With colleagues (on college from Latin collegium community) an academic study community is called. Depending on the region, this is understood to mean a different learning step, from the secondary level in France, the collège , to a variant of the university faculty , the college .
In medieval universities, the college was a group of students and teachers who lived and worked together in a house that was run on a foundation . The colleges in Oxford and Cambridge are still preserved in this sense.
The original meaning of the medieval college has mostly only been preserved in the names of buildings at German universities today, for example at the colleges of the University of Leipzig . The colleges at Jacobs University Bremen are newly founded and a specialty in the German university landscape. In addition, the term Kolleg is used at some universities for specialized study and research institutions, such as the Europa-Kolleg at the University of Hamburg .
A college in Germany is usually an institute for adult education to obtain the general university entrance qualification . As a rule, it takes three years to pass the nationwide Abitur . After two years it is usually possible to acquire the school-based part of the advanced technical college entrance qualification. In contrast to the evening grammar school , lessons are given during the day and are therefore aimed at former employees who want to expand their academic qualifications through full-time lessons. In addition to attending the college, it is therefore not legally or temporally possible to continue working in a profession - with the exception of “part-time jobs”. The prerequisite for attending a college is usually a secondary school diploma or a comparable qualification and vocational training that has already been completed. Alternatively, the management of a family household or proven unemployment and several years of professional activity are accepted. The minimum age is 18 years. There are different regulations depending on the federal state.
The so-called introductory phase (11th grade) is used to acquire the basic knowledge for the two-year qualification level. In some colleges there are preliminary courses before actually attending the college, e.g. B. at the colleges in Berlin to refresh unused knowledge in central subjects. In some federal states, it is also mandatory to pass an entrance test. The choice of subjects and the Abitur examinations at a college are based on those of the general grammar school , whereby the restrictions imposed by the Ministry of Culture in the federal state must be observed when choosing subjects . The options at the chosen college can also lead to further restrictions. In addition, there may be different regulations for the Abitur exams depending on the federal state.
As a rule, parent-independent BAföG is granted for financing , which does not have to be repaid.
The college is an institution of the ZBW ( second educational pathway ) and not to be confused with the college school (in North Rhine-Westphalia), which was an institution of the first educational pathway and has since become a vocational college .
|Type of school (general)||School types for a higher professional qualification after the Matura|
|requirement||Completion of a BHS or vocational matriculation examination|
levels : 12./13.–14. School level
|Graduation||Diploma examination , trade license|
|number||77 - (2011/12)|
|student||4,819 - (2011/12)|
In the Austrian school system, a Kolleg (the emphasis is on the first syllable: K o lleg) is a type of school that supplements the Matura of a general education (AHS), in order to add an additional qualification to a vocational college (BHS, e.g. Handelsakademie , HTL ) to obtain a comparable professional qualification . In addition, graduates of a BHS or those with vocational training can complete vocational training here . It usually takes two years, and in some industries even three years, and ends with a diploma examination and a trade license .
Advanced courses are offered - usually in combination with an advanced course for BHS / technical college graduates or with an apprenticeship certificate - from most BHS in their field, and the special higher education institutions for working people , as well as at WIFI and bfi , in their own classes, or part-time as evening school .
In particular, there are colleges in the following school types:
- Colleges at technical commercial colleges (in the narrower sense, THS)
- Colleges for clothing at technical commercial high schools
- Colleges for tourism at technical and industrial higher schools
- Colleges for arts and crafts at technical industrial higher schools
- Colleges at commercial colleges (KHS)
- Colleges at business schools (WHS)
- Colleges at higher schools for kindergarten pedagogy (Bakip)
- Colleges at secondary schools for social education (BASOP)
- Berufsreifeprüfung (Austria) - another educational path to study access
- School system in Austria - an overview
- List of school types in Austria
The Kolegija in Lithuania is a non-university higher education institution . It confers the degree of professional bachelor . A requirement for attending a Lithuanian college is a high school or middle school with a high school diploma .
A college is also understood to mean a lecture (lat. Collegium ) in university studies. Students use (s) to enter their notes in college books.
Church-sponsored schools or universities are often referred to as colleges (plural: "the colleges"); this applies above all to the institutions of the Jesuit order. At the time of Ignatius von Loyola , one of the founders of the order, colleges were the dormitories for students at universities, but some of them also offered courses. Accordingly, colleges were the houses for studying and then also teaching Jesuits, in a second phase also grammar schools in today's sense. Since these facilities were designed to be permanent, they were allowed to have permanent property from which the school or university could finance itself as an exception (cf. article Jesuit school ).
In Germany there are three schools sponsored by the Jesuit order ( Kolleg St. Blasien ; Aloisiuskolleg , Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Canisius-Kolleg , Berlin) and in Germany and Austria ( Linz , Vienna-Kalksburg ) some others that are in the same tradition and which teaches Jesuit pedagogy; the Boston College has - although it is a university - to keep the name College. The universities of the Jesuits are often still called colleges internally (see also the list of Jesuit schools and universities in Europe).
For this reason, other colleges that are Catholic-sponsored also bear the name "Kolleg", for example the St. Thomas the Dominican College in Vechta, the St. Sebastian College in Stegen or the College of the School Brothers in Illertissen.
As Sprachenkolleg most religious organizations are referred to inform the preparation for university study German or ancient languages.
- Kolleg , search on abc.berufsbildendeschulen.at - schools, curricula (→ files)
- Austrian school system , status 2011/12, 2.3 Vocational colleges , p. 59 ff ( pdf )
- technical weight. (i.e.): 1,410; for clothing: 213; for tourism: 573; Applied arts: 230; commercial: 581; economic: 149, Bakip: 934; Sozak: 729th pupils in 2010/11 in total according to detailed types of training ( memento from May 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) , Statistics Austria (pdf)
- NQF - National Qualifications Framework. Retrieved October 29, 2018 (German).
- College . Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture , bmukk.gv.at »Education and Schools» Education in Austria »Vocational Schools.
- Susanne Klimmer (ibw): Berufsreifeprüfung - Basis for advising (potential) candidates in schools and school authorities, adult education institutions, career and educational advice centers. Status: February 2006, 3. Alternatives to the professional maturity examination , p. 14 ( pdf f ( Memento from February 4, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), bifo.at)
- techn. (i.e.s.): 3; for clothing: 10; for tourism: 4; Applied arts: 20; commercial: 15; economic: 15, Bakip: 6; Sozak: 10th schools 2010/11 according to detailed types of training , Statistics Austria (online, pdf ( Memento from May 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ))
- https://www.jesuiten.org/was-wir-tun/bildung/schulen Jesuitenschulen in Germany
- https://www.jesuiten.org/was-wir-tun/bildung/schulen/ignatianische-paedagogik Website of the Jesuits - "Ignatianische Pedagogik"
- https://www.sprachenkolleg.de/wir-stellen-uns-vor/ Sprachenkolleg for foreign students, Freiburg (website)