and thus affect education and teaching methods .

Anthroposophy as the basis

Steiner does not want to determine pedagogy on the basis of “the qualification, reproduction and selection requirements of a late industrial democratic performance society” (Ullrich), but rather directly from the requirements of child development. His understanding of these requirements emerges from his anthropological hypotheses. These are in particular the doctrines of the three- and four-fold structure of man and the doctrine of temperament .

The threefold division of human beings into spirit, soul and body and the division of the soul's abilities into thinking, feeling and willing draws in the pedagogical area the demand for equal training of “thinking, feeling and willing”.

In addition to the physical body, the four-part structure of the human being describes three other "essential elements" of the human being that can only be perceived through the senses. The etheric body is the carrier of the forces of growth, the astral body is the carrier of soul life and the ego is an immortal, spiritual core in man. Each of these members leaves its supersensible shell at a certain point in life, so be "born" as the physical body is born by leaving the physical shell of the womb . These supernatural births took place at intervals of seven years, which is why anthroposophical anthropology divides the child's development into seven years .

The second and third year seven are decisive for the school time, which roughly covers the age range from 7 to 18 years:

  • According to Steiner, the birth of the etheric body (beginning of the 2nd year seven) is shown by the change of teeth . After the child has learned through “imitation and example” so far, it is now learning through “following and authority”. This goes hand in hand with an increased development of the mental powers of learning, in particular the pictorial imagination and memory.
  • The puberty marks the birth of the astral body (the beginning of the third year Siebts). Now it is about the development of one's own "power of judgment" and "the free understanding". Causal thinking in abstract terms takes shape.

For Waldorf teachers, Steiner also considers knowledge of the theory of temperament in the version he developed to be indispensable. Like its Greek predecessor, it divides people into four basic types - sanguine , phlegmatic , melancholic and choleric , with mixed forms of these types usually occurring.

Compare also: Anthroposophy's image of man .


The implementation of the teachings of anthroposophy in an individual Waldorf school is linked to the current form there and to the initiative of the teacher. It is not regulated or guaranteed by any authority.

Methodology didactics

Basic principles

School workshops in Dortmund

Steiner's anthropological conception of the threefold nature of man results in the principle of equal promotion of the intellectual-cognitive (“thinking”), the artistic-creative (“feeling”) and the handicraft-practical (“wanting”) abilities of the students. This leads to a comparatively large range of technical and artistic subjects compared to the public schools , whose conception is mostly criticized by Waldorf teachers as being one-sided intellectual-cognitive. Furthermore, all lessons should contain artistic elements. Education itself is elevated to the art of education by Steiner .

In order not to have to describe natural and cultural phenomena solely causally, what he calls Goetheanism is important for Steiner . "It is a view of nature that emphasizes the idea of ​​becoming and development, of metamorphosis and of being embedded in natural phenomena".

The principle of the rhythmic structure or ritualization of the course of lessons, days, weeks and years as well as the intensive design of the learning environment down to a specific school building architecture result from the anthroposophical approach. In this context, there are also frequent theatrical performances (class play: each class studies a play with all students and performs it several times), student concerts (often by class orchestras), monthly celebrations (the results of the work are regularly presented to the school public, several times during the school year the monthly celebration is completely public), school festivals, artistic and practical lessons and horticulture.

Main and specialist lessons

The school day at the Waldorf School begins with the two-hour main lesson . Over several weeks, as a so-called epoch lesson , it covers a single subject from the knowledge-emphasizing subjects German , mathematics , specialist knowledge , art , history , biology , geography , physics and chemistry . The subsequent specialist lessons in the morning and afternoon include two foreign languages from the 1st grade, often a third foreign language from the 5th grade, technical and artistic lessons as well as gymnastics and gymnastics , handicraft, singing , instrumental music, eurythmy , religion , and from the 5th grade various trades such as carpentry , housekeeping and tailoring alternating with horticulture , from the 10th grade field fairs and z. B. spiders . Bookbinding and technology lessons follow in the 11th and 12th grades . The specific design of the timetables is the responsibility of the schools and therefore partly deviates from this list.

The main lessons of the first eight years of school are held by a class teacher who acts as a “directional personality” in accordance with the principle of “succession and authority” demanded by Steiner for the second year of life. The class teacher's lessons should develop the emotional life of the pupils and should be more graphic and characterizing than conceptual and systematic. In technical terms he is a generalist , not a specialist . The subject teaching, on the other hand, is taken over by individual subject teachers right from the start.

For each lesson epoch , the students keep an aesthetically designed epoch booklet , which at the end of the epoch is used, among other things , to assess performance . Epoch notebooks are the most important aid in learning. Your contents are first dictated, then worked out together and then designed by the students themselves.

Textbooks are not provided for in Waldorf education and are therefore rarely used in epoch lessons. Because they present prepared knowledge , they oppose the principle of genetic-organic appropriation of the subject matter. Similarly, electronic media not or only cautious use during the first years of school.

In the upper level , changing subject teachers take over the main lessons. The person of the teacher, who now has to be a specialist, takes a back seat to the material. The discussion of the lesson content is increasingly conceptual and abstract.


Natural colors dominate in the interior

The Waldorf school curriculum is not a fixed catalog of goals and topics. The teacher is the 'representation of the world' for the child. “As a cognizant, the teacher is able to bring the right information to the child.” Contents and methods are not determined by the factual structure of the subject matter, but by the stage of development of the pupil. Whether the material and method are to be classified as age-appropriate is judged on the one hand by means of anthroposophical human studies and is the decision of the teacher, who 'reads the curriculum and teaching objectives from the human being'. The guide is therefore the child himself. ' Reading in the child's essence replaces reading a curriculum.'

At the end of the introductory course for the teachers of the first Waldorf school on September 6, 1919, Rudolf Steiner provided initial information on the teaching content of the Waldorf school in three so-called 'curriculum lectures'. He added this information when he took part in the teachers' conference at this school from 1919 to 1924. According to Steiner, Caroline von Heydebrand put together a first written curriculum, Karl Stockmeyer compiled all of Steiner's statements on the curriculum and published it in 1955. Since 2003, Tobias Richter has published a collection of topics sorted by grade level that is now taught in Waldorf schools. In addition to Steiner's information, the changed requirements of the present day (e.g. computer science classes) are also included. Ehrenhard Skiera remarks on Steiner's curriculum information, which is still an essential basis for today's Waldorf schools, that they ensure an 'amazing content and methodological continuity and identity across times, national borders and continents'. Steiner commented on almost all teaching areas and repeatedly made the 'connection with the whole' clear.

Performance differentiation and performance appraisal

Waldorf schools are committed to a holistic education and therefore largely avoid a differentiation in performance, as is practiced in mainstream schools through the classic grading. Students with different intellectual, social, emotional and / or motor skills are taught in one class. Individual support is sought through a holistic approach, an external differentiation into different performance classes takes place at the earliest in the upper level. A "remaining seated" there is not therefore.

Final grades are not awarded up to the 8th grade; instead, “a verbal characteristic is created in the school report that is intended to reflect the student's learning and character as well as an incentive to continue learning”. In this way, learning progress and achievements that cannot be adequately expressed by the usual school grades are recognized in particular. At the request of the parents or at the request of the pupils, a number certificate is issued in addition to the text certificate at some Waldorf schools from the ninth or tenth grade. Assessments of points for vocabulary tests in foreign language classes or for exams in specialist classes are also widespread. As a rule, however, an individual assessment is also added in addition to the number of points. At Waldorf schools in English-speaking countries, this generally happens in the higher grades. If state-recognized degrees are awarded, these are issued as grade certificates.

Teacher training

As of the 2009/2010 academic year, Waldorf teacher training at the Free University of Stuttgart has been modularized as part of the Bologna process and divided into Bachelor and Master courses.

The Bachelor Waldorf Education is a full-time course. The prerequisite is the general or subject-specific higher education entrance qualification or a comparable previous education and / or the passing of an aptitude test. After 3 years it leads to a first professional qualification.

The Bachelor's degree in Waldorf Education is a prerequisite for the consecutive master’s course to become a class and subject teacher at Waldorf schools . Alternatively, an equivalent degree can also be recognized.

The non-consecutive master’s degree programs require a completed teaching degree or a completed academic degree (diploma or master’s) in one of the subjects. The non-consecutive master’s courses are currently (as of October 2009) the only accredited courses.

Organizational and legal background

The German Waldorf schools have come together as a registered association to form a Federation of Independent Waldorf Schools based in Stuttgart. The federal association leaves the autonomy of the individual Waldorf schools untouched, but takes on common tasks and interests. Corporate members are currently 208 Waldorf and Rudolf Steiner schools as well as eight seminars / universities for Waldorf education. There are also around 1,900 personal members.

Trademark rights

The name Waldorf School has the trademark registrations of the word mark Waldorf Schutz as word mark. The word mark Waldorf is from the Bund der Freie Waldorfschulen eV (Wagenburgstraße 6, 70184 Stuttgart) as word mark for Europe ( Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market (brands, designs and models) , Avenida de Europa, 4, E-03008 Alicante, Spain (OHIM) ) and worldwide ( World Intellectual Property Organization , 34, chemin des Colombettes CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland (WIPO)) under several registration numbers.

As the owner of the trademark rights, the Bund der Freie Waldorfschulen eV has influence on the use of the “Waldorf” name and can, if necessary, prohibit it. The right to name a school Waldorf is linked to membership in the named association.


Organic shapes on the playground

Each Waldorf school is an autonomous organization, which is managed through collegial self-administration by parents and teachers together, i.e. without a management in the usual sense. Pedagogical and organizational decisions are made by the weekly teachers' conference , which is also attended by the manager and the school doctor. Special fields of work are delegated to smaller groups of people within the staff (e.g. building group, financial group or fixed group). The board of directors of the sponsoring association is economically responsible and can delegate management tasks. Schulträger is mostly an association whose members can be parents and teachers.

The Waldorf schools in Germany are organized in the Federation of Free Waldorf Schools eV , which sees itself as a federal association and practically does not interfere with the autonomy of the individual schools. As the trademark owner, however, he has influence on the use of the “Waldorf” name and can prohibit it if necessary. Start-ups are not planned from a central point, but are based on private initiatives by parents or educators, whose advice is provided by the federal government, both nationally and internationally.

The autonomy creates a strong, individual profiling of the schools. Statements that apply to one Waldorf school may not apply to another because each school develops its own concept.

The worldwide Waldorf movement includes a number of transnational committees , each with different areas of responsibility. These include the Pedagogical Section at the Goetheanum , the European Council for Steiner Waldorf Education ( ECSWE ) and the International Association for Waldorf Education in Central, Eastern Europe and countries further east ( IAO ).

Legal position in Germany

In terms of German school law , Waldorf schools are, depending on the federal state, state-approved or recognized, independent , general- education alternative schools with a special educational character. The state school inspectorate only checks their equivalence to public schools, but otherwise has no right to issue instructions.

The schools are financed, based on their approval or recognition as substitute schools, through state subsidies on the one hand and income-related school fees set by the respective schools on the other. In 2012, the average parental contributions for school fees and investments were 2,052 euros a year.

School degrees

Play equipment close to nature

At Waldorf schools, all examinations for the state school qualifications possible in the respective federal state are offered. The actual range of degrees available varies by state and school. The regular school time at German Waldorf schools is twelve years up to the Waldorf qualification and thirteen years up to the Abitur. None of the Waldorf schools in Germany has joined the shortening to G8. In 2006, 48 percent of the approx. 5,000 Waldorf school leavers in Germany received the Abitur , 8 percent the technical college entrance qualification , 33 percent the Realschule and 7 percent the Hauptschule certificate .

Most Waldorf schools offer an additional thirteenth grade to prepare students for the Abitur or advanced technical college entrance qualification. Instead of the Waldorf-typical, practical lessons, they receive in-depth lessons in the subjects relevant to the Abitur. In Bavaria , Baden-Wuerttemberg , Hesse , Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , Lower Saxony , Saxony and, since 2008, also in North Rhine-Westphalia , the state central high school diploma is written. In contrast to the public schools, only the results of the Abitur examination and not the annual performance are relevant for the Abitur grade in most subjects. Hesse is an exception, where grades 11 to 13 of the Waldorf Schools are officially recognized as upper secondary schools and therefore the annual performance is included in the Abitur grade. In Brandenburg there is the possibility of a portfolio examination in one examination subject .

The so-called Waldorf school diploma marks the end of the 12-year educational concept of the Waldorf schools. In Germany, in contrast to other European countries, the Waldorf school certificate is not recognized by the state. There is no final examination in the usual sense, the assessment runs as a modular process through the entire upper level and includes, in addition to a final assessment of the school performance, various internships (agricultural internship, industrial internship, social internship), a technical work or the so-called annual work with a theoretical and a practical part, participation in a theater project for the whole class, the eurythmy graduation and usually also a study trip with an artistic or art-historical orientation.


The public and academic debate about Waldorf education is characterized by controversies and opposing positions. For a long time, this discourse on the pedagogy of Waldorf schools and their foundations has often been shortened on one side. Some judge it as a very successful educational reform alternative to the public school system in practice, ignoring the controversial anthroposophical principles. Others subject precisely this ideal basis to a fundamental criticism and immediately attach a negative assessment of the sustainability of Waldorf school practice to it. More recent developments in the technical-scientific discourse can be found in particular in the dialogue with educationalists initiated by Waldorf educators and in the empirical study of Waldorf schools.

Reform pedagogical reception

Hermann Röhrs , a proven expert on the subject of reform pedagogy, first examined the relationship between Waldorf School and National Socialism before coming to an assessment: Reform pedagogy is about “keeping young people at a distance from the civilizational backdrop to reflect and activate their own strengths bring to". Similarities between National Socialism and reform pedagogical ideas consist mainly in the high valuation of physical work, in sport and in community education. The crucial difference, however, is that the most important goal of reform pedagogy was "the formation of individuality". The community is subordinate, it has to serve this goal. Reform pedagogy is - in contrast to National Socialism - about "reflecting on and discussing one's own actions". Röhrs judges: "These reform pedagogical endeavors find their clearest expression in art education in their varieties of singing, amateur play and the design of the various projects within the school community".

On this basis, Röhrs certifies that today's Waldorf schools embody “evidence of original pedagogical ideas” and “exemplary design ability”. They not only kept their educational reform goal, but even “developed it further”. Steiner's “world of thought” must be regarded as a “constitutive element of international reform pedagogy”. Behind the names of Steiner and other reform pedagogues there is an educational practice with "human-forming power", which is also confirmed by students and young teachers. When visiting these relevant reform education schools it becomes tangible “how lively school work can be designed and how trusting the teacher-student relationship can be.” Under the chapter heading: 'Outlook: Reform education and its utopian sense of reality' a. also attests to the educational practice of Waldorf schools that they are “currently still among the most capable of shaping educational reality”.

According to a 2012 study, Waldorf students suffered less from sleep disorders and nervousness and, on the other hand, had more fun learning and a better teacher relationship. However, they felt less prepared for state exams.

Reception critical of ideology

Critical authors mostly question the scientific claim of anthroposophy and thus also the scientific quality of the anthropology and pedagogy derived from it. They criticize: 'Steiner represented views which he claimed he had gained through clairvoyant insight into higher worlds. He insisted that they should be considered sufficient as a scientific method. ' These critics deny this, however, with reference to the lack of intersubjective verifiability of his claims to this day. They accuse Steiner's worldview of pseudoscientificism and pre-scientific dogmatism . The representatives of Waldorf education still hold fast to the theoretical foundation of their work in Steiner's anthroposophy.

Racism allegation


Main article: Anthroposophy → Racism allegations

The debate about racist or anti-Semitic statements in Steiner's writings and stenographed lecture cycles repeatedly attracts public interest .

In the Netherlands there was a public discussion in 1996 after the subject 'Racial Studies / Ethnology' was included in the curriculum at a Dutch school and a member of the Anthroposophical Society defended Steiner's problematic statements in a radio interview.

The Dutch Anthroposophical Society in 1996 therefore commissioned an investigation into anthroposophy and the question of races . Steiner's complete works were examined for racist and discriminatory passages. The result of this investigation was that on approx. 89,000 printed pages a total of 62 points were objected to, "of which 12 statements that could be punishable in the Netherlands and 50 further statements that could possibly be perceived as discriminatory". In an interim report from 1998, the allegation of racism is rejected. The investigation comes to the conclusion: "Claims that racism would be inherent in anthroposophy, or that Steiner would have been one of the pioneers of the Holocaust, are completely unfounded" and: "Rudolf Steiner's anthroposophical image of man is based on the equality of all human individualities and not on a supposed superiority of one race over another. Nonetheless, Rudolf Steiner's oeuvre contains statements that, according to today's standards, have a discriminatory character or can be experienced in a discriminatory manner ”.

The ARD magazine Report reported in 2000 that the book by the anthroposophist Ernst Uehli Atlantis and the Riddle of Ice Age Art, published in 1936, was discovered on a literature list for Waldorf teachers in 1998, even though it contained racist statements. The Federal Ministry of Family Affairs submitted an application for indexing. The Association of Free Waldorf Schools removed the book from the list and, according to the WDR, forbade teachers to use the book. The Swiss publisher withdrew the book from circulation.

Reaction of the Waldorf schools

In 2007 the Association of Independent Waldorf Schools published the so-called Stuttgart Declaration in response to the recurring discussion of racism. In this declaration, Waldorf schools take a public stand against racism, nationalism and discrimination . The Waldorf Schools are aware "that, according to today's understanding, isolated formulations in Rudolf Steiner's entire work do not correspond to this basic direction and have a discriminatory effect."

In the past, the Federation of Independent Waldorf Schools has often defended itself against critical reports - sometimes in advance - with “court proceedings, requests for counter-representation and injunctive relief”. Waldorf-critical journalists and authors reported, among other things, calls for protests, insults and defamations. Following Helmut Zander , the Waldorf schools “often willy-nilly ” faced the debates; the frequent step of bringing disputes to the court is "understandable with regard to individual polemics, [but] overall, it leaves the impression that Waldorf educators often continue to struggle with criticism."

Waldorf schools as epidemic centers for measles

Waldorf schools have repeatedly formed the center of measles epidemics , because children of parents with reservations about vaccinations are represented there more than average. In 2008, a study found that they were a particularly vulnerable group for the disease to spread. Six out of nine of the major measles outbreaks in schools and kindergartens between 2005 and 2009 occurred in Waldorf and Montessori institutions in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. When a measles outbreak occurred at a Waldorf school in Essen in 2010, the health department found that 41 percent of the students there were unvaccinated. In a measles outbreak in a Waldorf school in the Rhein-Erft district in 2014, the health department determined that 43 percent of the students there had adequate vaccination protection; nationwide, the protection rate for students from other types of schools was around 95 percent. In 2010 in Berlin, 2011 in Offenburg, 2018 in Freiburg or 2019 in Biel / Bienne, schools were at the center of the measles epidemics.


  • Volker Frielingsdorf: History of Waldorf Education. From its origins to the present . Beltz Verlag, Weinheim and Basel 2019, 448 pages

Anthroposophic literature

  • Rudolf Steiner: The education of the child from the point of view of spiritual science. Futurum, Dornach 2011, ISBN 978-3-85636-361-1 . (Basic essay by Steiner from 1907)
  • Johannes Kiersch: Waldorf Education. An introduction to Rudolf Steiner's pedagogy. Free Spiritual Life, Stuttgart 1970; 13. A. ibid. 2015, ISBN 978-3-7725-2684-8 .
  • Stefan Leber (Ed.): Waldorf School today. Introduction to the ways of life in a pedagogy. Free Spiritual Life, Stuttgart 1993; 3rd act. A. ibid. 2001, ISBN 978-3-7725-1221-6 .
  • Tobias Richter (Hrsg.): Educational mandate and teaching goals - from the curriculum of the Waldorf school. Free Spiritual Life, Stuttgart 2003; 4th ext. A. ibid. 2016, ISBN 978-3-7725-2669-5 .
  • Irene Groh, Mona Ruef: Education and teaching as preventive medicine. Medical Section at the Goetheanum, Dornach 2002, ISBN 3-7235-1187-2 .
  • Rudolf Steiner: Lessons and Health. Collection of sources, compiled by Tomas Zdrazil. Edition Waldorf, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-927286-67-2 .
  • Wenzel M. Götte, Peter Loebell, Klaus-Michael Maurer: Development tasks and competencies. To the educational plan of the Waldorf school. Free Spiritual Life, Stuttgart 2009; 2. A. ibid. 2016, ISBN 978-3-7725-2596-4 .
  • Peter Selg: The spiritual core of the Waldorf school. Ita Wegman Institute publishing house, Arlesheim 2009; 4. A. ibid. 2017, ISBN 978-3-9523425-6-5 .
  • Valentin Wember: What does Waldorf really want? Stratosverlag, Tübingen 2019, ISBN 978-3-943731-28-6 .

Educational debate

  • Heiner Barz , Dirk Randoll, Sylvia Liebenwein: Educational experiences at Waldorf schools: Empirical study on school quality and learning experiences. VS, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-531-18508-8 .
  • Heiner Barz, Dirk Randoll: Graduates from Waldorf schools. An empirical study on education and lifestyle. VS, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-531-15405-3 .
  • Fritz Bohnsack, Ernst-Michael Kranich (Ed.): Educational science and Waldorf education. Beltz, Weinheim 1990, ISBN 3-407-34050-8 .
  • Inge Hansen-Schaberg (Ed.): Reform pedagogical school concepts. Volume 6: Waldorf Education. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2002. (2nd amendment A. ibid. 2006, ISBN 3-8340-0042-6 )
  • Otto Hansmann (Ed.): Pros and Cons of Waldorf Education. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1987, ISBN 3-88479-263-6 .
  • Ulrike Luise Keller: career changer. Change from the state primary school to the Waldorf school. VS, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-531-16364-2 .
  • Heiner Ullrich: Authority and School. The empirical reconstruction of the class teacher-student relationships in Waldorf schools. VS, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-531-15359-9 .
  • Heiner Ullrich: Waldorf education and occult worldview. Juventa, Weinheim 1986, ISBN 3-7799-0664-3 .
  • Stephan Geuenich: Waldorf Education in the 21st Century. A critical discussion . Lit, Berlin a. a. 2009, ISBN 978-3-643-10347-5 .

Other critical literature

  • Peter Bierl: root races, archangels and folk spirits. Concrete literature, Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-89458-171-9 .
  • Rüdiger Iwan: The new Waldorf school. A successful model is being renovated. Rowohlt, Reinbek 2007, ISBN 978-3-498-03228-9 .
  • Sybille-Christin Jakob, Detlef Drewes: Chatted from the Waldorf school. Why the Steiner pedagogy is not an alternative. 2nd, revised edition. Alibri, Aschaffenburg 2004, ISBN 3-932710-84-3 .
  • Susanne Lippert: Steiner and Waldorf Education. Myth and Reality. Luchterhand, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-472-04754-2 .
  • Klaus Prange : Education for Anthroposophy. Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn 1985. (3rd amendment, ibid. 2000, ISBN 3-7815-1089-1 )
  • Paul-Albert Wagemann, Martina Kayser: How free is the Waldorf School? Heyne, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-453-09147-7 .
  • Irene Wagner: Rudolf Steiner's long shadow. The occult background of Waldorf & Co. Alibri, Aschaffenburg 2013, 2nd corr. A., ISBN 978-3-86569-069-2 .

Web links

Commons : Waldorf School  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Waldorf School  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations



  • Maria Knilli : Waldorf long-term documentary, part 1, good morning, dear children : the first three years in the Waldorf school (2010), Bavarian television, May 9, 2017 BR Mediathek ; Part 2, A Bridge into the World : Fourth to sixth grade in the Waldorf School (2013), Bavarian TV, May 10, 2017 BR Mediathek ; Part 3, On my way (2017), Seventh and eighth grade in the Waldorf School, Bavarian Television, May 16, 2017 BR Mediathek

Individual evidence

  1. ^ BFW overview of schools
  2. Rudolf Steiner: General human studies as the basis of pedagogy. Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach 1993, ISBN 3-7274-2930-5 ( online ).
  3. a b Bund der Freie Waldorfschulen (ed.): More and more Waldorf schools, especially in the country . November 19, 2018 ( waldorfschule.de [accessed November 19, 2018]).
  4. Address directory of Waldorf schools, Waldorf kindergartens and training centers worldwide. April 1, 2018, accessed May 19, 2018 .
  5. Ann-Dorit Boy: Russia's Waldorf Schools are Endangered Exotics - Rudolf Steiner Pedagogy has a difficult time in Russia (also an interview with the educational scientist Vladimir Sagwosdkin) . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . No. 260 . Zurich November 7, 2011, p. 44 .
  6. Heiner Ullrich: Rudolf Steiner. In: Heinz-Elmar Tenorth (ed.): Classics of Pedagogy 2. From John Dewey to Paulo Freire. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-406-49441-2 , p. 68.
  7. ^ Hans Schmidt: Rudolf Steiner's lecture work. Dornach 1978, quoted from: Rudolf Steiner lectures. Bielefeld University
  8. Rudolf Steiner: The education of the child from the point of view of spiritual science. Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach 1969, ISBN 3-7274-5059-2 .
  9. cf. Albert Schmelzer: The threefolding movement 1919. Rudolf Steiner's commitment to self-administration. Free Spiritual Life, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-7725-1080-9 , p. 156.
  10. cf. Heiner Ullrich: Reform educational school culture with an ideological character - educational principles and forms of the Waldorf school. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 174.
  11. ^ E. Skiera: Reform pedagogy in the past and present. A critical introduction. Oldenbourg, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-486-27413-9 .
  12. Detlef Hardorp: The German Waldorf School Movement in the Time of National Socialism. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts. Vol. 6. Waldorf Education. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 135.
  13. ^ Prussian Secret State Police Berlin, November 1, 1935, StAM LR 17 134354, BAD Z / B 1 904, BAK R 43 II / 822, quoted from Walter Kugler: Feindbild Steiner. 2001, p. 11 f.
  14. ↑ In detail in Uwe Werner: Anthroposophen in der Zeit des Nationalozialismus (1933–1945) , Munich 1999.
  15. 100 years of Waldorf - timeline
  16. cf. Detlef Hardorp: Two key biographical experiences of Rudolf Steiner. For the development and expansion of Waldorf education. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts. Vol. 6. Waldorf Education. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 44.
  17. ^ First Waldorf School in the GDR , Tagesspiegel, September 29, 2010.
  18. ^ Waldorf schools conquer the GDR , taz, April 28, 1990.
  19. ^ Waldorf in the GDR? , taz, April 7, 1990.
  20. "We are not interested in teaching our 'dogmas', our principles, the content of our worldview to the developing human being." In: Rudolf Steiner: Allgemeine Menschkunde als Basis der Pädagogik. 9th edition. Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach 1993, ISBN 3-7274-2930-5 , p. 211./ “Above all, I would never found anthroposophical schools. The anthroposophists would have to rearrange the methods and the organization, but never teach anthroposophy. First, we need to understand freedom of thought. We must avoid ideological schools most of all. ”Rudolf Steiner on April 24, 1919 in a representative meeting of the“ Federation for Threefolding of the Social Organism ”, quoted from EA Stockmeyer: Rudolf Steiner's statements for Waldorf instruction. 6th edition. Pedagogical Research Center, Stuttgart 2001, (see Waldorf font catalog ), p. 13.
  21. Heiner Ullrich: Reform educational school culture with ideological stamping - educational principles and forms of the Waldorf school. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 147.
  22. Heiner Ullrich: Rudolf Steiner. In: HE Tenorth (Ed.): Klassiker der Pädagogik 2. 2003, p. 66.
  23. a b Rudolf Steiner: The education of man from the point of view of spiritual science. Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach 2003, ISBN 3-7274-5260-9 , p. 37.
  24. Rudolf Steiner: The education of man from the point of view of spiritual science. Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach 2003, ISBN 3-7274-5260-9 , p. 52.
  25. cf. Rudolf Steiner: Waldorf Education. Seminar reviews and curriculum presentations. 4th edition. Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach 1984, ISBN 3-7274-2950-X , p. 9 ff.
  26. Immanuel Kant already described education as art (cf. Immanuel Kant (2000): About Pedagogy. In: Wilhelm Weischedel (Hrsg.): Writings on Anthropology, Philosophy of History, Politics and Pedagogy 2nd Vol. 1. Frankfurt am Main, p. 702.) What Steiner understood by Waldorf Education is the subject of various discussions and debates. See Johannes Kiersch: Waldorf Education. An introduction to Rudolf Steiner's pedagogy. 11th edition. Free Spiritual Life & Urachhaus publishing house, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-7725-2165-2 , p. 18 ff.
  27. For the physics class presented in detail by Manfred von Mackensen: Sound, brightness and warmth. Phenomenological physics lessons in grades 6 to 8 at Waldorf schools. 6th edition. Pedagogical Research Center at the Association of Free Waldorf Schools, Kassel 2005, (see Waldorf catalog of publications ). Briefly and more generally with Heiner Ullrich: Reform pedagogical school culture with ideological stamping - pedagogical principles and forms of the Waldorf school. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 166.
  28. Heiner Ullrich: Reform educational school culture with ideological stamping - educational principles and forms of the Waldorf school. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 153.
  29. Caroline v. Heydebrand: From the curriculum of the free Waldorf school. 7th edition. Stuttgart 1983.
  30. Stefan Leber quoted. according to Heiner Ullrich: Reform educational school culture with ideological stamping - educational principles and forms of the Waldorf school. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 153.
  31. R. Steiner: Waldorf Education, Methodical-Didactic. Freiburg 1948, p. 238.
  32. Rudolf Steiner: Waldorf Education. Seminar discussions and curriculum presentations (III) 4th edition. Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach 1984, ISBN 3-7274-2950-X .
  33. ^ Caroline von Heydebrand: From the curriculum of the free Waldorf school. 10th edition. Free Spiritual Life Publishing House, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-7725-0200-8 .
  34. ^ EA Karl Stockmeyer: Rudolf Steiner's statements for Waldorf instruction. 6th edition. Pedagogical Research Center at the Federation of Free Waldorf Schools, Stuttgart 2001, (see Waldorf catalog of publications ).
  35. Tobias Richter: Pedagogical mandate and teaching goals. From the Waldorf school curriculum. 3. Edition. Free Spiritual Life Publishing House, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-7725-2569-8 .
  36. All content information on this section comes from the website Freie Hochschule Stuttgart - Seminar for Waldorf Education. ( Memento from March 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  37. see database overview of accredited study programs - Master. ( Memento of November 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) of the AQAS accreditation agency - as well as the database of accredited study programs. of the Accreditation Council of the Foundation for the Accreditation of Study Programs in Germany. (As of October 2009)
  38. Own representation in connection with the defense of trademark rights ( Memento from September 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  39. ^ Office for Harmonization in the Internal Market
  40. ^ World Intellectual Property Organization
  41. ^ Trade Mark View
  42. z. B. see Association of Independent Waldorf Schools: Waldorf Schools prohibit NPD name abuse. ( Memento of October 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  43. z. B. see Association of Independent Waldorf Schools: Waldorf Schools prohibit NPD name abuse. ( Memento of October 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  44. cf. Heiner Ullrich: Reform educational school culture with an ideological character - educational principles and forms of the Waldorf school. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 143.
  45. cf. Walter Hiller: The Federation of Free Waldorf Schools. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 275 ff.
  46. a b cf. Heiner Ullrich: Strange anachronism or pioneering model? The Free Waldorf School in pedagogical discourse and in educational research. In: Inge Hansen-Schaberg, Bruno Schonig: Basic knowledge of pedagogy. Reform pedagogical school concepts Volume 6: Waldorf pedagogy. Schneider Verlag Hohengehren, Baltmannsweiler 2002, ISBN 3-89676-503-5 , p. 195.
  47. Henning Kullak-Ublick: What does it cost to attend a Waldorf school? , Bund der Freie Waldorfschulen eV, accessed on April 3, 2017.
  48. ^ Association of Independent Waldorf Schools: Exams and degrees at Waldorf schools. ( Memento from September 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: Blickpunkt. No. 5, 2010, p. 5.
  49. Georg Rothe: Vocational training in Germany: The EU reform program “Lisbon 2000” as a challenge for the development of new ways of professional qualification in lifelong learning. Volume 14 of materials on occupational and work education, KIT Scientific Publishing, Karlsruhe 2008, ISBN 978-3-86644-258-0 , p. 186.
  50. Department of Educational Economics at the Free University for Anthroposophical Education Mannheim: School leavers by type of degree in Germany 2006. (PDF file; 22 kB)
  51. Closing portfolio : [1]
  52. a b c cf. Heiner Ullrich: Rudolf Steiner. In: Heinz-Elmar Tenorth (ed.): Classics of Pedagogy 2. From John Dewey to Paulo Freire. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-406-49441-2 , p. 71.
  53. Heiner Barz: "Protect against printing notes" . In: Handelsblatt . No. 233, November 30, 2012, ISSN  0017-7296 , pp. 70 f.
  54. Heiner Ullrich: Rationalized Mystik. Problem-historical comments on the "epistemological" basics of Waldorf education. In: Otto Hansmann (Ed.): Pros and Cons of Waldorf Education. Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 1987, ISBN 3-88479-263-6 .
  55. Klaus Prange: Education for Anthroposophy. 3. Edition. Julius Klinkhardt, Bad Heilbrunn / Obb. 2000, ISBN 3-7815-1089-1 , especially p. 59 ff.
  56. ^ A b c Petrus van der Let: Questionable views of Rudolf Steiner on races. In: TANGRAM - Bulletin of the Federal Commission against Racism, No. 6 March 1999, pp. 50–52.
  57. a b Christoph Lindenberg: On the tendency and technique of the statements by Petrus van der Let. In: TANGRAM - Bulletin of the Federal Commission against Racism, No. 6 . March 1999, pp. 53-56.
  58. M. Leist, L. Ravagli, H.-J. Bader: Racial ideals are the decline of humanity - anthroposophy and the accusation of anti-Semitism. 3. Edition. of the study, ISBN 3-7725-1916-4 .
  59. WDR: "Focus on school - 85 years ago: First Waldorf school opened - Reform pedagogy with" root races "?" ( Memento from January 19, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
  60. ^ Association of Free Waldorf Schools: Stuttgart Declaration. ( Memento from March 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 597 kB) Waldorf Schools Against Discrimination, October 28, 2007.
  61. Arno Frank: Intimidation the Waldorf way. In: taz. August 4, 2000.
  62. ^ Helmut Zander: Anthroposophy in Germany. Volume 1. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2007, p. 1453. ( Preview on Google Books )
  63. C. Poethko-Müller, A. Mankert: Vaccination and prevalence of IgG antibodies against measles in children and adolescents in Germany , Federal Health Gazette 2013, p. 1249 (based on: Schmid D, Holzmann H, Abele S et al (2008) An ongoing multi-state outbreak of measles linked to non-immune anthroposophic communities in Austria, Germany, and Norway, March – April 2008. Euro Surveill 13: 18838 )
  64. Immune to Reason , Der Spiegel 10/2015
  65. Hedwig Roggendorf: Measles outbreak at a Waldorf school in Essen , Robert Koch Institute , Epidemiological Bulletin 23/2010, p. 221 ff
  66. Sebastian Thole, Anna Maisa: Measles outbreak in a Waldorf school in 2013 in Erftstadt , Robert Koch Institute, Epidemiological Bulletin 33/2014, pp. 297–301
  67. ^ Measles alert at Freiburg school , On the matter of Baden-Württemberg! , SWR television , May 6, 2018
  68. Niklaus Salzmann: Compulsory schooling because of measles: already 12 cases at Steiner School - why that is no coincidence. In: Aargauer Zeitung. Retrieved on February 27, 2019 (Swiss Standard German).
  69. Andreas Sentker: Harmloser Stich , Die Zeit 29/2013
  70. Professor of the Alanus University publishes the first comprehensive account of the history of Waldorf schools
  71. Are Waldorf schools the better alternative? , welt.de , May 16, 2017
  • ( S ) E. Skiera: Reform pedagogy in the past and present. A critical introduction. Oldenbourg, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-486-27413-9 .
  1. p. 233.
  2. p. 239.
  3. a b c p. 261.
  4. a b c p. 248.
  5. p. 249.
  • ( R ) H. Röhrs: Reform pedagogy and internal educational reform. Beltz, Weinheim 1998, ISBN 3-89271-825-3 .
  1. a b c p. 49f.
  2. a b c d p. 90 f.
  3. p. 138.
  4. p. 148.
  5. p. 152.
  6. p. 161.