Austrian Cartel Association

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cartell Association of the Catholic Austrian Student Associations

coat of arms logo
WappenCV.gif ÖCV Logo.png
Basic data
Surname: Cartell Association of the Catholic Austrian Student Associations
Abbreviation: ÖCV
Represented in: AustriaAustria Austria Italy
Foundation on: July 10, 1933
Resolution: 1938 , " connection of Austria " to the Dt. rich
Reconstitution: May 19, 1945
Links: 50 members (list)
Principles: Religio, Scientia, Amicitia, Patria
Type of members: Men's leagues
Religious orientation: Catholic
Position to the scale : not striking
Motto: In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas
Color status : colored
Head / Chair: KÖHV Neostadia Wiener Neustadt
Conditions: EKV
Working groups: AKV
Association body: Academia
Office: Austrian Cartel Association
Lerchenfelderstrasse 14
A-1080 Vienna

The Austrian Cartel Association (ÖCV) is a corporation association of Catholic , non-striking, color-bearing student associations in Austria . The association, based in Vienna, has 50 member associations in Austria.

In Austria, the association is usually only referred to as the Cartell Association or CV , but must be distinguished from the German Cartell Association of Catholic German Student Associations (CV). The ÖCV split off on July 10, 1933.


The ÖCV is an amalgamation of individual associations in compliance with the principle of subsidiarity , i.e. as much as possible maintaining their independence. All member associations of the ÖCV have equal rights and have the same voting rights at meetings. The principle of anciency only applies to the “protocol-based” process , whereby the connections are sorted according to their date of entry, the so-called official order .

The ÖCV is also structured according to the organization of the connections: there is the ÖCV student association , which consists of Aktivitas , and the old ÖCV group, which is formed from the respective old manors and consists largely of academics.

In cities where there are several member associations , the resident associations have established local associations that are supposed to coordinate the work of the associations among themselves. There are a total of 7 local chapters:

  • Grazer Cartellverband (GCV), 6 connections
  • Innsbrucker Cartellverband (ICV), 6 connections
  • Leoben Cartell Association (LCV), 2 connections
  • Linzer Cartellverband (LiCV), 3 connections
  • Salzburg Cartel Association (SCV), 3 connections
  • Wiener Cartellverband (WCV), 22 connections
  • Wiener Neustädter Cartellverband (NCV), 3 connections.

One of the WCV associations is based in Klosterneuburg and one of the NCV in Baden near Vienna.

The highest decision-making body is the Cartel Assembly (CVV). Individual sessions take place separately according to the student union and the elderly union. Here every activity or every old man has a voice. In joint meetings of active and old men, each connection has two votes, one for the old man and one for the activitas.

Every year, a connection (possibly also a local association) takes over the suburb, i.e. H. the chair in the ÖCV. The suburban presidium consists of the suburban president, his two representatives and other specialist speakers. The suburb represents the general association at festivities and carries the ÖCV standard with it. In addition, the local presidium presides over the student association.

The ÖCV publishes its own association magazine, the “Austrian” Academia , which appears every two months. The magazine was founded in 1888; their edition was given in 2005 with 31,974 copies. In addition to the usual reports on the association, extensive articles on the state, society and science are published.


→ For the history as part of the CV see: Cartell Association of Catholic German Student Associations # History

Foundation of the Austrian Cartel Association

At the Cartel Assembly in 1932 of the all-German CV, it was decided that membership in the CV was incompatible with membership in the NSDAP or the National Socialist German Student Union as long as the German bishops condemned National Socialism. Just one year later, however, the strict ban on party membership was lifted as a result of the Reich Concordat. From 1933, the process of conformity began in Germany with the introduction of the Führer principle and the resulting rapprochement with the National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB).

The events prompted the Austrian student representatives to withdraw from the all-German student body. Austrian connections were asked to immediately expel Chancellor Dollfuss and Army Minister Vaugoin. The Austrian CV corporations refused this order and took the position that Austria was an independent nation and that the request was an imposition. In an act of solidarity, many Austrian connections accepted Dollfuss as an honorary member. In response to this, the coordinated association management in Berlin declared Dollfuss and all CV members of the Austrian government to be excluded from the CV on July 9th. The Austrian connections made it clear that this instruction could only apply to connections in the German Reich; They separated therefore on July 10, 1933 from the Reich German CV and justified this with the "appointment of new leaders on the part of non-association bodies for the CV and their orders that contradict the principles and spirit of the CV" . The new suburb was Norica Wien on July 15th.

In Austria, which was still sovereign at the time, the CV member associations escaped conformity by leaving the Cartell Association and founding the Austrian Cartell Association of Catholic German student associations .

Austrofascism (corporate state)

In the phase of Austrofascism from 1933 to 1938, the Austrian Cartel Association played an important role. According to the graduate historian and political scientist Stephan Neuhäuser , “at least 37% of all student members of the ÖCV in various military formations supported the armed forces and the home defense during the February events of 1934 (...) In Graz, 70% of the active ÖCV participated on the side of the government troops and home defense, in Leoben 45 %, in Vienna 33% and in Innsbruck 29%. The largest contingents were Babenberg Graz (40), Carolina Graz (40), Austria Vienna (53), Austria Innsbruck (49), Norica Vienna (64) and Rudolfina Vienna (54) ” . After February, Akademikerhilfe, which is related to the ÖCV, took over the previously socialist academic homes at Säulengasse 18 and Billrothstrasse 9 in Vienna.

The association acted as a recruiting pool for the fascist system, the proportion of association members in various bodies of the corporate state was very high. In the Federal Council it was 90 percent. With Otto Kemptner , a federal brother of Engelbert Dollfuss was commissioned to set up the Fatherland Front . Members of the ÖCV were required to join from 1933. Engelbert Dollfuß also made sure that young academics who belonged to the ÖCV could quickly advance to top positions in politics and administration. In return, the head of government was given a say in filling positions within the ÖCV. The regime appointed CV member Heinrich Drimmel as administrator for the student body in Austria , to whom other administrators at the individual universities were subordinate.

In the Federal Government of Dollfuss I , six out of ten ministers belonged to the association; after three government reforms, the figure was eight out of ten. The Dollfuss II government , which was responsible for the suppression of the uprisings in February 1934 as part of the Austrian Civil War , consisted predominantly of members of the ÖCV; in the current dictatorship under Dollfuss, six of the 13 ministers were still corporates.

After Dollfuss was shot dead by SS men in the Federal Chancellery in the course of the July coup in 1934 , a newsletter in June 1935 said: “One of the best in the CV, our eternal Chancellor Dr. Dollfuss ". In 1937 you could still read there: "Dollfussstrasse is none other than traditional CV-Strasse."

Engelbert Dollfuss was an honorary member of 16 ÖCV associations until his death, his successor Kurt Schuschnigg had nine honorary memberships.

National Socialism and World War II

Already before the National Socialist takeover of power there were rapprochements between the Cartell Association and National Socialism, for example at a memorial rally for Albert Leo Schlageter in Innsbruck on June 27, 1923, organized with local NS organizations. In the short-lived National Socialist Marionette Cabinet Seyß-Inquart from 1938 there were two members of the CV: Oswald Menghin (Education Minister) and Wilhelm Wolf (Foreign Minister). Both are considered "March violets" in the ÖCV, ie traitors whose true sentiments "blossomed" in March 1938; Menghin was "dishonorably" dismissed from his association for his conduct. The same lawsuit ran against Wolf - the processing of which was made difficult by the ban on meetings - when he was killed in a mysterious car accident. Anton Rintelen , who should have taken over the government if the July coup had succeeded , was also active in the National Socialist environment . Josef Nadler , who had served the Austro-Fascist regime, joined the NSDAP immediately after the Anschluss, where his ethnic-Greater German ideas met with wide approval.

After the “ Anschluss ”, the Austrian Cartel Association was banned by the National Socialists . 40% of the members of the Innsbruck local groups joined the NSDAP. 7% of the NSDAP members joined the SS. Gehler regards this example as representative of the overall situation. Many members of the Austrian Cartel Association who were politically active during the Austrofascism were politically persecuted during the Nazi era because of their close relationship with people. In so-called “transports of celebrities” they were among the first to be deported to the concentration camp . Most of them ended up in the Dachau concentration camp . Others, such as the doctor Konrad Eberle , were gradually removed from their posts if, for example, they showed a “clerical attitude”.

The resistance of the ÖCV was shown at the Rosary demonstration on October 7, 1938 in Vienna, in which some members of the now banned ÖCV took part. An association of the ÖCV, the K.Ö.HV Alpinia Innsbruck, was founded on May 1st 1940 as a resistance association during the Second World War.

ÖCVers who made friends with the new system were excluded from the association after it became known. Taras Borodajkewycz was a member of the ÖCV. The world trade professor who caused a sensation in the 1960s through anti-Semitic agitation on the university floor, was excluded from his ÖCV association in 1945. Even if it is an example of a member of the Cartell Association who had no particular fear of contact with either the Austro-Fascist regime or the National Socialists, it is also an example of the early denazification of members with known membership in the NSDAP in the ÖCV.

25 members became victims of National Socialism, including the following well-known personalities:

post war period

After the end of the war, the individual connections were re-established. In 1945, the Austrian connections, which had the abbreviation Catholic German Student Union (KDSt.V.) in their name, changed it to the Catholic Austrian Student Union (K.Ö.St.V). After the war, the re-establishment of the ÖCV took place, which officially changed its name to the Cartell Association of Catholic Austrian Student Associations . The name Österreichischer Cartellverband is still used.

The experiences of the older ÖCV members were passed on to the active members of the newly established and re-established associations. Despite the persecution by the Nazi regime, the ÖCV continued to see itself as a "value-oriented representative elite": at the Cartell meeting from November 30th to November 1st. December 1946, the ÖCV raised a claim to political leadership in Austria as a pro-Austrian and politically neutral community of values ​​and education.

A reunification of CV and ÖCV did not take place after the Second World War and is currently not being considered. Both associations maintain a close friendship and consider themselves to be sister associations. To this end, on December 5, 1957, the Salzburg Two Association Agreement was concluded between the two corporation associations .

Furthermore, CV and ÖCV together with the Swiss Student Association (SchwStV) concluded the Innsbruck three-association agreement on February 10, 1963, which includes the individual association agreements with the CV on the one hand, the Bregenz two-association agreement of January 5, 1953, and the SchwStV, on the other. the Zurich Two Association Agreement of February 13, 1947, replaced.

In the politics of post-war Austria the ÖVP ÖCVer played an essential role. The ÖCV is assigned to the apron of the ÖVP. Prominent representatives included the four successive Federal Chancellors Leopold Figl , Julius Raab (both involved in the negotiations on the Austrian State Treaty ), Alfons Gorbach and Josef Klaus . In the wake of the fall of the Iron Curtain and Austria's accession to EU came Alois Mock to a decisive role.

Recent history

Against the background of the student unrest in the late sixties and seventies and the general enthusiasm for reform, the admission of women and non-Catholic Christians was discussed as well as the abandonment of formalities and organizational structures. During this time, some ÖCV connections also established Protestants. After the association agreed on a unified line, the connections had to exclude their Protestant members. As a result, among other things, the AV Austria Sagitta Vienna was founded, which is now incorporated as a Christian ecumenical association in the Free Curia of the EKV .

Further association agreements were concluded with the Middle Schools Cartel Association of Catholic, Colored Student Corporations of Austria (MKV), with the Academic Association of Catholic-Austrian Landsmannschaften (KÖL), with the Cartel Association of Catholic Non-Colored Academic Associations of Austria (ÖKV), with the Katholiek Vlaams Hoogstudentenverbond (KVHV), with the Association of Christian Student Associations in Austria (VCS) and with the Catholic Family Association of Austria (KFÖ).

In 1975 the ÖCV co-founded the European Cartel Association of Christian Student Associations (EKV). 20 years later, Foreign Minister Alois Mock, an ÖCVer, was involved in Austria's accession negotiations to the European Union, for which he was awarded the Wollek ribbon by the ÖCV .

The ÖCV is also a member of several working groups, such as the Working Group of Catholic Associations Austria (AGV), the Pax Romana - International Catholic Movement for Intellectual and Cultural Affairs (ICMICA) and the Austrian Youth Hostel Association (SHW).

In 2002 at the general assembly, the commitment to the Republic of Austria was included in the statutes of the ÖCV. In the run-up to this decision, there were isolated protests by some associations, including the KAV Bajuvaria Vienna and the KaV Marco-Danubia Vienna , against this amendment to the statutes.

From May 25th to 28th, 2006, for the first time since 1932, on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the Cartell Association in Munich , a joint Cartel meeting, the 120th, of the CV and ÖCV took place.

As a result of a parliamentary question from the BZÖ National Council member Gerald Grosz , it became known that the Cartell Association was generating greater income from advertisements by ÖVP-led ministries in club newspapers. Between 2007 and 2011 the Ministry of Science placed orders for advertisements in the amount of € 56,000, in 2010 and 2011 the Ministry of the Interior placed orders for advertisements in the amount of € 14,800, the Ministry of Agriculture spent € 8,000 on advertisements in publications of the Cartell Association, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Economic Affairs commissioned Ads for € 3,200 or € 3,000. The Ministry of Finance spent € 17,743.95 on advertisements in the Cartell Association's publications.

Membership development

In 2017, the association and its member associations claim to have over 13,000 members.

Membership development 1935 - 2012
1935 1949 1993 2000 2012
Students 1,408 1,546 1,954 1,839 2,018
Old men 3,252 3,939 9,144 9.424 9,891
TOTAL 4,660 5,485 11,098 11,263 11,909

From March to April 2015, according to the ÖCV, there were 24 entries, 30 withdrawals and 34 deaths of members. Between September and October 2015, there were 41 members joining, 22 leaving and 44 deaths.

Principles and goals

All members of the student associations in the ÖCV should adhere to four so-called principles: Faith (Religio) , Scientific (Scientia) , Lifelong Friendship (Amicitia) and Home (Patria) . These four principles are again explicitly set out in the statutes of most member associations.

According to its own information, the Cartell Association promotes academic training and academic life. The members of the associations, which are united in the Cartell Association, are Catholics and should get involved in church, state, society, colleges and universities. The CV as an organization and the members of the associations organized in it should shape society in a common Europe that is growing together in the spirit of basic Christian values .

Admission of women

No women are accepted into the member associations of the ÖCV. However, there have been and are attempts to ease this restriction.

The Vienna Association KaV Norica decided in 1996 at a cumulative convention (general assembly), in which over 400 members took part, to accept women as full members. As a result, a number of members of the KaV Norica Nova were accepted into the Norica. However, the Supreme Court of the CVs overturned these decisions a short time later as not being compatible with ÖCV law. Nevertheless, Norica still has a de facto communal life with the (female) Norica Nova, only formal decisions are made by separate bodies.

The AV Austria Innsbruck had already tried to accept female students as full members in the 1977/78 winter semester. There was also the legal structure of the “Association of Friends of AV Austria”, which women and Protestants were allowed to join. The women were given equal rights in their daily life: they were welcomed, went through the fox times, passed the boys' exams and were given births. They had a seat and a vote at the “General Convention” (GC). As soon as the general convention was closed, the incumbent senior opened the boys' convention (BC), which passed all resolutions of the GC again, so that they became legally binding. Women were admitted for about four years, until in the 1983 summer semester the tensions within Aktivitas became so excessive that they quit and the experiment failed.

In addition to KaV Norica, some other ÖCV associations also work closely with women's and women's associations . For example, the KHV Babenberg Wien and the K.Ö.HV Rugia each share their booths with the two women's associations C.St.V. Salia - Babenberg and C.Ö.St.V. Arcadia Vienna. In Innsbruck, the KaV Rheno-Danubia shares its house with the women's association KÖStV Rheno-Danubia Oenipontana. The AV Vindelicia Innsbruck has a couleur ladies circle. The association-free mixed AV Claudiana was co-founded by members of AV Austria and K.Ö.HV Leopoldina Innsbruck , it has its club rooms in the basement of the Leopoldina.

In the 90s there were efforts to make the association mixed-sex. There was also a majority within the old rulers, but the active boys and girls preferred to remain separate and to form two associations of equal rank within the European Cartel Association . Due to the sheer predominance of the proportion of men, women would have had less control, and there were also fears of looming relationship problems.

Motto, coat of arms and federal song


The motto of the ÖCV (as well as the German CV) goes back to a work by the Croatian Bishop Markantun de Dominis and reads: In necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas (“Unanimity prevails in what is necessary, freedom in doubt, but in everything charity ”).

coat of arms

The coat of arms of the Cartell Association was adopted at the Cartell Assembly in Innsbruck in 1925. It was designed in 1921 by Joseph Weiß ( Aenania Munich ) and designed by Philipp Schumacher ( AV Austria Innsbruck ).

Blazon of the coat of arms: the shield is divided into gold and red; In gold a growing black eagle with a white breastplate, in it the old Christ symbol in red; A white tin tower in red on a green hill, surmounted by two golden stars.

The coat of arms is adorned with a stinging helmet, growing out of it a scholar in a green robe with white göller and gold trim. He wears the pennale on the right and the rapier on the left. The scholar holds in his right hand the white CV flag with the old CV badge in the corner (golden cross with a red heart shield, in which the black CV, surrounded by a green wreath) and in his left a red, gold-covered book.

Ceilings: left green-silver; right red-gold. The whole thing is wrapped in a white ribbon with the CV's motto in black fracture “In necessariis unitas, in dubis libertas, in omnibus caritas”.

Federal song

The federal song of the Cartell Association is Auf des Glaubens Felsengrunde and was written by Peter Diem , a member of the K.Ö.St.V. Rudolfina Vienna , written.

Member connections

A current list of all member associations, broken down by city, can be found here: List of member associations of the ÖCV .


The ÖCV awards as awards for services to the association and its principles:

Prominent members of ÖCV associations

A list of well-known Cartell brothers with their own Wikipedia entry can be found in the category: Corporated in the CV

Time and again, members of ÖCV associations were and are active in high political and economic positions or hold higher offices in Austria:


Public administration



Science and Research



Relationship with women

Like most student associations, the ÖCV has been criticized for being an all-male organization. Although the associations of the ÖCV say they have good contacts to women's associations , they are not allowed to join the association.

Abortion issue

In the spring of 2004 the ÖCV published a statement on the constitutional reform, according to which the impunity of abortions without indication (e.g. medical) should be suspended in Austria. The ÖCV sees itself in this as conforming to the teachings of the Catholic Church. This initiative was criticized by women's organizations, the Catholic Action and politicians from the SPÖ , ÖVP and the Greens .

See also


  • Florian Werr : History of the Cartell Association of Catholic German Student Associations . Paderborn 1890
  • Florian Werr : History of the CV . 2nd Edition. Berlin 1900
  • Hermann Josef Wurm: Handbook for the Cartell Association of Catholic German Student Associations . 2nd Edition. Berlin 1904
  • Josef Weiss: At the cradle of the Catholic German student associations . News from the Bonner Union 1847–53–55, Society for CV History, Munich 1930 (Der Weisse Turm 1)
  • Engelbert Siegl: Statutes and Cartel Regulations of the ÖCV , Vienna 1933
  • Peter Stitz: The academic culture struggle for the right to exist for Catholic student corporations in Germany and Austria from 1903 to 1908 . Society for CV History, Munich 1960 (Der Weisse Turm 3)
  • Ernst Lodermeier: History of the Cartell Association of Catholic German Student Associations . 3. Edition. Munich 1960
  • Peter Stitz: The CV 1919–1938: the higher education policy path of the Cartell Association of Catholic German Student Associations (CV) from the end of World War I to its destruction by National Socialism . Society for CV History, Munich 1970 (Der Weisse Turm 4)
  • Gerhard Popp: CV in Austria 1864–1938 . Hermann Böhlau, Vienna 1984, ISBN 3-205-08831-X
  • Austrian Association for Student History (Ed.): Wearing Colors - Confessing Color 1938–1945 - Catholic Corporates in Resistance and Persecution . Vienna 1988
  • Friedhelm Golücke : The literature of the CV and the ÖCV 1844-1980. A bibliography . Würzburg 1982, ISBN 3-923621-00-0 .
  • Society for student history and student customs eV (ed.), CV-Synopsis - Synoptic representation of German history and CV history from 1815–1955 . Munich 1993
  • Siegfried Schieweck-Mauk: Lexicon of CV and ÖCV connections. Association for German Student History , Würzburg 1997, ISBN 3-89498-040-0
  • Siegfried Schieweck-Mauk: “Hold on, as long as it goes!” - The CV and its connections during the Nazi era , in: Alcimonen-Blatt (Eichstätt) 17/1997, pp. 56–75 [= lecture, held on 12 October 1997 at the student historians' conference in Würzburg]; similar in: Globulus 5 (1997), pp. 76-86 [modified for non-copration readership]; also similar: "Hold out as long as it goes!" - A Catholic student association in the Third Reich: The "CV" , in: GDS-Archiv 4 (1998), pp. 53-67
  • Society for student history and student customs eV (Ed.), CV manual . 2nd Edition. Regensburg 2000, ISBN 3-922485-11-1
  • Stephan Neuhäuser: Who if not us? - The rise of the CV began in 1934 . In: We do all the work will make - the Austro-fascist coup 1934 . BoD, Norderstedt 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0873-1
  • Gerhard Hartmann: For God and Fatherland - History and Work of the CV in Austria . Lahn-Verlag, Vienna 2006, ISBN 3-7840-3362-8
  • Gerhard Hartmann: The CV in Austria - Its origin, history and meaning . Lahn-Verlag, Vienna 2011 (4th edition), ISBN 3-7840-3498-5

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Society for student history and student customs eV (Hrsg.): "CV-Handbuch"; Regensburg 2000; P. 73
  2. Stephan Neuhäuser: Who If Not We? The rise of the CV began in 1934. P. 122. Published in: Stephan Neuhäuser (Hrsg.): We will do a great job - the Austrofascist Ständestreich 1934.
  3. Maren Seeliger: Sham parliamentarism in the Führer state: “Community representation” in Austrofascism and National Socialism; Functions and political profiles Viennese councilors and councilors 1934–1945. LIT: 2010, p. 278
  4. ^ Austrian Students 'Union: 60 Years of the Austrian Students' Union ( Memento from March 14, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Vienna: 2006, p. 7
  5. ^ Derek Hastings: Catholicism and the Roots of Nazism: Religious Identity and National Socialism. Oxford University Press: 2009, p. 133
  6. Stephan Neuhäuser: Who If Not We? The rise of the CV began in 1934 in: Stephan Neuhäuser (ed.): We'll do a great job - The Austro-Fascist coup d'état 1934, p. 77
  7. Irene Ranzmaier: German studies at the University of Vienna at the time of National Socialism: careers, conflicts and science. Böhlau: 2005, p. 38
  8. Corporate Students and National Socialism in Austria. A quantifying study using the example of the University of Innsbruck 1918–1938, in: Michael Gehler / Dietrich Heither / Alexandra Kurth / Gerhard Schäfer (eds.): Blut und Paukboden. A history of the fraternities, Frankfurt / Main 1997, p. 143
  9. Corporate Students and National Socialism in Austria. A quantifying study using the example of the University of Innsbruck 1918–1938, in: Michael Gehler / Dietrich Heither / Alexandra Kurth / Gerhard Schäfer (eds.): Blut und Paukboden. A history of the fraternities, Frankfurt / Main 1997, p. 147
  10. Corporate Students and National Socialism in Austria. A quantifying study using the example of the University of Innsbruck 1918–1938, in: Michael Gehler / Dietrich Heither / Alexandra Kurth / Gerhard Schäfer (eds.): Blut und Paukboden. A history of the fraternities, Frankfurt / Main 1997, p. 132
  11. ^ Gerhard Hartmann, The CV in Austria , Lahn-Verlag, Limburg-Kevelaer 2001, page 175.
  12. ^ Gernot Stimmer: Elites in Austria 1848-1970. (Studies on politics and administration Volume 57), ISBN 3-205-98587-7 Böhlau: 1997 p. 967
  13. Wolfgang C. Müller: The Austrian People's Party. In: Dachs, Gerlich, Gottweis, Kramer, Lauber, Müller, Tálos (eds.): Politics in Austria. Manz, Vienna 2006, p. 352.
  14. Confession to the Republic splits the Cartell Association , in: Der Standard , July 5, 2002
  15. Bauernbund, Jungrote and CV: How ministers promote their party environment , Oberösterreichische Nachrichten, February 3, 2012
  16. Berlakovich supports Bauernbund with two million euros , Der Standard, January 31, 2012
  17. Answer to parliamentary question No. 10018 / J of 30 November 2011
  18. ^ ÖCV: A cross is not a headscarf . In: . ( [accessed on March 9, 2017]).
  19. ^ The development after 1945. Retrieved on March 9, 2017 .
  20. Academia Intern 3/2015
  21. Academia Intern 5/2015
  22. The principles of the CV and its connections on the homepage of the association. Retrieved April 10, 2016
  23. ^ STANDARD Verlagsgesellschaft mbH: ÖVP and CV: History of an entanglement . In: . ( [accessed on November 29, 2017]).
  24. Student associations: stage for the future elite . In: The press . ( [accessed June 21, 2018]).
  25. Cartellverband: Between Dollfuss and the Dear God, accessed on May 15, 2011
  26. Spirit "Cato", "Bärli" and "Django": Catholic brothers in the spirit , article of the Standard from June 7, 2011
  27. Rauch-Kallat rejects the ban on abortion , article of the Standard from April 7, 2004
  28. Men Contemplate Abortion , Standard April 9, 2004 article