Ladies connection

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Berlin Students in Color (1916)

Women's associations (also: student associations ) are student associations that, in contrast to traditional corporations that only allow men , only accept women .

Female connections share with the older, purely male connections the Lebensbund - and the convent principle and have often taken over the external characteristics of existing connections, such as color and comment - but not the scale . In none of the women's connections are gauges currently struck, with two connections (Amazonia Berlin and the FDV! Uburzia zu Kiel and in Bamberg) - according to their own account - they are cramming and actively working towards a gauging operation.


The first women's connections

Charged a women's association in Berlin in 1928
Charged by the Association of German Students Regiomontana 1930 in Koenigsberg

Towards the end of the 19th century, the first women were regularly admitted to study at German universities. In Baden this happened in 1900, in Prussia eight years later. From the very beginning, they, like their male fellow students, had a need to join together in student groups.

Even before the first women in the German Empire and Austria were allowed to do their doctorates, so-called women's associations had already been established at several university locations. The first was the Nameless Club, founded in Bonn in 1899 . This eventually changed to the Association of Students Women in Germany Hilaritas in the Association of Female Student Associations in Germany . This was followed by other start-ups, e.g. B. the Christian student union Freiburg in the union of the student union of Germany in the year 1903, the old Heidelberg women (1904) or the catholic student union Herrad Freiburg im Breisgau shortly before the beginning of the war in 1914.

These new women's associations partly took over the rules ( comment ) of the existing men's associations and adapted their rites and song texts. At the 100th anniversary of the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin in 1910, members of women's associations were charged publicly at a university party. However, they were only allowed to represent and not partake in the celebration, as "this would damage their femininity". In 1927, at the 400th anniversary of the University of Marburg , they were allowed to celebrate equally.

By 1933 there were around 100 female student associations. With the increasing number, as before on the male side, their own corporation associations and liaison agreements were founded . The German Christian Association of Student Women was founded on a Protestant basis in 1904 (20 associations). This was followed in 1906 by the Association of German Female Student Associations (7 associations), in 1913 by the Association of Catholic German Female Student Associations (VKDSt) (21 associations) and in 1914 by the Association of German Academic Women (VDAF) (9 associations). The VKDst was later expanded to include 27 clubs. There were also so-called Catholic German student corporations .

As the number of female students increased, so did the number of female corporates. During the Weimar Republic and the First Republic in Austria, for example, there were far more corporated women and female students integrated into connections than there are today.

According to the gender researchers Diana Auth and Alexandra Kurth, however, only a few university students felt “addressed by the student associations in the Weimar Republic”. The reason for this was the female connections that were caught up in the traditional understanding of roles, while many female students were just gaining new freedom. A large number of them joined "free student bodies" or political student organizations. However, in the summer semester of 1915 at the University of Münster, for example, almost two thirds of all female students were organized in student associations. Overall, the degree of organization during the Weimar period is said to have been between 6 percent (Berlin) and 15 to 20 percent (total student body in the then German Reich).

In Flanders, female students were not admitted to the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven until 1920. Women's associations were forbidden in the early years.

In Estonia and Latvia , student associations were also founded at the beginning of the 20th century, which more or less clearly built on the Central European traditions of the already existing corporations.

The decline from 1933 to 1938

Jewish students were forcibly de-registered during the Nazi era , including members of Jewish student associations . In June 1932 there were still nine groups in the association of “Zionist Female Students” (ZiSt) with 140 to 150 “Chawerot” groups.

Although the National Socialist ideology did not want women to work in academic professions either, women continued to be represented at universities during the Nazi era in the German Reich. Later, especially during the Second World War , their number even increased, because replacements were needed for the men deployed in the war. Student connections for women were not permitted due to the fact that they were coordinated. With the Himmler decree of June 20, 1938 , the last existing student associations were banned - including the Association of Catholic German Student Associations.

There were no Nazi comradeships in the National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB) for women. They were but membership in organizations like the National Socialist Student Combat Support or the Association of National Socialist students suggested (decent).


In Flanders , during the interbellum , female students were only allowed to be active in social care. However, in 1941 in Leuven a colored Catholic student union for women, the Vlaams Studenteninnenverbond voor Groot-Brussel , was founded. It was soon renamed to Sint-Goedeleconvent . This connection exists without interruption until today and belongs to the Katholiek Student Corps Brussel (1925), which belongs to the Katholiek Vlaams Hoogstudentenverbond . This makes it the oldest women's association in Belgium .

Time after World War II

In Germany and Austria, after the Second World War, the Allied military governments initially banned all student communities. Many did not offer enough resistance to the synchronization , the old rituals and the uniforms reminiscent of charge waxing aroused skepticism among the Allies. However, this gradually gave way, the corporations were admitted again and began to revive. While the connections with male members regained a foothold fairly quickly, the female student connections did not. In Germany, only the VKDSt was re-established as a women's association in 1952 - later renamed the Association of Catholic German Academics (BkdA), completely abandoning the connection principle. Only a few of the many previously existing women's associations could be reactivated after 1945, but even these only existed for a few years. For example, in the winter semester of 1948/49 the Catholic student association Herrad zu Freiburg im Breisgau , which was founded in 1958 in the KDStV Heiland , which was founded in 1956, was reactivated until 1967. Overall, not a single pre-war connection in Germany was able to be permanently reconstituted. A re-establishment ( Virginitas Tübingen im KV) in 1963 ultimately failed. Only in 1987 was there a successful reactivation in Austria.

In Flanders, after the Second World War, student associations for female students were founded in Ghent in 1949 and in Leuven in 1950, the Sint-Veerlekring and the Vereniging der Vlaamse Meisjesstudenten (VMS). The VMS was renamed in 1952 in Vlaamse Katholieke Meisjesstudenten (VKM). These associations organized religious, cultural, social and sporting events for female students.

The year 1968

A large part of the 1968 students saw the corporations as a relic of bygone times and called for the transformation into mixed student associations and the abandonment of customs that were viewed as backward looking . Most corporations refused, as it would have meant the end of the purpose of the association to which they felt obliged, and preferred to maintain their tradition, some of which was centuries old, and to adjourn, i.e. temporarily, due to a lack of members.

However, some corporations complied with these demands. Today there are mixed corporations that were formerly founded as pure men's associations. Often it was about the academic-musical connections or the academic gymnastics clubs , in which another common hobby was and is in the foreground in addition to the comment. These connections mostly began at the end of the 1960s, and at the beginning of the 1970s, also taking on female students, but mostly had to enforce this in protracted debates against the initial concerns of the respective corporation.

In Flanders, due to this development, the Leuven women's umbrella association Vlaamse Katholieke Meisjesstudenten (VKM) was suspended as early as 1961.

The start-ups from 1975

Coat of arms of the AV Merzhausia

As a result of the 1968 movement , the corporate system in Germany had to accept a major loss of importance and the loss of its general reputation within the student body. In many places, fraternity students were reluctant to see them and were avoided or even attacked by some fellow students when they appeared in the same color . The proportion of women who were close to the union life also fell suddenly, and many ladies' circles (associations of couleur ladies) had to close due to a lack of members.

It was not until the mid-1970s that women's associations were founded. Some of these students came from the remaining couleur ladies and friends of corporates, but often they were regularly "wedged" at the universities.

The oldest women's association from this time is the textile and technical women's association Ferra Floris zu Münchberg & Hof , which was published in Münchberg on May 25, 1976 . Its establishment was actively supported by the men's association, the TV Franko-Textoria zu Münchberg and Hof . It was not until the mid-1980s that the number of female corporates rose again, albeit slowly. This happened partly in mixed associations and partly in pure women's associations.

The oldest women's association still active today is the textile and technical women's association Ferra Floris , followed by Merzhausia zu Freiburg im Breisgau , founded on December 14, 1982. This was followed by Rot-Weiß-Rosé Tübingen , in 1984 the now postponed Astra Badensia Freiburg im Breisgau , 1985 the VBSt Lysistrata Berlin , 1986 the Amazonia Nova Marburg , the Laetitia Tübingen and the Concordia Feminarum Kiel . In 1987 the Nausikaa Heidelberg and the Badenia Palatina Mannheim were founded, in 1988 the Helenia Monasteria Münster , the Fla Bella Karlsruhe , the Stella Orienta Marburg and a few others.

Parallel to this development, women's associations were founded in the early 1990s, which were strictly male associations and sometimes lived in the same house. An example of this is the Association of German Female Students in Freiburg (VDSti Freiburg), which for a short time was close to the Freiburg Confederation in the Association of Associations of German Students (VVDSt). However, this experiment met with strong resistance from the Kyffhäuser Association and this women's circle had to suspend a few years later. Something similar happened with the VDSt Darmstadt, which left the Kyffhäuser Association for this reason. There was also the development of pure women's associations within an umbrella association, such as the Catholic Unitas Association (UV), or the conversion of some men's associations into mixed corporations , including the Sondershäuser Association or the Schwarzburgbund . Some non-union corporations in Germany also began to transform themselves into mixed leagues.

A long discussion process arose in the established non-beating Catholic connections in Austria. Some corporations opened up to women and turned into mixed leagues. Among them there were also those who had several dozen active members without accepting women, for example AV Austria Innsbruck (started in 1978, attempt stopped in 1982) or Norica Wien (around 1985), so that the argument of the lack of members could not be decisive. However, after problems, many returned to the originally purely male society.

Above all, the Austrian Cartel Association (ÖCV) tried from this point on the strategy of promoting the establishment of new mixed and all- women associations under the patronage of long-established ÖCV associations. As a result, for example, the AV Claudiana Innsbruck , the Universitas Vienna and other corporations were created that were and are open to both men and women. This enabled mixed connections without having to change your own connections. In the 1990s there was a discussion about the full integration of women in the ÖCV, which, according to a survey, found a majority of almost 62% within the old rulers, but the attempt failed because of the votes of the active as well as the women who prefer one wanted to found their own, independent umbrella organization, which is smaller, but in terms of protocol is on a par with the ÖCV.

In Flanders, individual women's associations were carefully established. In Leuven were status Nascendi Leuven (1981-1984), Aphrodite Leuven (1986), ad libitum Leuven (1986 to 2001) and Vader Brugse Leuven established (1989-2001). They did not belong to any umbrella organization.

Todays situation

Contrary to the widespread opinion that corporations almost exclusively accept men and exclude women, there are already dozens of both mixed and all-female connections in Austria and Germany. New start-ups are added every year, but women are still severely underrepresented. The decades-long absence of women's corporations is due only to their decline in 1933 and 1938 and the reluctance of young women to rebuild them after the war, especially after the social upheavals of 1968. Many women also preferred to just be couleur ladies, wherever there were no obligations.

Since 1989 today's women's associations have been exchanging ideas at the international women's association meeting (DVT), which takes place every year at a different university location.


In the meantime, women's associations have largely re-established themselves in Germany, albeit in fewer numbers than in the first half of the 20th century. A good half of the German women's associations were founded after 2000. Today there are again more than 45 active women's associations in Germany. Their activities are mostly similar to those of their male or mixed counterparts: ritual pubs and commers , parties, academic lecture evenings, joint visits to the theater and the opera, rhetoric courses, discussion groups. Sometimes counseling is carried out for young female students, they are involved in the student body (which sometimes provokes criticism of alternative left-wing lists) or tutoring courses are offered. The Cologne ADV Agrippinia, for example, offered surgical suturing courses for medical students.

On the part of the men's associations, however, they are sometimes not viewed as full-fledged corporations. Also due to the lack of organization of the women's corporations in their own umbrella organizations, there have not yet been any talks or agreements with the men's associations. Some women's associations are members of the Unitas Association (UV), one each in the Schwarzburgbund (SB) and one in the Sondershäuser Association (SV). Most fraternity students are members of mixed fraternities.

On September 16, 2017, the connections Mädelschaft Bremensia zu Braunschweig, ADV Victoria Hanover, ADV Gratia Aurora Greifswald, ADV Helenia Monasteria Münster and ADV Concordia Feminarum zu Kiel founded the North German Cartel of Female Corporations (NdK).


Circle of the Graz Students Association

There are currently around 30 women's associations in Austria again. One of the pre-war connections was reactivated, the free-liberal Association of Grazer Hochschülerinnen (VGH) (founded in 1912, reactivated in 1987; the oldest female connection still in existence today in the German-speaking area). While the German women's associations tend to be non-denominational, Roman Catholic or ecumenical women's associations dominate in Austria.

Since the late 1980s and early 1990s, Christian-oriented umbrella organizations for women's associations have existed again. The Association of Colored Girls (VFM) for middle school students (11 associations) and the Association of Christian Student Associations in Austria (VCS) for female students (8 associations). There are also some women’s associations in the national liberal area, such as B. the Viennese academic girls Freya , which is related to the Vienna corporation ring . In addition, there is a national, but politically independent women's association, the Vienna academic girls' association Nike, which has set itself the goal of maintaining an intellectual discourse in the form of lectures and discussion evenings in addition to traditional values. In addition, there are independent women's associations as well as Maturantinnen connections, ie connections that are accepted from the last grade of grammar school, but which link full membership to the Matura and thus extend to pupils and non-academics without losing their university character.

On the part of the Christian associations ( Österreichischer Cartellverband / ÖCV, Mittelschüler-Kartell-Verband / MKV, Akademischer Bund Katholisch-Österreichischer Landsmannschaften / KÖL) there has been a full recognition of Christian women's associations as full corporations since the association agreement in 1993. VFM and VCS both belong to the European Cartel Association (EKV) and are treated equally in terms of protocol. There are also agreements between ÖCV and VCS, KÖL and VCS, and the student associations MKV and VFM have recognized each other. Representatives of the VCS are admitted to the Cartel Assembly of the ÖCV with restrictions (seat right without voting rights), the educational academies have de facto been merged. Joint charging trips, pubs and other events are common.

In Austria, the division between the Christian-Catholic and the national-liberal camps is handled very strictly, as is the case with the male corporations, there are no contacts between the two camps. The Christian-oriented women's associations meet informally as part of the MKV's Pennälertag with this and the two other large men's associations KÖL and ÖCV . Traditionally they charge at this meeting of all MKV cooperations. Official meetings are the VCS and VFM days, where they are among themselves.


The Swiss Student Association decided at the AGM in 1968 under CP Urs Altermatt the inclusion of women. Today there are three women's sections in the Schw. StV. The GV Penthesilea was founded at the Appenzell Gymnasium in 1993, followed by the GV Monte Pacis in Gossau in 1998 . Since April 17, 1999, St. Gallen has had the first all-women union at the university level that is affiliated with the Swiss Student Association, the AV Kybelia . The existing non-union middle school connections for women are the Adrasteia Sangallensis in St. Gallen (1989), the Licornia in Frauenfeld (1992) and the Adrasteia Solodorensis in Solothurn (2011). In Bern, the AV Auroria exists as a women's association. The women's university association AV Filetia Turicensis (2012) in Zurich is also free of association.


In Flanders, some ladies connections at a local seniors Convention, the combined 1996 Meisjesseniorenkonvent (MSK) ( Fortuna Leuven , Aphrodite Leuven , Vader almond Leuven , Vader Canard Leuven , Verboden Vrucht Leuven , Vader Brugse Leuven , ad libitum Leuven , the ladies sections of Hollandia Lovaniensis and of the Katholiek Student Corps Leuven , the Goedeleconvent ). On November 9th, 1998 the MSK was recognized by the Katholiek Vlaams Hoogstudentenverbond .

Baltic states

Corporated female students in Riga

In the Baltic States , women's corporations were founded in the 1920s. They reconstituted in perestroika . There are currently five women's associations in Estonia ( Tartu , Tallinn ) and thirteen in Latvia ( Riga ).


In Chile there are three German-Chilean women's associations called girls in the cities of Santiago de Chile , Concepción and Valdivia . The oldest is the girlhood Erika Michaelsen Koch , which was founded in 1969 in Santiago. In 1991 the Amankay in Valdivia was added, most recently the Viktoria (2004).

Couleur ladies

There is a fundamental difference between so-called couleur ladies and female corporates. The former are the association's official female guests. This could also lead to a more or less loose union of these couleur ladies among themselves. Historically, a young lady (often a fellow student in practice) had to be accredited by a connection in order to regularly attend corporate events. For this purpose, until the restructuring of the connections at the beginning of the 70s, which went hand in hand with the modernization of the universities, a connection student (= active) first had to officially introduce his girlfriend / companion to his connection. In practice this meant: the student had to submit an informal application to his convent (meeting of the active) in advance for his female guest. He had to provide evidence that this young lady is an "impeccable and respected person ...". If possible, this should come from the educated middle class. The aim was to ensure that, within a connection, the young female guests also had a similar intellect and similar values ​​to those of the young students. The overriding goal was harmony among like-minded and educated people.

Before 1968, the vast majority of connections had firmly organized couleurdam circles that held their own semester events (“Damenrevanche”) and in some cases even had their own board members (Seniora, Conseniora) and a (low) budget provided by the actual connection, but without being members themselves . Most such circles have been extinct since the 1970s. Nowadays the term “lady of color” hardly exists in the traditional sense and when it does, it is mostly not organized and only loosely connected to “her” connection.

Many fellow students in Austria prefer not to join a student corporation. The arguments are the many additional obligations and the almost unrestricted access to events of an academic association.

A rivalry between friends, who come to the booths and who over time become couleur ladies, and who honor the booth again and again, and female corporates cannot be ascertained. Both groups have a different approach to the whole, but do not conflict, sometimes after some time couleur ladies join the women's associations, as they have now been made familiar with the complex “connection” and have gained an insight.

In the meantime, there are also sometimes “circles of friends” of the women's associations, the so-called “couleur gentlemen” as the male counterpart to the couleur ladies.

Customs and experimentation in women's associations

Female lyrics

One of the first adaptations of the corporate tradition to female needs concerned the old student songs, as they were designed for use by male students. From stanzas like "I hear the song of songs, hear it my brothers" became something like "I sing the song of songs, hear, I sing it again and again", old student songs like "Gaudeamus Igitur" were juxtaposed with new, feminine versions such as “Gaudeamus Igitur, virgines dum sumus” in the 1st or lines written from a female perspective like “Vivant omnes iuvenes, nobiles, studiosi!” (instead of: “Vivant omnes virgines, faciles, formosae!”) in the 5th Verse.

However, a large part of the lyrics remained untouched, and some adaptation has not yet succeeded. Many songs are therefore also sung in the male version by the female connections, e.g. B. "O old lad glory".

Gender equitable comment

The fraternities faced the problem that many of the traditions had to do with toasts and acceptance speeches. This was partly solved in a feminine way by toasting with champagne or wine (which brought the women's associations on the part of left organizations the accusation of serving old gender stereotypes). Other women's associations (especially the Austrian ones), on the other hand, toast with beer or shandy (which led to the accusation that these associations thoughtlessly imitate everything the men did and not develop their own forms). Indeed, women's associations are faced with the problem of how much customs should be adopted. On the one hand, basic things like hats, bands, songs, comments have to be adopted, otherwise they would not be corporations, on the other hand, if they were completely taken over, they would not be different from male corporations, so they would not be “ladies” associations at all, but mere decals of male ones Corporations.

Many women's associations have solved this by taking over the basics but changing the subtleties. Meetings are usually more informal, and receptions are sometimes carried out in a less formal setting. Admission ceremonies are sometimes carried out more loosely and not completely deadly serious, comment violations are not punished, strengthening is rejected as a bad habit.

Feminine charging

Charged a Berlin student union at the foundation ceremony of the student body in 1932

Only a few student associations use charging lice, only a few rackets for charging. Mostly black women's jackets or evening dresses with colored sashes are worn, but a few actually charge in full wank with a flag. Usually, a friendly nod is given as a salute and when toasting. Instead of clubs, roses or keys (e.g. BAV Aurora Innsbruck) are sometimes used.

In the case of Kommersen male Christian associations established in Austria, they are treated like the other corporations when they move in and out: According to the date of foundation and the proximity of their umbrella organization or its principles (in the case of non-association) to those of the host association. Student associations are handled protocol-wise like student associations, neither disadvantaged nor preferred.

Apart from that, it was very early on in Austria for Catholic connections to allow women to join the pubs without restriction, "Sine fem" bars are extremely unusual for Christian connections in Austria. Since women traditionally sit at the pub table anyway, the presence of women's corporations has not changed the course of these celebrations in any way, let alone disrupted it.

In Germany, however, presence at the pub is still the exception.

New color articles

Ladies' associations mainly use the well-known color articles of the established associations such as ribbons / bows, hats, tips and paint needles, beer mugs, sometimes decorated with feminist slogans such as "Be woman, be free!". There are also pieces of jewelry such as earrings, brooches, chain pendants or rings in the connecting colors. In some cases, sliders that are worn on bracelets made of champagne ribbon are exchanged as a replacement for the Zipfelbund.

The established color article manufacturers have already reacted to this new clientele.

Batch, own and third party names

Mostly the traditional batch designations are in use in a female version: Seniora (x), Conseniora (xx), Secretary (xxx), Cashier (xxxx), Fuxmajora (FM).

Sometimes the representative elected for one semester is not called Seniora, but the president or chairwoman, her deputy vice-chairwoman or vice-chairwoman. There are also deviations in the Fuxmajora such as Fuxmajorin, Fuxmagistra or just Magistra.

A reversed batch string is also possible: xxx for the Seniora, xx for the Conseniora, x for the secretary.

Of 76 (as of August 2009) women corporations founded in Germany after 1963, 44 had or had the word “women's association” in their names. In pronouncements of these connections, the term "ladies 'association" is also often used, the annual meeting is accordingly called "ladies' association meeting". Reports in newspapers or magazines have also adopted this spelling. In Austria, the term is largely not used within the corporate sector.

Of all women's associations founded / active in Austria after 1970 (34, as of August 2009), 5 have or had the word "Dame" in their proper name (although this is historically due to the development of a circle of ladies' names in two corporations), but most of them operate as “Student Union” or “Middle School Student Union”. In announcements by the umbrella organizations VfM and VCS, the members also consistently name their organizational form as “student union”. There are seldom contacts to German women's associations here, and DVT is not taken part.

Members of the same women's corporation usually address each other as “Federal Sister”. At VfM and VCS, which are designed and constituted as cartel associations, the salutation “cartel sister” is common for members from the same association. Members of the EKV are referred to as cartel siblings (or brothers), other corporates as color brothers, color sisters or color siblings, depending on the situation.

In the meantime, even with established EKV associations, it has become established not to speak of “cartel brothers” but rather correctly of “cartel brothers and sisters”, since a large number of cartel sisters have joined their own family through the EKV.

See also


  • Edwin A. Biedermann: Lodges, clubs and brotherhoods. Droste, Düsseldorf 2004, 2nd edition 2007. ISBN 3-7700-1184-8 . P. 268 ff.


  • The Corps "Schlamponia" - A student story from the 20th century, brought into dainty rhymes and drawn by Max Brinkmann, A. Hofmann & Comp., Berlin, 1899 - Reprinted Edition Studentica, Hans O. Arnold Verlag, Göttingen, 1981 , ISBN 3-923414-00-5 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. SCC2005, directory of all student corporations
  2. a b Frank Stanisch, Florian Stegner (ed.): Medicine, History and Gender. Verlag Franz Steiner, 2005, ISBN 978-3-515-08564-9 , p. 110.
  3. From the exception to the everyday: Women at the Berlin University Unter den Linden. Trafo-Verlag 2003, ISBN 3-89626-103-7 .
  4. ^ Margret Lemberg: Introduction: The first women at the University of Marburg. In: It started a hundred years ago. The first women at the University of Marburg and the student associations up to “Gleichschaltung” in 1934. An exhibition in the University Library of Marburg from January 21 to February 23, 1997. Exhibition and catalog by Margret Lemberg. Marburg 1997 (publications of the University Library of Marburg). - pp. 1-31.
  5. a b Peter Krause In: Gaudeamus igitur, Student life then and now. Catalog for an exhibition in the Schallaburg 1992, organizer and publisher: Office of the Lower Austrian Provincial Government, ISBN 3-85460-063-1 .
  6. Jump up ↑ Diana Auth, Alexandra Kurth: Men-alliance Burschenherrlichkeit. Research situation and historical review. In: Christoph Butterwegge, Gudrun Hentges (eds.), Old and New Rights at the Universities , Agenda-Verlag, Münster, 1999, pp. 114–129, p. 125.
  7. ^ Wiebke Reichmann: From Coulerdame to Student? VDM Verlag 2009, ISBN 3-639-15744-3 .
  8. ^ Elisabeth Kraus: The University of Munich in the Third Reich. Utz Verlag, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-8316-0639-0 , p. 509.
  9. The Jewish student. Journal of the Association of Jewish Students. Published by the Presidium of the KJV in Berlin, edition June 1932 (Issue 5/29th year)
  10. see self-description of the history of the BkdA
  11. Kaja Uibopuu: 1912-1992: 80 years of the Graz University Students Association: the history of the oldest existing women's association in Austria (= series of publications by the Styrian Student Historian Association ) 1992.
  12. Peter Krause : O old lad glory . 5., completely redesigned. Edition. Styria Verlag, Graz 1997, ISBN 3-222-12478-7 , p. 205 ff .
  13. Thomas Mader: Girlfriends for Life - with four principles. In: Die Welt Online, November 17, 2002 ( ).
  14. ^ Gerhard Hartmann: The CV in Austria. Its creation, its history, its meaning . 3rd, revised. and additional edition. Lahn-Verlag, Limburg 2001, ISBN 3-7840-3229-X , p. 245 .
  15. a b c VCS FAQ
  16. Thomas Trescher: Good connections - with a network and a double bottom. In: Falter. Issue 14/08-Extra, April 2, 2008.
  17. Report on the DVT on the Athenia Würzburg website ( ( page no longer available , search in web archives: )).@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /
  18. Paragraph women's associations in Cologne on ( ).
  19. Women's power instead of men's leagues. In: Kölner Stadtanzeiger. February 25, 2008 ( ).
  20. Bremensia girls to Braunschweig. Retrieved January 16, 2020 .
  21. ^ ADV Victoria Hanover. Retrieved January 16, 2020 .
  22. Do not forget that you are German! Report about the Freya girls on from March 25, 2007 ( ).
  23. see Association Agreement XXXVI. CVV 1993
  24. The history of the Indla corporation ( Memento of the original dated December 14, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  25. Keep silent, everyone tend. Version from the Cantus beat of the C.Ö.St.V. Academia zu Graz in the VCS.
  26. Gisela Probst-Effah: Gaudeamus igitur - reflections on a student song. In: ad marginem , issue 76, 2004.
  27. Masami Nagatomo: The history of the German student songs from Carmina Burana to Gaudeamus Igitur. In: Journal of the Graduate School of International Cultural Studies. Volume 9. Tohoku University, 2001, pp. 61-80.
  28. ^ Mary Grace McCaskill: Tip of Friendship. In: UniSPIEGEL 5/2002 of October 21, 2002, ( ).
  29. Couleurinfo of the Concordia connection in the Vfm
  30. Everything for a good look by Doris Malle in UnAufberford , student newspaper of the Humboldt University in Berlin, October 2003
  31. a b see article: List of women's associations and current SCC