Women's studies in the German-speaking area

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Art class for women , 19th century painting by Louis Lang

With the exception of Switzerland, full access for women to universities in the German-speaking area , or women's studies for short , was only possible at the beginning of the 20th century. The opportunity for women to gain access to university education and also to obtain a university degree is part of general higher education , more precisely women's education .

Development phase of universities, medieval universities

The medieval university as a man's world: College on ethics in the 14th century, Laurentius de Voltolina: Liber ethicorum des Henricus de Alemannia (single sheet, Kupferstichkabinett Berlin )

Universities emerged from the 12th century, initially through customary law, and from around 1350 onwards as sovereign foundations. The social framework conditions in this founding phase as well as the processes that took place in the development phase led to the university emerging as a purely male world.

Many universities emerged from cathedral schools for young priests. This meant that university professors were considered clerics who had to follow celibacy (only after 1452 were medical doctors allowed to officially marry). This was connected with the fact that students had to go through the artist faculty of the Seven Liberal Arts as a clerical basis for all advanced subjects, which included minor ordinations . This meant that women to whom the priesthood was not open (due to the requirement of silence ascribed to Paul in the first letter to the Corinthians) were excluded from university without an explicit prohibition.

The Salerno School , famous as a medical school, was probably open to women. Doctors at this school are documented by name. Trota von Salerno probably worked as a general practitioner at the school of Salerno in the early 12th century and wrote several treatises on medical practice, especially on gynecology . In a script written in the context of the school of Salerno, De Aegritudinum Curatione from the 12th century, texts of the seven teachers ( magistri ) of the school are included, including Trota's teachings. So apparently women could study and teach medicine in individual schools.

Abelardus and Héloïse in a manuscript from the Roman de la Rose (14th century)
The beheading of Saint Catherine of Alexandria (1390) by Lorenzo Monaco

The establishment of the universities led to an expansion of the meaning and function of science in contrast to trained craftsmen. For academics and scientists, an identity of spiritual, spiritual and male developed, which took over the polarizing assignment of the sexes (man = spiritual being, woman = body) from medieval theology. So science and femininity were seen more and more as opposites. Female skills and knowledge were demonized more and more (as magic , poisoning ). Women, especially inquisitive women, were seen as a distraction of the (spiritual) man from science to the point of endangering the scholar (see the stories about Abelard and Héloïse as well as Merlin and Viviane ). The university professors and students chose a learned woman to be their patron saint , namely Saint Catherine of Alexandria . However, this patron saint was distinguished by the fact that, according to legend, she did not use her knowledge for power and influence. She rejected worldly power for herself, so limited her active actions herself.

Men’s associations with a corresponding subculture soon developed at the universities (as evidenced by songs by Carmina Burana, for example ). The unrestrained behavior of some of the students often caused conflicts with urban society, which could lead to the departure of entire groups of academics who founded new universities in other places. Many among university intellectuals opposed both clerical celibacy and marriage. They saw themselves in a competitive situation with the birth nobility. This was expressed in showing off with erotic successes as well as in attacks on women. In order to protect the bourgeois daughters from attacks, the cities then set up brothels .

Universities from the 16th to the 18th centuries

Up until the 18th century, the sons of the nobility and the bourgeoisie were educated at universities, which continued to be organized in four faculties . In addition to the artist faculty, there were the theological, medical and legal faculties that trained pastors, doctors and administrative officials, judges and lawyers. Although professors' celibacy had been abolished and students no longer lived together in supervised male-only boarding schools, universities continued to be places of male socialization. This resulted from the focus on the later professions, which were only open to men. In addition, since the 16th century, students saw themselves as commilitones (brothers in arms), and dueling spread.

The Gottschedin, oil painting by
Elias Gottlob Haußmann (around 1750)

Since there were no generally binding admission requirements, women were not explicitly excluded from the course. However, there was no such thing as a job after university, so there was no real incentive for her to pursue a degree. Only a few women therefore studied at German-speaking universities. The few examples and the circumstances of their studies underline that it was important that the student woman did not, at least visually, disturb the male world of the university. So took z. B. Anna Maria von Schürmann attended lectures at the University of Utrecht in the 17th century, but only from a barred box to protect the students from her sight. Also Luise Gottsched could lectures her husband pursue hidden at the University of Leipzig in the 18th century just behind a half-open door. In individual cases, women were able to study outside of the field of vision, but a woman as a professor was excluded from (German) universities.

Dorothea Christiane Erxleben

At universities, which were open to reform efforts in the 18th century, individual women, especially the wives and daughters of professors, were able to have an intellectual exchange with students and professors through informal forms of meeting. So were z. For example, many of the Göttingen professor’s daughters and wives are highly educated compared to other women. Funded by her father , who carried out a university educational experiment with her, Dorothea Schlözer received her doctorate in 1787 at the University of Göttingen. After completing her doctorate, her father concentrated on marrying her appropriately. In contrast to Schlözer, Dorothea Christiane Erxleben , who had received permission from the Prussian King Friedrich II to take a medical exam, used her doctorate on May 6, 1754 at the University of Halle to work as a doctor. The exceptional cases only underline that in the course of the 18th century it became more difficult than easier for women to complete a course of study and to pursue or use the knowledge acquired in their life plans. The knowledge imparted was regarded as "unfeminine" and was potentially damaging to reputation. Studying jeopardized the women's chances of getting married, but did not enable them to live independently.

19th century to the end of the First World War

The male character of the German university reached its peak in the 19th century. On the one hand, the specifically German liaison system ( corps , fraternities ) developed at German universities , to which the mensur also belonged. On the other hand, the concept of polarized sex characters with a gender-related division of labor established itself in society during this period.

Another German peculiarity that emerged in the 19th century was the authorization system. The Abitur was now required for studying at the university . The educational patents of schools and universities also entitle them to certain positions and courses of study, even to a reduction in military service. Since there were no schools for girls that made it possible to obtain an Abitur, another barrier arose for women that blocked the way to a German university.

In some countries women could study in the 19th century. In the USA, for example, women have been studying at some universities or colleges since 1833 and in England since 1869, but there they were usually at specially established women's universities or the like. limited. In France the universities were never entirely closed to women. Women were able to obtain university degrees there as early as the 1860s. However, equal access to the Grandes écoles , the elite training institutions in France, remained closed to women until well into the 20th century. In some of these countries, fully equal access to university studies only came after the full admission of women’s studies in the German Reich, which was then unrestricted.

Switzerland as a pioneer

Marie Heim-Vögtlin

In German-speaking countries, women’s studies were first possible in Switzerland. The first female students were admitted as early as 1840 at the University of Zurich , which was founded only a few years earlier . After a matriculation application from a Russian woman in 1864 was not yet successful, the Russian Nadeschda Suslowa (1843-1918) doctoral application for medicine was approved in 1867 and she was also enrolled retrospectively.

Marie Heim-Vögtlin (1845–1908) followed in 1874 as the first female student from Switzerland. She also did a PhD in medicine. The well-known Zurich students of the 19th century include a. the Swiss Elisabeth Flühmann , Meta von Salis and Emilie Kempin-Spyri , the Russian Wera Figner and the Germans Emilie Lehmus , Pauline Rüdin , Franziska Tiburtius , Anita Augspurg , Ricarda Huch and Käthe Schirmacher .

Switzerland's pioneering role had various reasons: In general, university education was still of little importance in Switzerland at that time. The universities tried to attract additional students and thus secure their funding through additional tuition fees. Each institution could decide for itself about the admission of women. The newer universities, such as Zurich, led the way. The oldest university in Switzerland, Basel , did not admit women until 1890.

After the initial admission, the number of students at the University of Zurich increased very quickly. In the summer of 1873 the proportion of women was already 26% (114 female students in absolute terms). Most of the female students at the time (109) came from Russia. Accordingly, the proportion of women fell drastically after the Russian tsar in 1873 prohibited Russian women from studying in Zurich by means of a ukase . In the winter of 1880/81 only 9 female students were registered. After the ukase was abolished, the number of Russian female students rose sharply again. In the first decade of the 20th century, mainly foreign women (above all from Russia and the German Empire) still studied in Switzerland, only then did more Swiss women enroll.

The dominance of female students from abroad also resulted from the fact that foreigners (i.e. people who did not come from the canton of Zurich) initially did not have to present a school-leaving certificate in order to be admitted to the course. A moral certificate was enough. It was not until 1872 that the minimum age was raised to 18 years, and in 1873 the school-leaving certificate was mandatory for all students. From then on, after arriving in Zurich, many women willing to study first prepared for their school-leaving exams for half a year or a full year. Only after they had passed it could they enroll. Many, however, had already attended lectures at the university as listeners. From 1900, however, only Swiss people were allowed to enroll as listeners.

Female students harass male operators in a pub, parody of women's studies at the University of Zurich ( Kladderadatsch 1872)

Although women were able to study in Switzerland, many students - especially the corporate ones - and many professors were hostile to women's studies. For example, B. In 1896 a student assembly returned a motion for women to be eligible to vote in university affairs.

The Russian students

Nadezhda Suslova

On the occasion of her enrollment Suslowa had written home: “I am the first, but not the last. Thousands will come after me. ”This happened. The Russian women paved the way for women's studies in Switzerland, but also in other European countries, where they dominated until 1914. Accordingly, the Russian student shaped the image of the student woman.

As a reaction to the defeat in the Crimean War, which exposed Russia's backwardness, far-reaching reforms took place in the country from 1855, including a. the bondage of the peasants was abolished. For the Russian women's movement there was a close connection between peasant liberation and women's emancipation. Out of social responsibility there was an urge for popular education and medicine. From 1859 onwards, Russian women were allowed to study as listeners at Russian universities and the Medical and Surgical Academy. But with a new university statute from 1864 this was again denied them. The Russian women then went to study abroad, probably as a result of Suslova's sensational doctorate, preferably to Zurich. Many Russian women who were able to study in Zurich without a high school diploma were poorly prepared for their studies. This discredited women's studies. The lecturers and the local students rejected the Russian students who were abused as "Cossack horses". There was no integration. Despite poor conditions, many Russian women studied seriously, a fifth of the female students who were matriculated up to 1873 did their doctorate (partly in Switzerland, partly in other countries).

Many of the Russian students were politically active and had contact with revolutionary circles in Zurich. Officially because of moral debauchery, but actually because of the anarchist activities of some female students, the Russian tsar forbade all Russian women to study in Zurich in an ukase (decree) of June 4, 1873. Violation could result in sanctions and an occupational ban. As a result, the number of Russian female students in Zurich fell dramatically.

The Russian government felt compelled to offer the returning female students an alternative. In addition, there was a shortage of doctors in Russia, which was particularly noticeable in times of war. From 1872 onwards, “courses for the training of learned midwives” were offered at the Medical-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg. Despite the name, this was a university-level offering. Only some of the Zurich students switched to another Swiss university. The majority went to study in St. Petersburg. From 1881 onwards, all training institutions that enabled women to gain a higher education were gradually closed because medically trained women were involved in the murder of the Russian tsar. As a result, there was a second wave of Russian female students migrating to Western European universities.

After Tsar Nicholas II came to power in 1895, Russian policy changed again with regard to women's studies. But even after that there were many reasons for Russian women willing to study at a Western European university, namely the limited training capacities in the Tsarist Empire, fear of political persecution and the unpredictability of the study situation in Russia (universities were closed at short notice, etc.). For Russian students of the Jewish faith there was also the fact that since 1886 a numerus clausus of 3% has been in force for Jews at all higher Russian educational institutions. In 1905, the internal political conditions after the attempted revolution in Russia provided a further boost. This tripled z. B. in Berlin the number of Russian medical students.

The opponents of women's studies in Germany and Switzerland - professors as well as members of the Reichstag - took up the image of the politically subversive, morally depraved Russian woman sketched in the Russian ukase of 1873. In response, the German women's movement developed an image of the German student woman that was exactly the opposite of the image of the Russian student. In 1887 , Mathilde Weber asked the German students to deliberately differentiate themselves from their Russian fellow students in appearance, clothing and behavior and to prevent their dominance in the student associations. The Swiss and German students also set themselves apart from their Russian fellow students. The petition by six Swiss female students to the Senate of Zurich University against the inadequate educational background of Russian women in 1870 was just the beginning of a long series of such protests at Western European universities.

German Empire


Dorothea Erxleben from Quedlinburg was the first woman to receive a doctorate in Germany in 1754. She had been privately instructed in theoretical and practical medicine by her father, a doctor, and was admitted to doctoral studies at the University of Halle according to an order from the Prussian king . In January 1754 she submitted her dissertation with the title Academic Treatise on the too quick and pleasant, but therefore often unsafe, healing of diseases . On May 6th of the same year, she took her doctoral examination in Halle, which she passed with great success.

On March 26, 1817, Marianne Theodore Charlotte von Siebold Heidenreich , b. Heiland (1788-1859), in Gießen the doctorate in the art of childbirth with the work on pregnancy outside the uterus and on ectopic pregnancy in particular. Her mother, the midwife Josepha von Siebold , who was examined in 1807, received an honorary doctorate in the same subject from the University of Giessen in 1815. The University of Marburg in 1827 gave a philosophical honorary doctorate to the writer Daniel Jeanne Wyttenbach , nee Gaul (1773–1830) from a French-Swiss family.

Dorothea Schlözer (philosophy, 1787, without writing a dissertation), Sofja Kowalewskaja (mathematics, 1874), Julia Lermontowa (chemistry, 1874), Margaret Maltby ( physical chemistry , 1895), all in Göttingen , and Katharina Windscheid (philosophy, 1895 in Heidelberg ), Elsa Neumann (physics, 1899 in Berlin ) and Clara Immerwahr (chemistry, 1900 in Breslau ) were other women who received a doctorate early in Germany .

In 1897 Arthur Kirchhoff published the book Die Akademische Frau. Reports from outstanding university professors, women's teachers and writers on the qualifications of women for academic studies and professions . Almost half of the 100 statements were positive; a third (for example Max Planck ) rejected the women's degree - sometimes categorically. Kirchhoff himself advocated this in his foreword. Kirchhoff's book contains a chapter Reports from abroad. In this the situation in "America, Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Holland, Italy, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Hungary" is described.

Access extension at the end of the 19th century

Since the end of the 19th century, women were gradually allowed to enroll at German universities . Hope Bridges Adams Lehmann was the first woman in Germany in 1880 to complete her medical studies as a guest student with a state examination. However, her degree in Leipzig in 1880 was not officially recognized. She then received her doctorate in Bern and in Dublin in 1881 received her British license to practice medicine .

The central concern of the women's movement in the German Empire was to improve women's education and access to professions and educational paths reserved for men. In 1888 the General German Women's Association submitted a petition to the Prussian House of Representatives asking for women to be admitted to medical studies and academic teacher training . In the same year the women's association Reform demanded admission to all subjects. However, these initiatives did not achieve any immediate success.

On the other hand, the pragmatic approach of individual women who obtained special permits was successful. These exemptions soon proved to be the back door through which women gained access to universities: what started as an exception quickly became the rule. The first step towards this was the admission of women as guest auditors , for example in Prussia from 1896. This status made it possible for many women to study, including important personalities from the imperial era such as Helene Stöcker and Gertrud Bäumer . Some women, among them Gertrud Bäumer in 1904, took the opportunity to complete their studies with a doctorate.

From 1852 to 1920 no women were admitted to study at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich . Artistic training in Munich could only be obtained at expensive private schools or the newly established training centers, such as the Ladies Academy of the Artists' Association (1884–1920) or the Debschitz School (1902–1914). The Royal School of Applied Arts , founded in 1868, on the other hand, offered women training in at least their female department as early as 1872. The increase in the proportion of women in the number of students after the First World War (e.g. at the University of Würzburg) was suspected in part with reference to their "uselessness" in the event of war, and was discussed controversially in the student body, leading to the establishment of an ASTA subcommittee for women's issues in December 1919 led by the mathematics student Alma Wolffhardt, who tried to fend off the accusation of "intellectual war profiteering". A tough struggle for access to the academy began, which ultimately led to success in the winter semester of 1920/1921. A total of 17 women enrolled and were admitted to study under the same conditions as men.

Role of Jewish women

The vast majority of guest students attended the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin . Jewish women, especially those from the Russian Empire , were particularly well represented among the first years. They even made up the majority of female students at the medical faculty. Many of these women had previously studied in Switzerland, so they already had academic achievements. The positive experiences that Swiss universities had with female students were also an argument in favor of opening up German universities to female students. The best known among them was Rosa Luxemburg , who studied economics at the University of Zurich in the 1890s . The sisters Hanna and Maria Weizmann , as well as Vera Chazmann , the future wife of Chaim Weizmann , should also be mentioned as students of Swiss universities . Another example is the philosopher Anna Tumarkin , the first female professor at the University of Bern .

Baden as a model country

After women had been able to revocably study at the Philosophical Faculty of Heidelberg University since 1895, the Grand Duchy of Baden was the first German state to grant them full access to university studies by decree of February 28, 1900. The decisive factor was an application submitted to the Baden state government by the Freiburg auditor Johanna Kappes . In the winter semester of 1899/1900, for example, four women in addition to Johanna Kappes were retrospectively enrolled at the Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg . The Heidelberg students were properly enrolled in the summer semester of 1900. Among them was the Jewish medical student and later doctor Rahel Straus , who reported on this in her memoir.

At the University of Freiburg Edith Stein received her doctorate “summa cum laude” in 1916 and was the first German university assistant in philosophy with Edmund Husserl ; Although he awarded her the ability to do a habilitation (in her habilitation thesis Finite and Eternal Being , among other things, she dealt with his work and with her successor Heidegger ), but as a woman blocked the way for her to do so for "fundamental considerations".

The situation in Württemberg

On May 16, 1904, the King of Württemberg approved in a decree that "female persons belonging to the Reich are enrolled as students under the same conditions and in the same way as male persons at the University of Tübingen" . From December 1, 1905, this also applied to the Technical University of Stuttgart.


In Prussia women were admitted as guest students from 1896 onwards , with dozens of women having previously studied in Prussia with a special permit from the Minister of Education. As early as 1895, 40 women were studying in Berlin and 31 in Göttingen. Overall, women's guest auditor access rights turned out to be a significant improvement in legal status. Since then, women in Prussia have also been able to obtain a doctorate.

In 1908 women were generally allowed to study in Prussia. In 1913 about 8% of all students were female. By 1930 this proportion rose to around 16%.


In Bavaria, a woman was admitted to study for the first time in 1903.


In 1878, women were allowed to attend lectures as guest auditors in kk Austria , although on the other hand the "ladies' lectures" previously held at the kk Polytechnisches Institut (today TU Wien ) were abolished in 1877 .

In 1896, doctoral degrees obtained abroad were recognized, subject to the condition of nostrification (repetition of all rigorous exams), and admission to the Matura was also enshrined in law. From 1897 the universities of Vienna as well as Prague , Graz and Innsbruck admitted female students to the philosophical faculty , from 1900 also to medical studies , but only after the end of the First World War they were admitted to the law faculty in 1919, to the Protestant-theological faculty in 1928 and to the from 1945 Catholic theological faculty of the University of Vienna.

Gabriele Possanner was the first woman in Austria to receive a doctorate in medicine in Vienna on April 2, 1897. The first habilitation , also in Vienna, was that of Elise Richter in 1905 for Romance studies . Elise Richter was also appointed Austria's first associate professor in 1921.

The President of the Vienna City School Council, Otto Glöckel , campaigned particularly for the admission of women to universities. Glöckel's decree of 7./22. April 1919 guaranteed women free access to technical colleges and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences.

From the end of the First World War to the end of the Second World War

Contradictory development under National Socialism

After taking over the government, the National Socialists announced that they would reduce the proportion of female students to below 10%. However, this measure was only partially implemented and later tacitly repealed. The initial access restrictions in the law against overcrowding in German schools and universities were lifted for women in 1935. The number of students had declined more than expected due to the accelerated development of the Wehrmacht and fell to significantly fewer than the 15,000 targeted. In 1934, 10,538 men and 1,503 women enrolled and a shortage of academics began. In fact, the number of women studying has increased again since 1936 (see also the study by Claudia Huerkamp Bildungsbürgerinnen: Women in Studies and Academic Professions 1900–1945, see references). From 1938 onwards, women were even promoted to study. The proportion of women in the total number of students rose proportionally and in absolute terms during the war years and reached a level never before reached with almost 25,000 and almost 50% women in 1943. The corresponding proportion was not reached again until 1995. In some cases women were in the majority even in the natural sciences.

In Austria, too, a turning point took place in 1934, a numerus clausus of 10% was introduced, and various access restrictions and study difficulties came into play. Although the proportion of women increased again significantly from 1939 due to the war, it was not until after 1945 that new teaching laws and study regulations were introduced in Austria that treated equally.

post war period


In the GDR , women’s studies were strongly promoted, especially since the mid-1960s, as the continuing shortage of skilled workers threatened to have an increasingly negative impact on the economy. In 1986 the proportion of female students reached an all-time high of 50.3%.

1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1989
Female students 19.2% 25.5% 25.2% 26.1% 35.4% 48.2% 48.7% 50.1% 48.6%

German Democratic Republic: Proportion of female students among the students in university studies (excluding research studies).
Source: Statistical Yearbook of the GDR 1990.

Current situation


In 2003, more women than ever before graduated from a German university. According to the Federal Statistical Office , 105,600 female students successfully completed their studies that year. Compared to the previous year, this meant an increase of 7.6 percent. And 20 years earlier it was only half. Among the German university graduates, women have now reached a proportion of almost 50 percent, with the proportion of female professors only about a sixth and thus roughly equivalent to the annual proportion of habilitations.

1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2006 2007 2008 2014 2015 2016
female students 39.7% 40.2% 40.8% 41.7% 42.6% 43.6% 44.5% 45.3% 46.1% 46.7% 47.4% 48.4% 49.4% 49.8% 49.7% 47.8% 48% 48.2%
PhDs 28.9% 30.6% 31.2% 31.5% 31.1% 32.1% 33.1% 33.4% 34.3% 35.3% 36.4% 37.9% 41.1% 42.2% 41.9%
Habilitations 12.9% 12.1% 13.5% 13.8% 12.9% 15.7% 15.3% 17.7% 18.4% 17.2%
Professors 6.5% 6.9% 7.5% 8.2% 8.5% 9.0% 9.5% 9.8% 10.5% 11.2% 11.9% 12.8% 15.2% 16.2% 17.4%

Germany: East and West Germany, female professors: all grades.
Source: Federal Statistical Office, Series 11: Education and Culture, Series 4.4: University staff, different years.


The Federal Equal Treatment Act (B-GlBG) deals in particular with special provisions for members of universities (Part III, Section 2), according to which applicants and female students are not discriminated against in terms of “ admission to studies , access to courses with a limited number of participants the registration and implementation of examinations , assessment of academic success , determination of the topic and supervision of the bachelor's degree , (artistic) master's thesis or diploma thesis or dissertation "as well as" the granting of the opportunity to use the relevant university facilities "(§ 42 ( 1) B-GlBG prohibition of discrimination ).

A women's quota is neither required nor necessary: ​​In 2006 the proportion of women among students at Austrian universities and technical colleges was 52.3%, and the trend is rising (in 2000 it was 50.4%). Among the newly enrolled at Austrian universities in 2006, the proportion was 55.3% women. (Source: Statistical Pocket Book 2007. )

According to § 42 of the Universities Act 2002 , a working group for equal treatment issues is to be set up at every Austrian university in addition to the contact women (§ 41 (1) B-GlBG), which draws up a women’s advancement plan and directs reports to Senate I of the Federal Equal Treatment Commission at the Federal Chancellery, which deals with issues relating to equal treatment between women and men.

The title of professor is anchored in the Federal Constitutional Law , and § 7 of the B-GlBG requires the achievement of the quota for women for advertisements for professorships. This measure is less successful; in 1997 the proportion of female professorships at the University of Vienna was only 7%.

See also


  • Gitta Benker, Senta Störmer: Crossing borders. Students in the Weimar Republic. Pfaffenweiler 1991 (=  women in history and society. 21).
  • Hans Günther Bickert, Norbert Nail: Daniel Jeanne Wyttenbach. Marburg's first honorary doctorate (1827) (=  writings from the University Library of Marburg. 98). Marburg 2000, ISBN 3-8185-0300-1 .
  • Johanna Bleker (Ed.): The entry of women into the learned republic. On the gender issue in academic self-image and in scientific practice at the beginning of the 20th century. Matthiesen, Husum 1998.
  • Elisabeth Boedeker: 25 years of women's studies in Germany. Directory of doctoral theses by women 1908–1933. Volumes 1-4, Hannover 1939/1936/1937/1935. (Volume 1 with an extensive documentary part about the forerunners and beginnings. Despite the date of publication, no National Socialist influences can be recognized.)
  • Gunilla-Friederike Budde : Women in Intelligence. Academics in the GDR 1945 to 1975. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2003, ISBN 3-525-35143-7 (habilitation thesis of the Free University of Berlin 2002, 446 pages).
  • Anja Burchardt: Bluestock - Fashion Student - Anarchist? German and Russian medical students in Berlin 1896–1918. Metzler, Stuttgart 1997.
  • Bernhard Dietrich Haage: The healing woman in poetry and reality of the German Middle Ages. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 11, 1993, pp. 107-132.
  • Hiltrud Häntzschel , Hadumod Bußmann : Menacingly clever. A century of women and science in Bavaria. Beck, Munich 1997.
  • Martin Hermann (Hrsg.): Education in Europe. Part I: Applied mathematics and women's studies in Thuringia (=  series of publications by the Collegium Europaeum Jenense . Volume 44). Garamond - Der Wissenschaftsverlag, Jena 2014, ISBN 978-3-944830-38-4 .
  • Luise Hirsch: From the shtetl to the lecture hall: Jewish women and cultural transfer. Metropol, Berlin 2010.
  • Claudia Huerkamp : educated citizens. Women in studies and academic professions 1900–1945. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1996.
  • Gisela Kaiser: About the admission of women to study medicine using the example of the University of Würzburg. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 14, 1996, pp. 173-184.
  • Marianne Koerner: On unfamiliar territory. Study and everyday experiences of female students 1900–1918. Didot-Verlag, Bonn 1997.
  • Britta-Juliane Kruse: Women's studies, medical. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 435–437.
  • Peter Reinicke (Ed.): From the education of daughters of owning classes to studying at the university: 100 years of the Evangelical University of Applied Sciences Berlin. Lambertus, Freiburg im Breisgau 2004, ISBN 978-3-7841-1537-5 .
  • Anne Schlüter (Ed.): Pioneers - Feminists - Career Women? On the history of women's studies in Germany. Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1992.
  • Eva Schöck-Quinteros , Elisabeth Dickmann (ed.): Barriers and careers. The beginnings of women's studies in Germany. Trafo-Verlag, Berlin 2000.
  • K. v. Soden: On the way to the temples of science. To enforce women's studies in Wilhelmine Germany. In: Ute Gerhard (ed.): Women in the history of law. From the early modern times to the present. Munich 1997, pp. 617-632.
  • Municipal museums Quedlinburg (Ed.): Dr. Dorothea Christiana Erxleben. First German female doctor with a doctorate (=  series of publications by the Klopstockhaus [Quedlinburg]. 3). Halle an der Saale 1999.
  • Isolde Tröndle-Weintritt, Petra Herkert (Ed.): “Now go there and get married!” The daughters of the Alma mater in the 20th century. Freiburg im Breisgau 1997.

Audio CD

  • Haas, Veronika (compilation) with Petra Meunier-Götz (radio director), Brigitte Laugwitz (recording technician), Jörg Tröger (editor), Wolfgang U. Eckart , Edith Glaser, Ingrid Hotz-Davies, Hannah Monyer , Werner Moritz, Agnes Speck and Caroline Witt: “Only the scourer in my lecture hall!” 100 years of women's studies in Baden and Württemberg, SWR Studio Baden-Baden, first broadcast April 22, 2006, SWR 2.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Bea Lundt: On the emergence of the university as a man's world. In: Elke Kleinau, Claudia Opitz (Ed.): History of girls and women education. Vol. 1: From the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1996. pp. 103-118, 484-488, 550-551.
  2. Britta-Juliane Kruse: Women's studies, medical. 2005, p. 435.
  3. Bea Lundt: On the emergence of the university as a man's world. Pp. 109-110.
  4. Bea Lundt: On the emergence of the university as a man's world. Pp. 110-111.
  5. Bea Lundt: On the emergence of the university as a man's world. Pp. 116-118.
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  8. Beatrix Niemeyer: Exclusion or Exclusion? Women around the universities in the 18th century. In: Elke Kleinau, Claudia Opitz (Ed.): History of girls and women education. Vol. 1: From the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1996. pp. 275-294, 512-514, 559; here p. 276.
  9. Beatrix Niemeyer: Exclusion or Exclusion? P. 277.
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  11. Beatrix Niemeyer: Exclusion or Exclusion? Pp. 280-283.
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  19. Trude Maurer: On the simultaneity of the non-simultaneous. Pp. 10-11.
  20. Ilse Costas: The struggle for women's studies in international comparison. Favoring and inhibiting factors for the emancipation of women from their intellectual immaturity in different bourgeois societies. In: Anne Schlüter (Ed.): Pioneers - Feminists - Career Women? On the history of women's studies in Germany. Women in History and Society, Vol. 22. Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1992. pp. 115–144; here p. 115, 124–125.
  21. Trude Maurer: On the simultaneity of the non-simultaneous. P. 14.
  22. Hartmut Gimmler: The plant physiologist Julius von Sachs (1832-1897) and women's studies. In: Würzburg medical history reports. 24, 2005, pp. 415-424; here: pp. 415-417 and 420.
  23. Franziska Rogger, Monika Bankowski: All Europe is watching us! Swiss women's studies and its Russian pioneers. Hier + Jetzt, Baden 2010. p. 27.
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  25. Trude Maurer: On the simultaneity of the non-simultaneous. Pp. 14-15.
  26. ^ Regula Schnurrenberger, Marianne Müller: An overview. In: Verein Feministische Wissenschaft Schweiz (ed.): Just as new as kühn. 120 years of women's studies at the University of Zurich. Efef, Zurich 1988. pp. 195-207; here p. 197.
  27. Gabi Einsele: No fatherland. German students in exile in Zurich (1870–1908). In: Anne Schlüter (Ed.): Pioneers - Feminists - Career Women? On the history of women's studies in Germany. Women in History and Society Vol. 22. Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1992. pp. 9–34; here p. 11.
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  29. Gabi Einsele: No fatherland. Pp. 21, 27.
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  32. Anja Burchardt: Bluestock - Fashion Student - Anarchist? German and Russian medical students in Berlin 1896–1918 . Metzler, Stuttgart 1997, p. 52 .
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  34. Gabi Einsele: No fatherland. 1992, p. 12.
  35. Anja Burchardt: Bluestock - Fashion Student - Anarchist? 1997, p. 52-53 .
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  49. Hartmut Gimmler, p. 417.
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  62. Quoted from: Women in management positions at universities and non-university research institutions. Seventh update of the data material. BLK issue 109 (PDF; 653 kB). 2003, Federal Statistical Office 2004.
  63. PDF; 1.23 MB.