Bologna process

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The Bologna Process is a transnational higher education reform aimed at Europe-wide standardization of courses and degrees as well as international student mobility, which is aimed at creating a unified European higher education area . The term goes back to a political-programmatic declaration signed in 1999 by 29 European education ministers in Bologna , Italy .

Key elements of the intentioned convergence process is a two-tier system professionally qualifying degrees (typically in the form of Bachelor and Master ), the continuous establishment of the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS), a continuous quality assurance in higher education, and especially in Germany on employability (employability) The courses are geared towards the labor market. Critical observers of the Bologna Process sometimes note that the supranational level has been politically instrumentalized in order to nevertheless achieve reform goals that could not have been achieved at national level alone, with reference to European harmonization efforts and global adjustment pressures.

The accompanying criticism of the radical change in the higher education system associated with the Bologna Process is aimed both at the practical effects on higher education teaching and students (including inadequate preparation and resources at the universities, material overload of the standard courses and excessive, overly fragmented examination practice) and the possible or actual consequences for the university system resulting from this (including increasing separation of research and teaching; schooling of higher education at the expense of individual academic freedom and maturity; market-oriented university structures dependent on third-party funding , neglecting basic research ).

Origin context

On the occasion of the 900th year of the founding of the University of Bologna , the oldest European university, 388 university presidents from all over the world signed a Magna Charta Universitatum in Bologna in 1988 , in which the universities, as autonomous core social institutions, assigned an important role for the close ties to be developed between all the nations of Europe becomes. The inalienable unity and freedom of research and teaching as well as the educational interests of the students worthy of protection are emphasized as well as the necessary intensive promotion of the research-related exchange of information between the European universities as well as the transnational mobility of teachers and students.

The Council of Europe worked with UNESCO on April 11, 1997 in the Lisbon Convention to draw up a first international agreement on the mutual recognition of degrees . In it, the principle of mutual recognition of all degrees of the signatory states was agreed. In return, each country should be allowed to define additional conditions for continuing a course of study that has already started abroad within its own limits, whereby the procedure should be transparent.

The initiative to standardize existing European university operations goes back to a joint declaration by the education ministers of France , Germany , Italy and the United Kingdom in 1998. The occasion was celebrations for the 800th anniversary of the Sorbonne . Because of the place where it was signed, this Joint Declaration on the Harmonization of the Architecture of European Higher Education of May 25, 1998 became known as the Sorbonne Declaration . It already provided for a two-tier system of professional degrees. A semester abroad for students should be specifically promoted; Achievements made abroad were to be recognized in future in an open European area for higher education on the basis of the ECTS credit point system. Foreign language skills and the use of new information technologies should be promoted as important general qualifications.

On June 19, 1999, the representatives of the participating countries signed the Bologna Declaration in the Aula Magna of the University of Bologna . As a result, the intentions set out in the Sorbonne Declaration were placed on a broader basis and in some cases made more concrete. Mechanisms for sustainable quality assurance in connection with the development of suitable benchmarks were also considered. The undersigned education ministers from 29 European nations also decided on regular follow-up conferences every two years and an implementation deadline of 2010. With a view to Europe's position in the world, it was said: “We need to ensure that the European higher education system acquires a world -wide degree of attraction equal to our extraordinary cultural and scientific traditions. ”(“ We must ensure that European universities are just as attractive worldwide as our extraordinary cultural and scientific traditions. ”)

As a justification for the implementation of the Bologna Process in Germany, despite great skepticism on the part of the federal states, which feared for educational sovereignty, the theory of the New Reason of State is often used: Through the Bologna Process, the federal government has largely transferred the responsibility for reforms in the higher education sector to the At the European level, hoping to overcome the reform backlog and no longer had to justify reforms.


The Bologna Process has three main objectives: to promote mobility, international competitiveness and employability. The sub-goals include:

  • the creation of a system of easily understandable and comparable degrees, also through the introduction of the Diploma Supplement ,
  • the creation of a two-tier system of degrees ( consecutive courses , undergraduate / graduate , implemented in Germany and Austria as Bachelor and Master ),
  • the introduction of a credit point system , the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS),
  • promoting mobility by removing barriers to mobility; This means not only spatial mobility, but also cultural skills and mobility between universities and educational programs,
  • promoting European cooperation in quality development,
  • the promotion of European in higher education,
  • lifelong or lifelong learning,
  • student participation (participation in all decisions and initiatives at all levels),
  • promoting the attractiveness of the European higher education area,
  • the interlocking of the European higher education area with the European research area , in particular through the integration of the doctoral phase in the Bologna process.

Organization and implementation

Participating States

According to the Bologna Declaration, the European Higher Education Area should be in place by 2010. However, the process has been difficult and with delays in the individual participating states, so that the time target has been postponed by another decade. This is an - at a purely legal level, non-binding - agreement between the education ministers of now 48 European countries. At the ministerial meetings that usually take place every two years (2001 in Prague , 2003 in Berlin , 2005 in Bergen , 2007 in London , 2009 in Leuven , 2010 in Vienna and Budapest , 2012 in Bucharest , 2015 in Yerevan , 2018 in Paris , 2020 in Rome ) they officially determine which goals are to be achieved with priority in the Bologna Process (e.g. regarding the convergence of study programs, student mobility or quality assurance in research and teaching). At the same time, the ministers are responsible for implementing the various concepts at the state level . They are supported in this by a working group at European level, the Bologna Follow-Up Group (BFUG), and national committees, the national Bologna groups.

In the BFUG, representatives of the various Bologna states and the European Union are working on concrete plans for the implementation of the Bologna goals, with European-wide associations of universities ( EUA and EURASHE ), students ( ESU ), business ( Businesseurope ) and of the Council of Europe . Other organizations such as CESAER or SEFI are unofficially involved in the Bologna Process by developing recommendations for individual areas. The BFUG meets several times a year to clarify open questions about the reforms and to report on progress.

The primarily important implementation levels in the Bologna Process, to which all participating countries have to make their contributions to ensure overall success, include the convergent structure and grading of the courses, the promotion of student mobility and the quality assurance of research and teaching.

Graduated cycles and degrees

One of the best-known results of the Bologna Process is the establishment of a system of three consecutive cycles in higher education. These cycles are defined in the Bergen Declaration through a rough framework of qualifications and ECTS credits .

  • 1st cycle: 180–240 ECTS credits; Bachelor qualification.
  • 2nd cycle: 60–120 ECTS credits; Master's qualification.
  • 3rd cycle: Doctoral studies with independent research; Doktor -grad / PhD / DBA (no ECTS basis; assumed workload of three to four years in full-time employment).

In bachelor's degree courses, scientific principles, methodological skills and professional field-related qualifications are imparted. Master’s courses are to be differentiated according to the profile types “more application-oriented” and “more research-oriented”. The academic degree of the 1st cycle is called Bachelor or Bachelor, the degree of the 2nd cycle is called Master or Magister, each supplemented by a subject-specific information ( of Arts , of Science , of the Sciences, etc.). Bachelor and master courses can be set up at universities as well as at universities of applied sciences.

In order to accredit a bachelor's or master's degree, it must be proven that the degree is modularized and equipped with a credit point system. In the case of consecutive courses, the total standard period of study may not exceed ten semesters (300 CP), which is usually implemented through a six-semester bachelor's degree and a subsequent four-semester master's degree. One year of full-time study corresponds to a scope of 60 ECTS or 1,500 to 1,800 hours assumed total effort for all learning tasks.

Student mobility and semesters abroad

A prominent common motive for the states participating in the Bologna Process is the internationalization of European universities, especially for the purpose of promoting student mobility. With the Erasmus program , the conditions have been created for this since 1987, which can be built upon: partial scholarships for over 200,000 students, which support study stays of up to one year at partner universities in another European country. The partnerships of the participating universities should include the recognition of academic achievements abroad for the individual courses and degrees.

The effects brought about by the Bologna Process with regard to the increase in semesters abroad and the improved recognition of academic achievements abroad have not yet been very pronounced for German students, for example. According to one estimate, there has been an increase in temporary study abroad from 19 to 27 percent of students. This number apparently also includes short language courses and internships. According to a study by the University Information System , in 2010 only seven percent of Bachelor and Master students actually studied abroad; In contrast, it was 23 percent for Diplom or Magister students, and 18 percent for state examination candidates. Student representatives complain that there is not much to be seen of the promised mobility. Studies have shown that the tightly timed Bachelor programs hardly leave room for a semester or internship abroad: "Even a simple change of location in Germany is often prevented by the tight module plans of the individual universities or colleges, also due to educational federalism."

A survey by the German Academic Exchange Service from 2009 states that only 50 percent of the study achievements achieved abroad are fully recognized (33 percent on the basis of preliminary agreements). By contrast, 18 percent of students found that their work abroad is not taken into account at all.

With regard to mobility issues in the Bologna Process, Ulrich Teichler points out that those responsible for higher education policy in the individual states may not have and are primarily concerned with the mobility of students in their own countries, but rather with making universities in Europe more attractive for students, for example from countries in East and Southeast Asia, so that they do not increasingly choose English-speaking countries.

Quality assurance and studyability

Since the Bologna Declaration, the target projection of a European Higher Education Area has been linked to the development of common criteria and methods of quality assurance for higher education in the European network. Accreditation procedures for universities and study programs were of primary importance . In particular, the German higher education system, which has been extensively affected by reorganization measures, should be reorganized.

An accreditation council initiated by the Standing Conference (KMK) with 18 members - which includes four representatives from the universities and the federal states, five representatives from professional practice, two students, two accreditation experts and one representative from the accreditation agencies - specifies the guidelines for the accreditation process and controls the activity of the accredited accreditation agencies . The criteria for the admission of study programs specified by the Accreditation Council include:

  • consistent combination of the individual study modules with regard to formulated qualification goals;
  • Information on the admission requirements and the recognition rules for work performed elsewhere;
  • concept-adequate study organization.

In order to ensure the studyability of the planned courses, the accreditation should be made dependent on, among other things:

  • appropriate curriculum design;
  • plausible information or assessments regarding student workload;
  • adequate and load-appropriate examination density and organization;
  • Supervision offers as well as specialist and interdisciplinary study advice.

A possible simplification of the so-called program accreditation - i.e. the above. Accreditation of individual study programs - it has recently come about through the possibility of system accreditation . The quality assurance for the courses offered is transferred back to individual universities after an accreditation agency has attested the relevant institution's suitability. As a test criterion, the Accreditation Council uses a university-wide quality assurance system in connection with the proof that at least one course has already passed through this system.

In 2016, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that the very general rules on the accreditation of study programs in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia , according to which study programs must be accredited by agencies “according to the applicable regulations”, were to be complied with with the Basic Law (Art. 5 (3) sentence 1 GG in Connection with Article 20 (3) GG) are incompatible. The legislature (in this case the state of North Rhine-Westphalia) assigned the quality control of university teaching to agencies organized under private law, which are in turn accredited by a state foundation, on the one hand without sufficient legislative requirements on the evaluation criteria, the procedures and the organization of the accreditation. On the other hand, the universities were not sufficiently involved in the scientifically adequate design of the procedure. Thus, the law intervened in the freedom of science. It also violates the principle of separation of powers. A new regulation must be found by the end of 2017. Many universities welcomed this decision.

Accompanying and sequelae in the German higher education system

The essential aspects of the Bologna Declaration were already included in the German university reform discussion of the 1990s and have already been partially tested with voluntary participation. However, according to the Science Council , the Bologna Process had a lasting and accelerating effect on the conversion to the new courses and their admission.

The national Bologna group in Germany consists of representatives from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD), the German Rectors' Conference ( HRK), the Conference of Ministers of Education (KMK), the free association of student bodies (FCS), the Federal Association of German Employers' Associations (BDA), the Education and Science Union (GEW), the Accreditation Council and the German Student Union (DSW). Together, she works out solutions for the implementation of the Bologna goals at the federal level, reports to the BFUG and conducts seminars on the various contents of the Bologna Process. The GEW has compiled an overview of important resolutions at the federal level for the implementation of the Bologna Process in Germany.

Differentiated courses of study

Within just a few years, the Bologna Process has produced an unimaginable variety of Bachelor and Master’s courses: more than 13,000 in the period from the beginning of the century to 2012. Among them were up to 2,000 accredited programs that are currently no longer offered, be it that they have expired, have been heavily modified or are operated under a new name. According to the Science Council, this also shows the dynamism of the range of courses in Germany.

While the reformed courses of study have on the one hand widely established themselves at German universities, on the other hand traditional things are maintained, and reversal movements can also be noted here and there. For example, on December 15, 2010, with the amendment of the University Act in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, use was made of the state's autonomy and the universities were again allowed to award the academic degree of graduate engineer . In Saxony it was decided to return to the previous four-year course with the state examination as a qualification due to the extended training period for elementary and secondary school teachers due to the Bachelor / Master system, which led to a decline in the number of students and the threat of teacher shortages . The conversion of the degree courses with state exams (teaching, medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, food chemistry and law) has only just got underway anyway.

The diversity of the newly created range of subjects, which has sometimes been critically observed, has already led to a large number of peculiar and original names in the Bachelor degree programs alone. There is talk of a “fragmentation of the range of courses into more and more specialized courses”, which makes the required transparency and comparability of degrees “almost impossible”.

Critics like Norbert Gebbeken , professor at the University of the Federal Armed Forces in Munich and 2nd Vice President of the Bavarian Chamber of Engineers, also speak of a " sham academization " through over-specialized courses, which led to a shift in responsibility for checking the comparability of the courses: "There was formerly there were three fields of study in civil engineering, namely structural engineering, water and transport, so today there are an additional 23 !, from archineering to industrial engineering. With this atomization of the courses, it is now up to the chambers of engineers to decide which of these courses still convey the necessary technical content so that the graduates can be viewed as engineers. "

As a means against the new confusion and for the creation of possibilities for comparison can u. U. serve the diploma supplement . It may be awarded in addition to the final certificate and lists the content and competencies imparted by the respective degree program in English. It is intended to promote transparency and thus improve the acceptance of degrees on national and international job markets.

Multiple overload

Despite the in some respects pioneering university reform discussion of the 1990s, those involved on the ground were apparently little prepared for the Bologna turnaround. Many university professors were opposed to the innovations and tried to save what could be saved from the traditional. However, the challenges also turned out to be considerable: new courses and examination procedures had to be designed, tested and, where necessary, revised. The previous courses (such as Diplom and Magister) had to be continued at the same time for all students who had started with them until they graduated, unless there was a change. In addition, if necessary, changes or requirements from the accreditation agencies were taken into account. Relief for the resulting additional effort was not intended - the universities were supposed to organize the radical reform operation from the available funds in a cost-neutral manner. “That this upheaval could be mastered with a simultaneous growth in the number of students and without a proportional, task-specific financial increase in the university budget is not a matter of course,” judged the Science Council. Inadequate staffing, equipment and space are among the serious deficits that are often identified in the conversion process.

Surveys of students about their experiences with the Bologna reform often speak of dissatisfaction with the quality of teaching, especially among teachers who appear to be less engaged. The tendency towards schooling, the high test load , unrealistic workload assumptions, too few options, neglect of competence development and a poor interlinking of theory and practice are also lamented.

The target of the German implementation of the Bologna Process provides for 1,800 working hours per year for a degree. This amount of time results from the fact that students should spend 40 hours per week on their studies and this in 45 weeks of the year, i.e. that is, approximately six weeks of vacation per year are allowed; added to this are the accumulated public holidays. It follows that 30 credit points (CP) must be acquired per semester and that an average student expends 30 hours of work per credit point, which are divided into attendance times, examination times, self-study and internships. Since the ECTS is usually implemented in such a way that partial grades are acquired through module examinations that accompany the course and weighted according to assigned credit points, the examination load is distributed significantly differently than previous diploma and master’s courses with their intermediate and final exams and is sometimes perceived as higher.

In the course of the introduction of the Bachelor / Master system, signs of excessive demands and stress increased among Bachelor students . This has meant that more and more students are also affected by burnout and depression . The danger of social selection due to the increased pressure on working students was also criticized by various advice centers and university psychologists.

At some universities, the subject matter of a four-year master’s degree was compressed into a three-year bachelor’s degree, which led to work overload and frustration. Proponents of the changeover emphasized that the modularization and the credit points system for the first time also take into account the preparation and follow-up time for the workload (the workload of the students) instead of just the on-site attendance time in weekly semester hours. If lecturers do not adhere to the time required by the university, this should not be seen as a criticism of the Bologna Process.

A large part of the work overload results from the fact that after the implementation of the Bologna Process, the examinations take place during the course. Did previous diploma and master’s courses require e.g. Sometimes only one or two exams per semester, so after the Bologna reform, each individual course was sometimes concluded with an examination, whereby the university lecturers tended to place the same quantitative and qualitative requirements on these examinations as before. With ten courses of two hours per week ( semester hours per week), this could, in extreme cases, amount to ten individual examinations, which also accumulated at the end of the semester. The nationwide student protests in autumn 2009 prompted the KMK to plan only one examination per module in the future in order to reduce the examination burden on students.

Precarious college funding

The state share in the financing of universities in Germany is almost 90 percent, the private financing share accordingly around ten percent. The federal states contribute around 80 percent of the total funding, the federal budget around ten percent. However, while the state basic funds almost stagnated in the period from 1995 to 2008, the external funding expenditure more than doubled. Despite this increase in third-party funding, the real total budget for research tasks remained more or less constant, while university teaching - into which hardly any third-party funding flows - came under greater pressure due to the significantly increased supervision requirements in the Bologna Process.

Tuition fees , which in 2008 made up an average of almost 5 percent of total university income, are hardly available in most federal states as a contribution to the financing of teaching after their abolition. At the same time, there is a lack of enough master’s study places; and the need for structural renovation is considerable in many places.

The employers' associations have criticized the fact that the claim to improved teaching quality associated with the Bologna reform failed due to the lack of the necessary financial resources. One complains about the low share of private financing with the consequence of a lack of demand orientation and underfunding. It must be financially possible for all young people to take up university studies.

In 2012, student representatives from North Rhine-Westphalian universities complained that public funding per study place had fallen by more than 20 percent adjusted for inflation since the 1970s. At some universities there are already seminars with around 600 participants. Occasionally, events are broadcast to other lecture halls via video stream. “We cannot and will not accept this loss of quality in teaching.” In other respects, too, there are unreasonable study conditions for financial reasons. Some students waited months for their BAföG application to be processed; many do not know how to pay their rent.

In an international comparison of the OECD countries, Germany was not among the top 20 in 2007 for the ratio of public education expenditure to gross domestic product . In higher education in particular, there has been a lamentation of relatively strong financial shortfalls in Germany over the past few decades: "Public spending would have to be tripled in order to reach the value per student in 1975 again." When considering the causes, the specific modalities of German educational federalism come into consideration . For individual federal states this would create incentives not to train themselves, as they would either have to fear that the successful university graduates would be “bought away” from them, or they could rely on being attractive enough for academic immigration anyway. In other federally organized states, according to Klemens Himpele, such free-riding is prevented either with a considerable share of the central level in the financing of higher education or with compensation systems between the individual member states.

Improvement ideas and excellence initiative

The shortage of funds at German universities, which is clearly evident in some areas, correlates with a comparatively low level of government spending on educational investments. In no member state of the OECD, according to the German Rectors' Conference (HRK), is the share of public expenditure on education in all public expenditure lower than in Germany. Targeted financial aid from the federal government for the higher education sector is currently made even more difficult by the primary state responsibility for the higher education institutions. The easing of the cooperation between the federal and state governments, called for by several sides, would require an amendment to the Basic Law , which is also supported by many university officials. In November 2014, the Bundestag laid the groundwork for this with a two-thirds majority. The amended text reads: "On the basis of agreements in cases of supra-regional importance, the federal government and the federal states can work together to promote science, research and teaching." As the federal government assumes the entire student loan costs in compliance with a federal state requirement in the course of this change, it is missing the 1.2 billion euros set aside for the support of individual universities. On the other hand, the 2020 University Pact can only serve as a makeshift way of making up for the double year-olds of high school graduates that are gradually pushing for higher education due to the shortening of the schooling period.

The precarious financial resources in teaching are also noticeable in such a way that the academic mid  -level staff working on qualification positions - lecturers and academic assistants below the life professorship - are usually only employed for a limited period, i.e. without permanent material security. In order to alleviate the situation of the “academic precariat” and to give at least outstanding doctoral candidates a reasonably motivating perspective, the function of junior professor was established. As a way of circumventing the federal restriction in university matters, the creation of so-called federal professorships has recently been proposed, which should relieve teaching, open up new research capacities and also offer better prospects for young academics.

With the excellence initiative of the federal government and the states to promote science and research at German universities , the Joint Commission of the German Research Foundation and the Science Council saw a unique movement, “a jolt”, triggered at German universities parallel to the Bologna process . In a multi-stage competition for clusters of excellence , graduate schools and future concepts in the competition between German universities, initially three, in 2007 a further six and in 2012 a total of 11 were established as so-called elite universities . As in the case of the use of third-party funds, research is the focus of the funding, since the federal government is significantly involved in the financing of the program.

The continuation of the Excellence Initiative and the projects it has initiated beyond 2017 has not yet been clarified. Because (only) until then does the promised financing extend. However, the additional burdens that competition has brought with it, and in some cases continues to generate, for profiting as well as for universities that have gone missing are not to be neglected. The Joint Commission of the DFG and the Science Council warns: “The additional tasks for scientists resulting from the establishment of new committee and organizational structures and the increasing formalization of coordination processes should be kept a critical eye. The big challenge is not to multiply the bureaucratic procedures (parallel structures) in such a way that they lead to overregulation and an unreasonable burden on scientists. "

Interim results after two decades

The introduction of the bachelor’s degree as a professional qualification and the basis for accelerating the start of working life by the graduates has only partially - and not as planned, mostly - led to success. Almost two thirds of Bachelor graduates go on to study for a Master’s degree, mainly because they expect better chances on the job market. For the time being, a master’s degree is required for a career in higher service at the federal and state levels .

According to the 2017 Study Quality Monitor of the German Center for University and Science Research (DZHW), a third of the students complain about a lack of flexibility in the design of the course, 50 percent are faced with too much material, and 40 percent consider the requirements for assessments to be too high.

The hope associated with the reform on a declining dropout rate among students has not yet been fulfilled. According to the DZHW, the drop-out rates in the subjects affected above average before 2005 are still above average. However, due to the more systematic examinations accompanying the course, the dropouts took place earlier than before the reform under Bologna conditions, so that the dropouts could reorient themselves more quickly.

The number of study semesters spent abroad has increased significantly. For German Erasmus students , the number of participants has increased from 15,000 to over 40,000 over the past 20 years. At least three quarters of the students are satisfied with the recognition of achievements abroad, which does not always go smoothly.

Situation in Austria and Switzerland

In Austria, the degree programs have largely been converted to the Bologna structure. The implementation also aimed at the secondary goal of shortening the duration of the studies. The 2011 Higher Education Quality Assurance Act (HS-QSG) introduced comparable quality assurance procedures for Austrian universities (public universities, technical colleges and private universities) from 2012. The HS-QSG thus forms the basis for quality assurance and accreditation procedures under the umbrella of an agency for quality assurance and accreditation that spans all types of universities: AQA.Austria .

As in Germany, violent protests against the workload and the schooling of the courses sparked. In October 2009 there was an occupation of the Audimax of the University of Vienna . The occupation was later extended to other universities and is considered the trigger for further protests, including in Germany. The criticism of the Bologna Process in Austria is aimed at a. against a “market-conform disciplining” of the students in a highly schooled “training company”, against education as an investment in the “Ich-AG” and against employability as a goal of the course. At around 80 percent, the transition rates from a Bachelor's to a Master's degree are much higher in Austria than in Germany. Protests in this area mainly refer to the fact that men are able to take up a master’s degree significantly more often than women.

The state universities in Switzerland (universities and universities of applied sciences) fall under the responsibility of the cantons, with the exception of the federal technical universities (ETH) in Zurich and Lausanne. However, because the federal government acts as the grantor, various ministries can influence the accreditation obligations of the various types of higher education institution. On September 30, 2011, Parliament passed a Law on Funding and Coordination of Universities (HEdA) which in future will make the right to designate, protect titles and access to federal grants dependent on mandatory institutional accreditation for all types of universities. Responsibility for this is transferred to the Swiss Accreditation Agency (AA), which is subordinate to the Swiss Accreditation Council (AR) .

Defect analysis and fundamental criticism

“The core of the change in the university education system in the past ten years has been the bachelor's degree as the 'first professional qualification'. Incidentally, the derivation of an unconditional demand for 'employability' of university graduates from the Bologna Declaration of 1998, which was only made in this country, has resulted in an almost complete transformation of the university's mission: away from 'general human education through science' towards vocational training. "

In the public reception and discussion associated with the Bologna Process, there is, on the one hand, critical and constructive support from influential contributors such as the University Rectors' Conference and the Science Council, and, on the other hand, examples of pronounced procedural and fundamental criticism - especially among humanities and social scientists - and finally approaches to organized resistance among students and in fields such as theology and medicine . Social interest groups such as employers' associations and trade unions are also trying to influence the changing university structures by articulating their own positions.

Aspects of deficit analysis

Although the Science Council appears to be an emphatic supporter of the Bologna reform program, it has so far hardly been able to determine any improvement in the quality of university teaching with the help of program accreditations. In particular, he complains about the poor student-to-professor relationship, especially in view of the growing need for intensive advice and supervision with the introduction of the tiered study structure. Related improvements, e.g. B. with the help of specialist centers for university teaching and by means of additional staffing at universities that focus on teaching, he regards as urgent. “The focus of all efforts should be on ensuring that students can study. For this purpose, it is important to structure the courses clearly in all subjects, to ensure the coordination of the content and timing of the courses, to make the level of requirements and learning objectives transparent. ”The Science Council has set similar priorities with regard to improving the quality of teaching in the latest demands for a future pact the science system , which should run until at least 2025.

In January 2015 , the journal Research and Teaching reported on a persistently deteriorating student-to-professor ratio. The number of professors teaching at German universities is increasing, but much more slowly than the number of students. In 2013 there were 26,580 professors (2003: 23,712) compared to around 1.7 million students (2003: approx. 1.4 million). According to the survey, there was an average of 65 students per professor in 2013; In 2003 it was still 62. According to a study by the Berlin Research Institute for Educational and Social Economics , the aforementioned ratio has developed particularly unfavorably in engineering.

The Humboldt Society is clearly negative about the development, implementation and previous results of the Bologna Process in Germany. It is a cardinal mistake to abandon the principle of the adapted retention of the tried and tested in favor of the completely new. The destruction of the internationally recognized German education system with its “proven graduation” Magister, diploma, state examination, doctorate and habilitation is incomprehensible to the Humboldt Society. The accreditation agencies are seen by her as superfluous, since the subject-related tasks belonged to the responsibility of the faculties. It is a bureaucratic monster that burdens university budgets with several hundred million euros per year and may not even be compatible with the Basic Law. The implementation of the Bologna Agreement is certified to have practically failed after ten years. The Humboldt-Gesellschaft u. a. the "human restoration of the long-term mid-level staff required to ensure the continuity of research and teaching as a supporting academic pillar"; in addition, elite funding for both students and young academics and teaching and research that is unaffected by the acquisition of third-party funding.

Deficit analysis and demands of the employers' associations, which welcome the Bologna reform and want to see it continued quickly, are of a different kind. They see the professional qualification of the graduates, especially in the context of the Bachelor courses, as the main goal. The participation of representatives of professional practice is also of decisive importance for the acceptance of the Bachelor and Master degrees. But it is also important “that the employability required by law is actually given. Here universities have to cooperate much more closely with companies and their associations than has been the case up to now. ”This is the direction in which the criticism of the lack of employability of Bachelor graduates comes from. At their meeting in Yerevan in May 2015, the ministers responsible for higher education in the 47 Bologna countries demanded that higher education institutions should offer more practical courses. Even a bachelor's degree after six semesters must “be able to work for rapidly changing labor markets that are shaped by technical developments and new job profiles” (according to the draft resolution).

In its interim balance sheet of the Bologna Process, the Education and Science Union (GEW) advocates deceleration in terms of the priority of quality. The supervision of the students must be noticeably improved so that the Bologna reform can be successful at all. A key point of the GEW requirements concerns the unrestricted permeability in the transition from bachelor's to master's degree, where neither a quota nor a grade-dependent admission restriction to the master's degree is accepted. High-performance student financing and the expansion of mobility grants are also requested.


Julian Nida-Rümelin complains in the course of the Bologna Process a. a. the tendency towards schooling on a broad front, especially in Germany. “It is characterized by extremely long attendance times and little scope for self-study. And there is a tendency for teaching to become detached from current research. Schooling always also means that canonical, consolidated knowledge is conveyed, which is presented in specific textbooks. ”At universities, there is an increasing distinction between pure research and pure teaching professorships. Private providers played an increasingly important role in the education market - dangerous in terms of the quality of the offers. Nida-Rümelin warns that attempts to prevent the loss of level through accreditations carried out by non-university bodies could endanger the freedom of research and teaching guaranteed in the Basic Law.

Not more, but less mobility is the result of schooling: “With the three-year study programs, a change is risky. The point system is of no use here either, which incidentally is not used uniformly across Europe, but in very different ways. It is not only in this question that the following applies: Measured against the original goals, the Bologna Process must now be regarded as a failure. ”Because the aspired goals of increasing the number of study places, intensifying supervision and reducing the drop-out rate have not been achieved. Although the drop-out rate in the reformed humanities and social sciences courses is falling, it is increasing in the other subjects and is increasing on average. The necessary reform of the reform, according to Nida-Rümelin, must be combined with a renaissance of the Humboldtian university ideal.

In fact, a study by the University Information System (HIS) of 2010 graduates shows that 28 percent of new students born in 2006/2007 completed their bachelor's degree without a degree. The quota increased by three percentage points compared to the first-year students in 2004/2005. While only 19 percent of undergraduate students dropped out at universities of applied sciences, it was 35 percent at universities.

Stefan Kühl explains that the schooling of the Bachelor's and Master's courses is the unwanted side effect of an apparently small change in the organization of the course: the introduction of credit points ( ECTS) as a new accounting unit at universities. The compulsion to plan every single hour of the student's work in this time unit would create a Sudoku effect - the need to combine the courses , exams and modules expressed in credit points in such a way that the course “works” in terms of points. A complexity that even computers can hardly manage and an inflation of tests were just as much a consequence as a permanent further refinement of the set of rules that seeks to react to its own inadequacies.

Richard Münch develops academic capitalism in his synoptic consideration . About the political economy of the university reform, the image of a science system increasingly dominated by market economy interests and their protagonists. In doing so, it aims to determine the current position of university research and teaching in the everlasting field of tension between academic freedom and social purpose. Münch denies the German mass university, which has already existed for a good three decades, the requirements necessary for a lively academic community. The complaints of all those involved in this regard have now led to high hopes being placed on competition, benchmarking , monitoring and quality management in the context of the changeover from academic self-administration to New Public Management . This is part of a broader social change in which “hierarchies are replaced by markets, quasi-markets and pseudo-markets”. With the transition of quality control from study programs to accreditation agencies (instead of the ministerially controlled specialist societies as before), university education will be exposed to the practical requirements of business and administration without protection.

According to Münch, the density of exams in the new courses destroys the pedagogical relationship between university professors and students: “Both of them are only occupied with complying with the controls. The matter itself takes a back seat. This applies all the more, the more the teaching is carried out on a mass scale and in a supervisory ratio of 1 to 100. "In future, Münch sees the quality of the bachelor's degree as" slightly above that of technical assistants with technical college education ". The master's will probably lead beyond the middle level of prestige and income, "but not as a complete replacement for the old comprehensive diplomas". Rather, their right to a full academic education will be withdrawn from the doctoral programs.

“No European country will be able to disengage from the Bologna Process. Otherwise it will be removed and put on a siding in no man's land. It is only possible to edit the episodes. The replacement of professions with marketable competencies with their displacement of specialist knowledge by personal profile and material assets by prestige values ​​will no longer be able to be changed. "

- Richard Münch

According to Münch, in the new, entrepreneurially oriented university, research will be directed specifically into areas that promise profit, primarily applied research, oriented towards the mainstream and fashion trends. This is accompanied by the pressure from university management to set up research in accordance with third-party funding . The more recent scientific publication fees and practice, which amounts to making as much capital as possible from one and the same work: the salami tactic of the smallest possible publishable unit, also presents itself as an extremely questionable (mis) steering effect. Münch's conclusion is that overinvestment in current, profitable research on the one hand and underinvestment in high-risk research without opportunities for real-time market exploitation on the other hand, shrink the innovation potential of science. This leads to a sensitive “narrowing of the evolution of knowledge”.


ECTS points as a "hunting object" according to the Pac-Man principle

In protest against the consequences of the Bologna Process, there were repeated demonstrations, university occupations and strikes in several European countries, including France, Greece, Germany and Austria. In the summer of 2009, an estimated more than 230,000 students, schoolchildren and trainees took to the streets for an education strike, for example with the slogan: “We are here, we are loud because our education is being stolen!” On the reasons and motives presented by the students German universities heard that

  • the bachelor's degree, which has been shortened to three years, leads to a less qualified degree;
  • The streamlined form of training and the mostly given course content mean that the students are deprived of the opportunity to work out their own areas of interest and to contribute scientifically and experimentally;
  • the conversion of the old master’s and diploma courses all too often took place according to the motto “condense, school, rename”;
  • the supply of master’s degree courses, which by far does not cover the demand from students, and the associated access barriers, etc. a. create a high level of competition, grades and performance pressure from the first bachelor semester on;
  • the promises of the declaration (especially mobility) would only be kept for a very small fraction of the students;
  • the social impact of the reforms, in particular on equal opportunities for different social groups and on equality between women and men, would be neglected and would make the situation even worse.

The rejection of the Bologna Process as a whole or at least in part was not the only one, but one of the main topics in these protests, such as the education strike in Germany in 2009 or the student protests in Austria in 2009 .

For the study of medicine who has German Medical Assembly several times studies Master rejected the introduction of the Bachelor / in medicine. The German Medical Association and the University Medicine Working Group also reject such a structure. In particular, a loss of quality in medical training is feared. The Bachelor of Science degree is intended to qualify students for medical professions, but not for medical work. It has not yet been clarified which activities the Bachelor's degree should entitle to exactly. At the University of Oldenburg , in the winter semester 2012/2013, a model course in human medicine was established in close cooperation with the University of Groningen in the Netherlands and a medical faculty, the European Medical School Oldenburg-Groningen , was established for this purpose. The Science Council issued a positive opinion on this in November 2010, which was heavily criticized.


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  • Hans Joachim Meyer: The academic degrees in the English-speaking area and the German concept of science . In: Thoughts. Journal of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig . Issue 6, 2011, pp. 23–43 ISSN  1867-6413 digitized
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  • Suchanek, Justine / Pietzonka, Manuel / Künzel, Rainer / Futterer, Torsten (eds.): Bologna (aus) evaluated. An empirical analysis of the study structure reform. Göttingen 2012.
  • Thomas Walter: The Bologna Process. A turning point in European higher education policy? Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-531-15322-6

Web links

Commons : Bologna Process  - collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. ^ The "Education Summit" of the 1990s in Germany developed a number of reform proposals and test initiatives, including a. with regard to standard study periods, professional orientation of the course and a reduction in the drop-out rate, which however did not prove to be nationwide enforceable. (Maeße 2010, p. 20) Sigrun Nickel confirms on an empirical-descriptive level: "In the studies presented, it becomes evident that the Bologna Process takes on a kind of catalyst function for changes that have been virulent in the university system for a long time." ( Sigrun Nickel Ed.): The Bologna Process from the perspective of university research. Analyzes and impulses for practice. Gütersloh 2011, p. 16 ; (PDF; 4.1 MB)
  2. Magna Charta Universitatum (English, PDF, 68 kB, online at with signed… by 388 rectors . English. Online at
  3. Sorbonne Declaration ( Memento of November 10, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) of May 25, 1998 (PDF; 12 kB). Online at
  4. ^ Marion Schmidt: Who is Mister Bologna? The Bachelor-Master system was adopted 15 years ago . In: Die Zeit from June 18, 2014, p. 69.
  5. ^ The Bologna Declaration of June 19, 1999 . English, PDF, 21 kB. Online at or The European Higher Education Area - Joint Declaration by the European Education Ministers, June 19, 1999, Bologna ( Memento of July 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ). German, PDF, online on the homepage of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research
  6. Klaus Dieter Wolf: The new reason of state - Intergovernmental cooperation as a problem of democracy in world society. Baden-Baden 2000.
  7. Peter Maassen, Johan P. Olsen (Ed.): University Dynamics and European Integration (= Higher Education Dynamics , 19). Springer Verlag (NL) 2007, p. 77.
  8. ^ European Higher Education Area and Bologna Process. Retrieved July 11, 2019 .
  9. ^ The framework of qualifications for the European Higher Education Area . (PDF, 22 kB) Archived from the original on September 11, 2008 ; accessed on March 6, 2018 (English).
  10. The actual naming of the cycles or degrees remains open. How the respective academic degrees are called (Bachelor, Baccalaureate, License , Laurea ...) has no influence on their compatibility with the framework; there is therefore no obligation to rename.
  11. European System for the Transfer and Accumulation of Study Achievements (ECTS) - Principles ( Memento of June 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 388 kB)
  12. a b Ulrich Teichler : Graduated courses of study and degrees: study structures in the Bologna process. In: Anke Hanft, Isabel Müskens (Hrsg.): Bologna and the consequences for the universities. Bielefeld 2005, p. 18.
  13. Harald Schomburg: Bachelor 2010 - mobile during studies and on the way to normality when starting your career. In: European Information Center in the Thuringian State Chancellery: Reform of the Bologna Process at German universities as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. Erfurt 2011, p. 71.
  14. Ricarda Landgrebe: Strength study abroad: Study stress slows down wanderlust , in: Spiegel Online , May 6, 2011.
  15. Claire Weiss, Tim Wiewiorra: Reform of the Bologna Process as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. In: European Information Center in the Thuringian State Chancellery: Reform of the Bologna Process at German universities as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. Erfurt 2011, p. 105.
  16. ^ Janine Hofmann, Dorothea Forch: Reform of the Bologna process at German universities as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. In: European Information Center in the Thuringian State Chancellery: Reform of the Bologna Process at German universities as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. Erfurt 2011, p. 110.
  17. ^ Ulrich Teichler: University structures in transition. A record for four decades. Frankfurt / New York 2005, p. 319.
  18. Common structural specifications of the KMK (PDF; 46 kB)
  19. § 7 of the law establishing a foundation "Foundation for the Accreditation of Study Programs in Germany" (PDF; 27 kB)
  20. Rules for the accreditation of study programs and for system accreditation, p. 11 f. (PDF; 222 kB)
  21. Rules for the accreditation of study programs and for system accreditation, p. 19 (PDF; 222 kB)
  22. Press release of the Federal Constitutional Court of March 18, 2016
  23. Carolin Nieder-Entgelmeier: Accreditation practice of study programs in North Rhine-Westphalia is unconstitutional , in: Neue Westfälische , April 1, 2016.
  24. Wissenschaftsrat: Recommendations on accreditation as an instrument of quality assurance from May 25, 2012 (PDF; 581 kB). Online at P. 26.
  25. Decision overview at the federal level ( Memento of September 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), GEW
  26. Central database of the accredited study programs .
  27. Wissenschaftsrat: Recommendations on accreditation as an instrument of quality assurance from May 25, 2012 (PDF; 581 kB). Online at P. 36 f.
  28. The Technical University of Dresden continues to offer undergraduate diploma courses in the subjects of architecture, civil engineering, chemical engineering, electrical engineering, educational science / social pedagogy and social work, information systems technology, mechanical engineering, mechatronics, psychology, sociology, process engineering, traffic engineering and materials science as well as advanced Courses in software engineering and environmental engineering. These possibilities will remain in the subjects of electrical engineering, information systems technology and mechatronics for the time being. Sources: Degree programs WS09 / 10 ( Memento from September 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF), receipt of the diploma in electrical engineering, mechatronics and information system technology beyond 2010 .
  29. Jürgen Kaube: The act of reason of Schwerin . Online on from December 16, 2010.
  30. Karin Schlottmann: Saxony is returning to the state examination for teachers . from October 20, 2010.
  31. ^ Association of Philologists praises Saxony for the planned state examination. ( Memento from November 17, 2011 in the web archive )
  32. ^ Herlind Gundelach : Reform of the Bologna Process as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. In: European Information Center in the Thuringian State Chancellery: Reform of the Bologna Process at German universities as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. Erfurt 2011, p. 87.
  33. Peter Scharff : Concept "Integrated Engineering Training" - a proposal for the further development of the Bologna Process. In: European Information Center in the Thuringian State Chancellery: Reform of the Bologna Process at German universities as a prerequisite for innovative and creative training in Europe. Erfurt 2011, p. 61.
  34. Press release of the Bavarian Chamber of Engineers, July 2012 (PDF)
  35. Wissenschaftsrat: Recommendations on accreditation as an instrument of quality assurance from May 25, 2012 (PDF; 581 kB). Online at P. 49
  36. Suchanek et al. (Ed.), 2012, p. 90.
  37. Suchanek et al. (Ed.) 2012, p. 91.
  38. ^ University Rectors' Conference : Bologna Center. Archived from the original on November 26, 2009 ; accessed on March 6, 2018 .
  39. Christa Roth and Nina Petrow, Spiritual training with side effects, in: Bettina Malter / Ali Hotait (eds.), What do you think of us? One generation calls for the educational revolution. Berlin 2012. Past publishers.
  40. Bolognese studies: Bachelor students despair of the pressure to perform . Spiegel Online from February 14, 2009.
  41. Report Mainz , Das Erste, April 7, 2008: Bachelor's degree leads to dropping out
  42. Archived from the original on August 23, 2009 ; accessed on March 6, 2018 . (PDF)
  43. University Rectors' Conference : University Financing ( Memento from June 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  44. “This makes it more difficult for the universities to carry out one of their core businesses, the imparting of knowledge and the reproduction of young scientists. This problem cannot be remedied by the inflow of third-party funds into the system, because they have to be used for the processing of research projects. ”In: Wissenschaftsrat: Newer developments in university funding in Germany. of July 8, 2011 (PDF; 70 kB). Online at
  45. Spain: 13 percent; Great Britain: 25 percent. In: Wissenschaftsrat: Recent developments in university funding in Germany. of July 8, 2011 (PDF; 70 kB). Online at
  46. ^ Resolution “Financing of Universities” , University Rectors' Conference of November 22, 2011
  47. Federal Association of German Employers' Associations: University Financing ( Memento from May 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 1.7 MB)
  48. State government cuts budget for universities and student unions ( Memento from April 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Asta Ruhr-Uni Bochum
  49. Klemens Himpele: Education Financing in Germany - Longitudinal Analysis and International Comparison. In: Andrea Adams / Andreas Keller (ed.): From student mountain to mountain of debt. Perspectives for university and student financing. Bielefeld 2008, p. 28. With a share of 4.6%, Germany fell significantly, especially compared to the Scandinavian countries (front runner Denmark came in at 8.4%). (Ibid.)
  50. Klemens Himpele: Education Financing in Germany - Longitudinal Analysis and International Comparison. In: Andrea Adams / Andreas Keller (ed.): From student mountain to mountain of debt. Perspectives for university and student financing. Bielefeld 2008, p. 27.
  51. Klemens Himpele: Education Financing in Germany - Longitudinal Analysis and International Comparison. In: Andrea Adams / Andreas Keller (ed.): From student mountain to mountain of debt. Perspectives for university and student financing. Bielefeld 2008, p. 29.
  52. Resolution “Financing of Universities” , HRK of November 22, 2011. In the aforementioned resolution of the German Rectors' Conference it goes on to say: “It will also be necessary to increase the share of private funds for financing the higher education sector. In an international comparison, this share in Germany is well below average at 16.6 percent (OECD average 33.3 percent, measured by the share of gross domestic product (GDP) it is 0.2 percent in Germany with an OECD average of 0.5 percent ). "
  53. Recent developments in university funding in Germany , Science Council of July 8, 2011 (PDF; 70 kB). Chairman's report. - "It is imperative to improve the possibilities of cooperation between the federal government and the federal states in the basic financing of universities - also in teaching - if necessary by amending the Basic Law." Resolution "Financing of universities" , HRK dated November 22, 2011.
  54. ^ Marion Schmidt: The poor savior. So far, the federal government has not been allowed to provide permanent financial support to universities in the federal states. Now the ban on cooperation falls. Is that why everything is getting better? In: Die Zeit , December 11, 2014, p. 73.
  55. Future federal contribution to the financing of universities , HRK, resolution of June 11, 2013.
  56. a b DFG and Science Council: Report of the Joint Commission on the Excellence Initiative to the Joint Science Conference of November 2008 (PDF; 3.8 MB). Online at P. 60 f.
  57. Anja Kühne and Tilman Warnecke: The Bachelor Check. The major European higher education reform began 20 years ago. Have the goals been achieved? In: Der Tagesspiegel , May 24, 2018, p. 22.
  58. Wissenschaftsrat: Recommendations on accreditation as an instrument of quality assurance from May 25, 2012 (PDF; 581 kB). Online at P. 97 f.
  60. See for example Klemens Himpele and Oliver Prausmüller: “Bologna” - and further? In: Kurswechsel 1/2010, p. 113 ff., Vienna
  61. See press release from Statistics Austria
  62. Wissenschaftsrat: Recommendations on accreditation as an instrument of quality assurance from May 25, 2012 (PDF; 581 kB). Online at P. 101.
  63. Dieter Lenzen : University studies: Humboldt revamped - Can a degree be education and training at the same time? Yes! , in: Die Zeit , March 16, 2012.
  64. One of the vehement critics is also the engineer and university professor Karl-Otto Edel , u. a. with his contribution Bologna and the consequences. Comments on the Bologna Process and its instrumentalization (2005; PDF; 9.5 MB).
  65. ↑ In protest against the Bologna Process , the theologian Marius Reiser resigned his professorship at the University of Mainz , saying that he has not yet met a colleague who does not consider the old system to be far better than the new one. Marius Reiser: Why I'm vacating my chair. In: FAZ .
  66. Recommendations for improving the quality of teaching and studies from July 4, 2008, p. 14 (PDF; 389 kB).
  67. Wissenschaftsrat: Recommendations on accreditation as an instrument of quality assurance from May 25, 2012 (PDF; 581 kB). Online at P. 53.
  68. Recommendations for improving the quality of teaching and studies from July 4, 2008, p. 12 (PDF; 389 kB).
  69. Future Pact for the Science System , Science Council, July 15, 2013 (PDF; 80 kB).
  70. Quoted from: Der Tagesspiegel , January 5, 2015, p. 21: More professors, but many more students .
  71. ^ Position papers on the Bologna Process ( Memento from September 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Humboldt Society.
  72. ^ BDA: Bologna Process .
  73. ^ Deep dispute between politics and universities , in: Süddeutsche Zeitung , May 15, 2015.
  74. ^ GEW calls for a change of course in the Bologna Process ( Memento from August 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), Union of Education and Science.
  75. ^ Martin Thurau: The Bachelor bankruptcy ( Memento from October 6, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). Interview with Julian Nida-Rümelin. Online on from May 17, 2010.
  76. Ulrich Heublein, Johanna Richter, Robert Schmelzer, Dieter Sommer: The development of shrinkage and drop-out rates at German universities. HIS: Forum Hochschule 3/2012.
  77. Stefan Kühl: The Sudoku Effect. Universities in the vicious circle of bureaucracy. Bielefeld: transcript 2013.
  78. Richard Münch: Academic Capitalism , 2011, p. 361.
  79. Münch 2011, p. 98.
  80. Münch 2011, p. 364.
  81. “In reality, the specialist societies were in charge of the ministerial control through their design of the framework examination regulations on behalf of the state. [...] The basis for this was laid by Humboldt's organizational model for the Berlin University founded in 1810 and, in its successor, for all German universities. This ministerial protection against practical demands from gainful employment in business and administration lasted for almost 200 years. ”(Münch 2011, p. 354 f.).
  82. Münch 2011, p. 120.
  83. Münch 2011, p. 341 f.
  84. Münch 2011, p. 372 f.
  85. Münch 2011, p. 368.
  86. Münch 2011, pp. 375/378.
  87. ^ Wolfgang Gründinger : Foreword . In: Bettina Malter / Ali Hotait (eds.) 2012, p. 12.
  88. Ulrich Ruschig : On the criticism of the upcoming study reform (PDF; 167 kB). Online at P. 6 ff.
  89. ^ Wolfgang Gründinger: Foreword . In: Bettina Malter / Ali Hotait (eds.) 2012, p. 8.
  90. ^ Kader Karabulut: Germany's Master of Desater . In: Bettina Malter / Ali Hotait (eds.) 2012, p. 190.
  91. ^ Justus Bender: Students in point fever . In: Die Zeit , No. 3/2009, online at from September 8, 2009.
  92. a b c Oldenburg wants to be the first university to introduce the medical bachelor's degree. Rheinisches Ärzteblatt, March 2009
  93. Birgit Hibbeler, Eva Richter-Kuhlmann: Bologna process in medicine. Waiting for the big hit. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 105 (2008), A 2441-2, online (PDF document; 263 kB)
  94. No Bachelor / Master structure in medicine. ( Memento of December 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Press release of the German Medical Association of November 12, 2010.
  95. a b Maintain the quality of medical studies - but not through a bachelor's / master's degree. ( Memento of December 14, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Resolution of the University Medicine Working Group
  96. a b c Westfalen-Lippe: Windhorst: Medical “quick study” leads to a loss of quality in care. ( Memento from November 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Press release Federal Medical Association of November 17, 2010.
  97. a b Science Council paves the way for the establishment of a new university medicine in Oldenburg. Press release of the Science Council from November 15, 2010.
  98. Christian Beneker: Bachelor and Master in medicine - even a pilot experiment mobilizes resistance. Doctors newspaper of January 11, 2010.
  99. Statement on the establishment of a university medicine at the Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg based on the concept of a “European Medical School Oldenburg-Groningen” dated November 12, 2010 (PDF; 1.1 MB). Online at