The Abitur (from the Latin abire 'from going', from Abiturium , from neulat. Abiturire 'wanting to leave'), abbreviated as “Abi”, describes the highest school qualification in Germany and thus the general university entrance qualification .
With the Abitur, the ability to study is proven. The Abitur entitles you to study at all universities in Germany.
Before 1945 there was talk of the Matura or matriculation examination. The term Abitur was not used in general terms and was not used at all by law. In contrast, the term high school graduates has been used since the 18th century to designate the graduates of a school institution.
In contrast to the full Abitur, a subject-related Abitur or subject-related higher education entrance qualification , also abbreviated as Fachabitur, restricts the ability to study to the courses of study at universities that are shown in the degree certificate. The term `` Fachabitur '' is colloquially referred to as the general technical college entrance qualification for studying at a technical college .
In Austria and the German-speaking Switzerland as well as in numerous other countries one does not speak of high school , but still uses the older, previously used in the fields of the present Federal Republic of Germany notion of Matura (lat. Examina maturation , maturity tests'; to lat. Maturitas 'Maturity'). In parts of German-speaking Switzerland, the short form Matur is also used. An assimilated form is used in Italian: maturità.
The German word “Reifeprüfung” is a loan translation from the Latin examina matura .
In French- and Spanish-speaking countries, modifications of the Middle Latin word bakkalaureus correspond to the Abitur in the sense of proof of the ability to study: baccalauréat (French), bachillerato (Spanish). While in France the baccalauréat is seen as an academic degree , in Germany the Abitur is merely the completion of a higher education as a way to a general higher education entrance qualification.
While the term Abitur was only used by the legislature after 1945 and limited to the Federal Republic of Germany, the term Abitur came up as early as the second half of the 18th century, with which the graduates of a school institution were named. The oldest known document can be found in 1771 in the Principality of Bayreuth . In the territory of the German Confederation , the academic degree of the bachelor's degree (at that time long known as it) disappeared around 1820, since the Matura, or in Prussia the Abitur, now served its purpose. In the prehistory of the school system, especially in the 18th century, the distinction between universities and " academic high schools " became increasingly blurred.
In the 18th century, universities were the only ones who decided on the admission of students. Prussia was the first German state to regulate the final exams with the Abitur regulations of 1788 by the Minister of Education, Karl Abraham von Zedlitz . The examination itself was still called the Matura examination in Prussia, while the term Abitur regulation governed access to the university for school leavers (Abitur graduates). These regulations go back to Carl Ludwig Bauer , who introduced a special exam for the first time at the Lyceum Hirschfeld in 1776, with which school leavers were tested for their university entrance qualification. Even Johann Heinrich Ludwig Meier Otto was working at the time as rector of the Joachimsthal Gymnasium Berlin in the same direction.
The often quoted Prussian regulations of December 23, 1788 ( Rescript ) and of June 25, 1812 ( Instruction , - expressly confirmed by royal edict of October 12, 1812), - had no intention of [...] the departure of one at the time To forbid immature youths to attend the university, if their parents or guardians believed determined by some reason that could be left to their conscience, then a free choice should also remain unlimited ... (§ 1 of the instruction of June 25, 1812), so they wrote no school leaving examination, high school graduation examination or a Matura certificate for the students leaving the university, although the Prussian state claimed legislative competence for this ( ALR 1794: "The university is an event of the state"); they only offered it to inform the parents or guardians about the level of performance and the presumed ability to study .
Stricter tests of this kind were only introduced as a result of the Karlovy Vary resolutions (August 31, 1819 and the subsequent provisional resolution on the measures to be taken by the Bundestag of the German Confederation on September 20, 1819) after the murder of August von Kotzebue († March 23, 1819) and the anti-Jewish Hep-Hep riots (started on August 2, 1819 in Würzburg) to prevent further politicization of students and professors in almost all federal states in the 1820s and 1830s . This decision also did not make a Matura examination mandatory. As before, youths who were found immature could study at the university, but - according to the regulations - they received no benefits, free meals, etc. A. ( scholarships ) more. Secondary and tertiary students continued to be accepted at the universities, and scholarships also seemed to be rather relaxed in practice. The graduate regulations appeared to experienced contemporaries to be dazzling .
The Electorate of Hesse (Hessen-Kassel, State University in Marburg ) in 1819 and the Grand Duchy of Hesse (Hessen-Darmstadt, State University in Gießen ) in 1825: Elector Wilhelm I (Electorate of Hesse) ordered his State University of Marburg for the state-related professions, not to enroll any subject ... [who] wanted to study theology, jurisprudence, medicine or cameral sciences without showing a ... formal certificate of maturity from any public high school.
- Afterwards there were those who did not intend to be employed in the civil service anytime soon and did not want to devote themselves exclusively to one of the four subjects mentioned ... e. B. Economists, surgeons, foresters of a lesser kind, pharmacists, veterinary surgeons, riders and the like. Released from the obligation of submitting a Matura certificate, unless they apply for financial deficits or free meals , which should not otherwise be awarded to them .
- Even those who wanted to study in the Philosophical Faculty did not necessarily need a school leaving certificate: pupils who had not (passed) the Matura test or people who only wanted to attend individual lectures because of their general education or because of a special training could enroll here and study ( artist faculty , admission with small matriculation ). Eight years later, the Hessian regulation of 1820 was expanded to include the study of political science, philosophy and philology. Those who did not seek public employment in the future were exempt from submitting a certificate.
Wilhelm von Humboldt and Johann Wilhelm Süvern tried to standardize the Matura examination through the directive of 1812 with exams in both ancient languages, Latin and Greek , as well as in German , mathematics , the "historical subjects" as well as French and natural science , which in Prussia are still until 1834 could be circumvented by entrance examinations of the universities. This opportunity was mainly used by young people from wealthy backgrounds.
Opponents of the obligation to submit a school leaving certificate was u. A. the Prussian Minister of Justice Karl Albert von Kamptz , because everyone should be free to enter the university without having their qualifications checked beforehand, ... and Jacob Grimm explained: Just as the church and theater are kept open to those entering, every young man should have the gate opened to the university and left to him to feel and bear all the disadvantages if he entered this hall without equipment. Notwithstanding this, the German states gradually tightened university access after 1835 and made submission of a Matura certificate a prerequisite for enrollment .
On June 25, 1834, the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III. with the highest cabinet order, a regulation for the examination of the students going to the universities. According to this, “every student - before leaving university, whether they want to attend a university in Germany or abroad, had to submit to a high school diploma”. The purpose of this test was "to determine whether the high school graduate has attained the level of school education that is required to be able to dedicate himself to studying a particular scientific subject with benefit and success."
The increasing financial needs of universities and the recognition of other “high” schools as academic institutions (e.g. technical colleges, mining, forestry, etc.) in the second half of the 19th century also promoted state influence.
1835–1900: Matura certificate only for state exams
In Prussia, due to the Education Act provided for in Art. 26 of the constitutional document of 1850, a draft was drawn up by the Education Minister Adalbert von Ladenberg , but this was not pursued further. In the draft, enrollment was regulated in §§ 222–228 . Section 223 provides two requirements for enrollment, firstly a certificate of maturity (Matura certificate) issued by a domestic (= Prussian) grammar school and secondly, permission from the father or guardian to study at the university in question. This was only true for those who wanted to devote themselves to theology, jurisprudence and political science, medicine and surgery, philology or any other profession that required university education.
The German Empire , founded in 1871, changed nothing in the previous regulations of the federal states, because the teaching and university affairs remained in the competence of the federal states. Accordingly, the word Abitur does not appear at all in the official writings before 1945, but the word Abitur graduates (= graduates: This does not mean those who had the Abitur , but those who left school). The Matura examination (later matriculation examination or in Bavaria: Gymnasialabsolutorialprüfung), as the Abitur was still called in the areas of what is now the Federal Republic of Germany, was about admission to the state examination (usually at the end of the course), not about university access (before the start of of the studies). The high school diploma / matriculation examination entitles to unrestricted study in all subjects at the university, that of the Realgymnasium usually only entitles to study the subjects of the political economy and natural science faculty and modern languages and history at the philosophical faculty (but that was from the university to University different). The university often offered Latin courses that could lead to the acquisition of a small or large Latinum , then it was possible to study almost all subjects (except theology, later also classical philology ). Accordingly, there was also a high school diploma from the (ten-class) high school ; however, it only entitle them to study in the Faculty of Natural Sciences (from 1899, after a supplementary examination in Latin, to study in the Faculty of Philosophy).
Around 1900: The high school graduation with a modern twist
In 1896 six women in Prussia were able to take their school-leaving exams at the Luisengymnasium Berlin for the first time ; However, they were not allowed to study with it, a special ministerial permit was required.
From 1904 the monopoly of the grammar school on studying all subjects was lifted (exception: knowledge of ancient languages for studies in theology and ancient philology). In 1908/09 (women studies in 1908, but only with the approval of the minister), up to 10% of male students (at the twelve Prussian universities) had no school-leaving exams (e.g. chemists, economists, pharmacists, dentists).
During the First World War, the term Notabitur came up colloquially, which named a war-related, simplified form of the final examination, but was not officially used. The same was true during the Second World War.
Ways to graduation
General education schools
Gymnasiums and comprehensive schools with a gymnasial upper level prepare for the Abitur with their two to three-year upper level. The regular school time up to the Abitur is 12 or 13 years, with the Abitur after twelve years (G8) the examination is taken at the end of grade 12, with G9 at the end of the 13th grade. In many federal states, where normal school time is shortened to twelve years, the 10th grade at the gymnasium is also the first year of the gymnasium upper level. In this model, secondary school students have to visit the 10th grade twice, once at the secondary school to obtain the extended secondary level I degree and then at the secondary school as the first year in the upper secondary level.
Vocational high schools and vocational colleges
The general Abitur is also obtained at vocational grammar schools or vocational colleges with a gymnasial upper level ( higher vocational school ). These are, for example, the business high school (WG), technical high school (TG), nutritional high school (EG), social and health science high school (SGG), agricultural science high school (AG) or the biotechnological high school (BTG). In some countries they are also called technical high schools because a professional subject is mandatory. Year 13 of the technical college or the vocational college (BOS) also lead to the general higher education entrance qualification. In addition to the general higher education entrance qualification, high school graduates also acquire a professional specialization.
State and private schools offer courses of the so-called second educational path , which lead to all school qualifications up to the Abitur.
The Abitur can be acquired for adults with a completed vocational training or equivalent activities and times also at evening grammar schools and colleges , in some regions also at adult education centers .
Some of these schools offer the so-called “Abitur online”. Here, the student only visits school on two evenings or mornings. In the rest of the time, the student has time to work or raise children. There are no classes over the Internet, but homework must be submitted. In addition, the student will find a library on his learning platform with which he can prepare independently for lessons and the Abitur from home. In addition, the teachers for this course offer the opportunity to answer questions via email.
Among the private schools , the state-recognized substitute schools are to be distinguished from the state-approved supplementary schools . Most private schools, especially the numerous church and Waldorf schools , are recognized by the state, so that it is possible to obtain the higher education entrance qualification as part of internal examinations, which are, however, controlled by the school supervisory authority of the respective country as at state schools.
Other state-approved private schools with an upper school branch prepare - during the day or in the evening - for the Abitur, which, however, is only awarded after an external state examination ( non-pupil Abitur examination , foreign school leaving examination or foreign school exams ).
Furthermore, after self-organized preparation, it is possible to register for a non-pupil examination in order to acquire the certificate of general university entrance qualification (see below).
In twelve school years, Waldorf schools lead to their own qualification, the Waldorf school qualification, with a strong emphasis on artistic subjects and social skills . The Waldorf degree may equivalent to a state as Hauptschule or high-school diploma be recognized. The Waldorf schools prepare for the Abitur in an additional 13th school year, which is then taken in eight subjects under the supervision of a state school, equal to the state Abitur. Hesse is an exception , where the secondary level II of Waldorf schools is mostly recognized as an upper level. The procedure does not differ from state schools. The 12th grade prepares for the technical college entrance qualification, in which case the artistic degree is omitted. At some Waldorf schools, this can be combined with a qualification in a recognized training occupation. This means that you can leave the school after 14 years of school with an apprenticeship and Abitur.
Also distance schools (e.g., Institute of learning systems (ILS), Studiengemeinschaft Darmstadt (SGD) or Hamburg Academy for distance learning (HAF)) prepared in about 30 to 42 months - depending on previous knowledge - the state external examination for high school before. This route is mainly used by adults who want to catch up on their Abitur in parallel to their everyday work.
A university degree ( bachelor , diploma , etc.) is associated with the general university entrance qualification, the access authorization for all university courses, if the course was previously started with a certificate of the subject-related university entrance qualification or the technical college entrance qualification . The legal basis for this is the higher education laws of the federal states .
After passing the preliminary diploma examination or obtaining 90 ECTS at a university, holders of the technical college entrance qualification are awarded the subject-related higher education entrance qualification in some countries (cf. Hessian Higher Education Act § 63 Paragraph 3 Clause 2). Depending on the country, the number of subjects that it can study differs.
At the Abitur for non- students (also: gifted high school diploma , non- student high school diploma , foreign exams or extracurricular high school diploma ), the general higher education entrance qualification is acquired through an examination without prior attendance at a corresponding school. Exam preparation is self-taught or with the help of external providers, and approval for the exam is provided by the Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs of the country in which the exam is to be taken.
In the high school diploma or matriculation exams , the skills acquired in the upper level are tested in selected four or five subjects. The examination grades are included in the average grade of the school-leaving certificate.
The Abitur exams take place in writing and orally. The procedure in Germany differs significantly from country to country.
In 15 out of 16 federal states, a so-called central high school diploma is passed in the written exams , only in Rhineland-Palatinate they are carried out decentrally. All Abitur exams are assessed by a first and a second assessor. The procedure for determining the grade again differs from country to country.
In which and how many subjects an oral exam is taken is also regulated differently. At least one oral exam is mandatory. Sometimes a presentation is also possible (e.g. in Hessen). In some countries, additional oral exams may be held in one or more subjects at the request of the student if the student hopes to improve if the written performance is poor. In some countries, group examinations of up to three students are also possible; the duration of the examination triples in this case. The oral examination is held by an examination committee consisting of at least three teachers. In private schools, a state commissioner can chair the exam or attend the exam.
It is often possible to include a special learning achievement , for example participation in a national competition or a technical thesis , in the Abitur grade. In some federal states it can replace the fourth or fifth examination subject.
High school graduate numbers and rates
In 2012, 498,408 school leavers in Germany finished school with a technical college or general university entrance qualification.
In 2007, 432,500 (2006: 412,800) students in Germany acquired the higher education entrance qualification or technical college entrance qualification (4.2 percent plus since 2006). Of these, 302,200 students achieved the general higher education entrance qualification (= 69.9 percent), mostly (258,900) in general education schools . In Saxony , Thuringia and Berlin, there was a decline in the number of high school graduates.
In 2004/2005 only 244,000 graduates from general schools acquired the general higher education entrance qualification or technical college entrance qualification (general university entrance qualification 24.1 percent; technical diploma 1.3 percent; secondary school qualification 41.6 percent; secondary school qualification 24.8 percent; without qualification 8.2 percent). The approximately 155,000 graduates of the vocational schools with a general university entrance qualification or technical college entrance qualification (89.3 percent) must be taken into account.
The proportion of schoolchildren who obtained general university admission in Germany ( “high school graduation rate” ) was 43.1 percent in 2005/2006 and was thus below the average in an international comparison. There are big differences between the German states , as well as between urban and rural areas. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania achieved the lowest value with 32.2 percent, the highest North Rhine-Westphalia with 53.4 percent. Teachers' association representatives criticize the pressure to increase the quota, which is a burden on parents and thus on students because of international comparisons.
In 2009, Thuringia took first place with an average high school graduation grade of 2.3, followed by Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Baden-Württemberg, Brandenburg and Bavaria. In 2009, Thuringia was also in first place in the A-levels ranking. 1.99 percent achieved a grade of 1.0. Baden-Württemberg, Bremen, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saarland followed.
In terms of the failure rate, Saxony-Anhalt came out on top with 6 percent in 2009, closely followed by Berlin and Saxony.
In Germany, the child's school leaving certificate correlates very strongly with that of his parents. In 2010, 60% of high school students had parents with a high school diploma, but only 8% parents with a secondary school certificate.
In 2007, the proportion of women graduating from high school was 53.3 percent.
Foreigners in Germany were represented in 2013 with a share of the higher education entrance qualification with 29.4 percent, the Germans with 27.8 percent just below.
The high school graduation rate in Germany is measured as the proportion of those with university entrance qualifications among 18 to 20-year-olds, i.e. those who have left general and vocational schools with and without qualifications.
Historically, there has been a slow increase in the number of high school graduates since the beginning of the 19th century. For 1820 their number in Prussia is given as 590, for 1829 with 1409. The number of German students rose from 1815 to 1830 from around 5,000 to over 16,000. After that, also due to the Abitur regulations, the number fell again before it rose again in the 1850s. The number of high school graduates was thus permanently below one percent of the age group before 1900. Around 1900 it fluctuated between one and two percent, also because a few girls joined them. Most of the high school students did not graduate from high school.
The number of German students rose rapidly from 11,901 to 60,235 between 1860 and 1914. In the 1950s, the high school graduation rate in Germany was less than 5% of an age group. In 1960 the high school graduation quota in Germany was 6.1% of the age group, afterwards, in the course of the educational expansion, the attendance of high schools was strongly promoted and the number of high school graduates rose. At the beginning of the 1980s, however, the high school graduation rate in Germany was less than 22% of the age group. In 2014, 41% of the population of the same age in Germany already passed the Abitur and, taking into account the technical college entrance qualification, even more than 50% of the age group obtained a higher education entrance qualification.
Differences in the Abitur in the countries
Since education in Germany is within the competence of the federal states, there are differences in the Abitur from country to country. Only the " Uniform Examination Requirements in the Abitur Examination " (EPA) agreed by the Standing Conference (KMK ), which apply nationwide, or the educational standards are binding for everyone .
The different regulations result in different grade averages for the Abitur exams in the different countries. The states of Thuringia (2.30) and Baden-Württemberg (2.33) have a significantly better average grade than the states of Berlin (2.71) or North Rhine-Westphalia (2.67). The lowest grade point average is found in Lower Saxony at 2.72 (as of 2005). There is a trend towards grade inflation in almost all countries : for example, the grade average improved in ten years (2005 to 2015) in Thuringia, which already had the highest grade average, from 2.30 to 2.16, in Berlin from 2, 71 to 2.39, in North Rhine-Westphalia from 2.67 to 2.47 and in the “stricter” Lower Saxony from 2.72 to 2.59. Only in Baden-Württemberg did the grade average drop from 2.33 to 2.44 during this period.
These differences are put into perspective by the fact that the proportion of pupils in the individual school types varies greatly between the countries. While around 40 percent of pupils in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania acquire university entrance qualifications, in North Rhine-Westphalia it is over 53 percent.
In addition, the federal states weight the individual grades differently when calculating the average grade. In a case study published by the taz , a student receives the average Abitur grade 1.9 in Hamburg, the average grade 2.3 in Thuringia and no Abitur in Saxony-Anhalt - given identical grades in all exams.
The European Abitur (also European Baccalauréat) is a general higher education entrance qualification recognized by all EU countries and awarded to graduates of the European Schools . In Germany it corresponds to the Abitur.
High school graduation customs
With the 1968 movement , old customs became obsolete. After a period of rejection of any celebration, new forms developed from the 1980s onwards, which differ from region to region. The loss of importance of the Abitur due to the high number of Abitur graduates is assumed to be the background. Often, however, the certificates are handed over as part of a festive graduation ceremony . More and more often, the high school graduates take part in a joint school trip , similar to the American spring break . To the outside world, the high school graduates show that they have passed their high school diploma, primarily by means of self-designed clothing or bumper stickers.
High school graduates often organize a Abistreich, known in northern Germany as the zero-day celebration, during which they are allowed to “conquer” the school for a day at school and, in consultation with the teaching staff, carry out teacher-student games or other entertainment for the other students. Since the 1980s, many students in the Abitur grades have been developing so-called “Abi logos”, which are often based on self-created slogans with reference to the Abitur. The documentation of these customs can also be part of the Abitur newspaper - in addition to looking back at normal school days . At some schools, the students “immortalize” themselves by designing a wall.
In order to finance the graduation ball and other events associated with the graduation or the school newspaper, parties are sometimes organized. These are sometimes called pre-financing parties or stage parties. But simply selling cake during breaks or during school events also pays off.
On the occasion of high school graduation balls are also organized. As a rule, the high school graduates organize the ball and invite their parents and teachers.
In Slovakia the ball takes place about half a year before the exams (see Stužková slávnosť ).
Departure or departure
After the Abitur exams, some of the graduates go on vacation together. The destination is often a cheap party metropolis. Due to the lucrative market, there are specialized travel agencies that advertise with numerous additional services and low prices.
Special maturity examination (GDR)
The special matriculation examination was in the German Democratic Republic an entrance exam for university studies . The two-day test had to undergo mainly university graduates who were initially not allowed to study after graduating from high school and were completing vocational training. The special maturity examination was of particular importance for those who wanted to study Protestant theology in Leipzig or Rostock. One example is Rainer Müller .
Graduation from high school
A high school diploma after passing a simplified high school diploma compared to the normal conditions or prerequisites was referred to as a secondary school diploma, emergency matriculation examination or military diploma. The secondary school diploma was given during the First and Second World Wars in the German Reich.
- AbiBac , a German-French Abitur
- Advanced Level for details on England, Wales and Northern Ireland
- International Baccalaureate Diploma , an international high school diploma
- Vocational training with high school diploma in the GDR
- Abitur with vocational training in the GDR
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- Andrä Wolter : The Abitur. An educational sociological study of the origin and function of the school leaving examination. (= Series of publications by the University of Oldenburg ). Holzberg, Oldenburg 1987, ISBN 3-87358-286-4 . (At the same time dissertation at the University of Oldenburg 1986)
- Kai S. Cortina, Working Group Educational Report at the Max Planck Institute for Human Development (Ed.): The educational system in the Federal Republic of Germany: Structures and developments at a glance. [the new report from the Max Planck Institute for Human Development ]. Structures and developments at a glance. Original edition, completely revised new edition. (= rororo non-fiction book 62339). Rowohlt-Taschenbuch , Reinbek bei Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-62339-4 .
- Rainer Bölling: The gateway to the university - Abitur in transition . From Politics and Contemporary History, 49/2008
- LG Detmold from 07/08/2015 - 10 S 27/15 - juris = NJW 2015, 3176 = JA 2017, 69 (Weber) <high school graduate class as a civil law company (when ordering a band for the graduation ball)>; on the topic also designed as an exam case: Hau / Lerp: Vom Abiball zum Haftungsfall , JA 2017, 251
- Duden - The large dictionary of the German language: etymological information on the keywords Abitur and Abitur .
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- Hans Schulz, Otto Basler: German Foreign Dictionary. 2nd completely revised edition. 1. Volume: a – prefix - Antike, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1995, ISBN 3-11-012622-2 , (revised in the Institute for German Language under the direction of Gerhard Strauss), "Abitur" page 13– 14th
- Georg Christoph Oertel: On the public examination of the young students in the Hochfürstlich Brandenburgische Stadt-Schule zu Neustadt an der Aisch, the associated presentation of a new teacher and the dismissal of two high school graduates on April 11th, 12th and 13th of the 1771st year requests ... M. Georg Christoph Oertel ... Walther, 1762 ( google.at [accessed on April 9, 2019]).
- Georg Christoph Oertel: On the public examination of the young students in the Hochfürstlich Brandenburgische Stadt-Schule zu Neustadt an der Aisch, the associated presentation of a new teacher and the dismissal of two high school graduates on April 11th, 12th and 13th of the 1771st year Requests ... M. Georg Christoph Oertel ... Walther, Erlangen 1771 ( google.at [accessed on April 9, 2019]).
- Adolf Schimmelpfennig: Bauer, M. Karl Ludwig . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, pp. 145 f.
- No. II Rescript to the magistrates and inspectors of the Churmark, in which they are aware of the edict of December 23, 1788, issued with regard to the students going to the universities and the Churmärk Higher Consistory, because of the examination of these, also the collation of scholarships and other beneficiaries is made on Jan. 8, 1789, in: Novum Corpus Constitutionum Prussico-Brandenburgensium Praecipue Marchicarum (NCC) VIII (= Volume 8) Col. 2376 ff. (= image: 8 of 237) ; also reprinted by Paul Schwarz: The Prussian Schools of Academics under the Oberschulkollegium (1787-1806) and the Abitur graduate exam , II. The introduction of the Abitur graduate exam (Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica, Volume XLVI) Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Berlin 1910, A. Regulations for the examination for scholars Schools, p. 122 - B. Regulations for the Examination at Universities, p. 128.
- Department for Cult and Public Education in the Ministry of the Interior: Instruction of June 25, 1812 . In: Friedrich Schultze (Hrsg.): The high school graduation exams, primarily in the Prussian state, A. Document collection, Eduard Anton, Halle 1831 p. 7
- Edict on the examination of students going to the universities . In: Friedrich Schultze (Ed.): The high school graduation exams, mainly in the Prussian state, A. Document collection, Eduard Anton, Halle 1831 p. 6
- Department for Cult and Public Education in the Ministry of the Interior: Instruction of June 25, 1812 . In: Friedrich Schultze (Hrsg.): The high school graduation exams, mainly in the Prussian state, A. Document collection, Eduard Anton, Halle 1831 p. 8
- II 12 § 1 ALR (General Land Law for the Prussian States, Part Two, Title Twelve )
- Provisional resolution on the measures to be taken with regard to the universities , of September 20, 1819, XXXV. Session, §. 220, printed in: Philipp Anton Guido von Meyer: The Basic Laws of the German Confederation or German Federal and Final Acts, united according to the order of the Federal Acts; in addition to the most important territorial regulations and the organic laws of the federal government. Ferdinand Boselli, Frankfurt 1845 p. 65 f.
- Wolfgang Neugebauer: The education system in Prussia since the middle of the 17th century. In: Otto Büsch (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Prussischen Geschichte, Volume II: The 19th Century and Great Subjects of Prussian History , B. Great Subjects of Prussian History No. III., De Gruyter, 1992 p. 635 ff., ISBN 3-11-008322-1 .
- Ordinance on the examination of the maturity for the purpose of academic studies. dated January 19, 1825, Grand Ducal Hessian Government Gazette (Nro. 3) Darmstadt 1825 pp. 23-26 and 1832: § 3 of the ordinance, attendance at grammar school, the Matura exams and the relationship with the university on October 1, 1832 ( Published October 17, 1832.), Archive of the Grand Ducal Hessian Laws and Ordinances, edited under the direction of the ministries, Volume Six, from January 1832 to the end of 1834, Im Verlage der Großherzoglichen Invalidenanstalt, Darmstadt 1838, pp. 359-369
- § 2 No. 1 of the laws for students at the University of Marburg (today: Philipps-Universität Marburg ) of December 10, 1819: Matura certificate or examination before the Collegio scholarcharum in: Collection of laws, ordinances, announcements and other general Decrees for Kurhessen from the year 1819. Hof- und Waisenhaus-Druckerei, Cassel, kurhess GS 1819, p. 83 ; also in: Wilhelm Möller, Karl Fuchs (Hrsg.): Collection of the legal provisions still valid in the Electorate of Hesse from 1813 to 1866. Elwert'sche Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Marburg / Leipzig 1866, p. 232 f. and § 6 para. 1 of the ordinance of April 11, 1820, the certificates of maturity for academic studies in: Collection of laws, ordinances, notices and other general orders for Kurhessen from the year 1820. Court and orphanage printing house, Cassel, kurhess GS 1820, p. 49 f. ; also in: Wilhelm Möller and Karl Fuchs (eds.): Collection of the legal provisions still valid in the Electorate of Hesse from 1813 to 1866. Elwert'sche Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Marburg and Leipzig 1866, p. 255 f.
- Collection of laws, ordinances, announcements and other general orders for Kurhessen from the year 1820 Hof- und Waisenhaus-Druckerei, Cassel, kurhess GS 1820, p. 49 f .; also in: Wilhelm Möller, Karl Fuchs (Hrsg.): Collection of the legal provisions still valid in the Electorate of Hesse from 1813 to 1860. Elwert'sche Universitäts-Buchhandlung, Marburg / Leipzig 1866, pp. 255 f.
- Otto Benecke , foreword to the 2nd edition of studies without a secondary school leaving certificate in Prussia - official regulations Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, Berlin 1925, p. 1 f.
- Announcement of the State Ministry, because of the submission of certificates of maturity for academic studies of September 25, 1828. In: Collection of laws, ordinances, announcements and other general orders for Kurhessen from the year 1828. Hof- und Waisenhaus-Druckerei, Cassel, 1828 P. 40
- General German real encyclopedia for the educated classes. Conversation Lexicon. Ninth original edition in fifteen volumes. Ninth volume, Maturitätprüfung , FA Brockhaus 1846, pp. 403–405.
- Report of the Education Commission of the House of Representatives on the petition on the extension of the permissions to which the first-order secondary schools are entitled , namely the admission of secondary school high school graduates to university studies in the legal and medical faculty with the same rights as high school high school graduates. In: Centralblatt for the entire teaching administration in Prussia (Centrbl. Or CBlU), Verlag von Wilhelm Hertz (Bessersche Buchhandlung), Berlin 1869, p. 154
- Report of the Education Commission of the House of Representatives on the petition on the extension of the permissions to which the first-order secondary schools are entitled , namely the admission of secondary school high school graduates to university studies in the legal and medical faculty with the same rights as high school high school graduates. In: Centralblatt for the entire teaching administration in Prussia (Centrbl. Or CBlU), Verlag von Wilhelm Hertz (Bessersche Buchhandlung), Berlin 1869, p. 155
- See, for example, Official Journal d. Royal Prussia. Government of Arnsberg 1834. pp. 284–304.
- Wilhelm Schrader (Provincial School Council in Königsberg): Permissions. In: KA (= Karl Adolf) Schmid (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of the entire education and teaching system. First volume, 2nd edition. Rudolf Besser, Gotha 1876, p. 573 ff.
- Ignaz Jastrow gives a legal historical overview of the authorizations of the secondary school leaving certificate and the right of the minister of education to allow exceptions : The right of the secondary school leaving certificate - a forgotten corner of Prussian administrative law. In: Legal weekly. (JW) 1925, p. 14 ff.
- Ministry of Spiritual, Educational and Medicinal Affairs (ed.): Legislation in the field of teaching in Prussia from 1817 to 1868 - pieces of files with explanations. Wilhelm Hertz - Bessersche Buchhandlung, Berlin 1869, pp. 162 ff. 
- Friedrich Kluge : Etymological dictionary of the German language 22nd edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin 1989, Lemma Abitur : matriculation examination, leaving examination, so actually : "Examination for those who want to leave (from school to university )."
- Sylvia Paletschek : The permanent invention of a tradition: The University of Tübingen in the German Empire and in the Weimar Republic. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart ( habilitation thesis 1997) 2001, ISBN 3-515-07254-3 , p. 123 ff.
- "Böckler-Kolleg informs", Maler Zeitung / Medienhaus Bauer, November 19, 2015
- "There is only the Abitur, not a` Vollabitur` "; in: Marler Zeitung / Medienhaus Bauer, November 20, 2015
- The Rise of the University ( Memento from June 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Retrieved June 14, 2013.
- Federal Statistical Office, Wiesbaden, press release of March 20, 2008; Exceptional value due to high school diploma in two years in Saxony-Anhalt ( Memento from May 25, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal Statistical Office, Wiesbaden ( Memento of August 3, 2004 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal Statistical Office, Wiesbaden ( Memento of August 3, 2004 in the Internet Archive )
- “We are raising an underage generation.” Interview with Josef Kraus, faz.net from May 12, 2012 , accessed on May 12, 2012.
- Average Abitur grades in a comparison of the federal states in 2009. Accessed on April 22, 2015 .
- Proportion of high school graduates with a grade point average of 1.0 by federal state in 2009. Accessed April 22, 2015 .
- Failure rate for the Abitur by federal state in 2009. Retrieved on April 22, 2015 .
- Federal Statistical Office, Wiesbaden ( Memento from November 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Franzjörg Baumgart: Between reform and reaction. Prussian school policy 1805-1859. Darmstadt 1990, p. 106.
- Herwig Blankertz: The history of pedagogy. Wetzlar 1992, p. 197.
- Konrad H. Jarausch: German Students 1800–1970. Frankfurt am Main 1984, p. 24 ff and 72 ff.
- New youth - new training. ( Memento of November 21, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 116 kB), accessed on May 13, 2011.
- Wohlstandsbilanz-deutschland.de , accessed on May 13, 2011.
- Education2016, p. 296.DIPF , accessed on February 26, 2018 .
- See www.kmk.org .
- Abitur average of all countries in comparison ( Memento of March 4, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 31 kB)
- Average grades at the Abitur in a country comparison - accessed May 30, 2017
- Abitur grades: Coordination only works with ramblings. ( Memento from July 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on: taz.de , July 19, 2013.
- Werner Mezger : The customs of high school graduates. From greeting cards to super gag. A contribution to student folklore . (Sketches of cultural history; 2). UVK, Konstanz 1993, ISBN 3-87940-438-0 . See also http://www.deutschlandfunk.de/die-braeuche-der-abiturienten.680.de.html?dram:article_id=32784
- Christoph Scheuermann: We don't celebrate, we escalate. on: Spiegel-Online. July 13, 2009.
- The education system of the GDR from 1959 (Matthias Judt)
- Law on the Socialist Development of the School System in the German Democratic Republic (1959)
- Studying in the GDR
- Fact check GDR: Party decided on learning at universities (Thüringer Allgemeine)
- Myth: "Everyone was allowed to study in the GDR" (KAS)
- Rainer Müller (New Forum Leipzig)