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After his appointment as Reich Chancellor, Adolf Hitler leaves the Reich Chancellery in a car .
Hitler 1933
Adolf Hitler takes power in the German Reich .
Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Banking Act
Franklin D. Roosevelt treads the New Deal path .
Dachau concentration camp
The Dachau concentration camp is the first
concentration camp to open in Germany.
1933 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1381/82 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1925/26 (September 10-11)
Baha'i calendar 89/90 (March 20/21)
Bengali solar calendar 1338/39 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2476/77 (southern Buddhism); 2475/76 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 77th (78th) cycle

Year of the Water Tap 癸酉 ( since January 26th , before that Water Monkey壬申)

Chuch'e ideology (North Korea) Chuch'e 22
Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1295/96 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4266/67 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1311/12 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1351/52 (April 25-26)
Japanese calendar 昭和Shōwa 8;
Kōki 2593
Jewish calendar 5693/94 (September 20-21)
Coptic calendar 1649/50 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1108/09
Minguo calendar (China) Year 22 of the Republic
Seleucid era Babylon: 2243/44 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2244/45 (turn of the year October)

Suriyakati Calendar (Thai Solar Calendar) 2475/76 (April 1)
Tibetan calendar 1679
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1989/90 (turn of the year April)

The politics of 1933 was shaped by the “ seizure of power ” by the National Socialists under Adolf Hitler in the German Reich and the associated end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the “Third Reich” . Practically at the same time in Austria the time of the Austro-Fascist corporate state begins, with the so-called “ self- elimination of parliament ” by the Christian-social federal government under Engelbert Dollfuss , which leads to Italy (1922), Albania (1925), Poland (1926), Lithuania (1926) and Yugoslavia (1929) two other democracies that emerged shortly after the First World War fail in Europe.

In the German Reich, the National Socialists introduce the one-party system and, within a short period of time, begin terrorism against Jews, minorities and those who think differently and establish concentration camps , the first of which is the Dachau concentration camp .

After a staged referendum, Germany leaves the League of Nations , as does Japan , which reveals the blatant impotence of the international organization founded after the First World War to maintain peace.

Economically, the year is overshadowed by the global economic crisis that has persisted since 1929 . In the United States , newly elected President Franklin D. Roosevelt begins fighting the Great Depression with the New Deal .


Politics and world events

January 1st

Switzerland : Edmund Schulthess becomes Federal President for the fourth time .

Nicaragua : Juan Bautista Sacasa is introduced as president.

January 2nd Nicaragua : The last units of the United States Marine Corps are leaving the country after 20 years of occupation .
January 4th Weimar Republic : Adolf Hitler and Franz von Papen agree on preparations for taking over government.
January 30th German Reich : ( seizure of power ) Adolf Hitler is appointed Reich Chancellor.
31 January Empire : In Mössingen finds only major strike against the " seizure of power " Hitler instead.
February 1st German Empire: Reichstag dissolved by Reich President Paul von Hindenburg at Hitler's request
3 February Hitler's first address to commanders of the Reichswehr (aim of foreign policy: living space in the east and its ruthless Germanization ) - Liebmann recording
February 4th Ordinance of the Reich President for the Protection of the German People ; the basic rights of the Weimar constitution , in particular freedom of assembly and the press, are restricted
20. February Secret meeting of February 20, 1933 between Hitler and industrialists about financial support for the election campaign
27th of February Fire in the Reichstag on the night of February 28th
February 28 Reichstag fire ordinance
3 March German Reich: the chairman of the KPD, Ernst Thälmann is arrested.
4th of March United States : Inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt as 32nd US President

Austria : “ Parliament shut itself off ”, beginning of Austrofascism

German Reich: The SPD newspaper Vorwärts appears for the last time.

5. March German Reich: Reichstag elections , the NSDAP achieved over 43% of the vote.
March 13th Establishment of the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda
March, 15 Austria: The National Council is prevented from meeting by the federal government by force of arms.
March, 20th The Dachau concentration camp is built.
March 21st German Empire: Day of Potsdam , State Act in the Garrison Church
March 23 The German Reichstag passes the Enabling Act .
27th of March Japan declares its withdrawal from the League of Nations .
March 31 Austria: The Dollfuss government bans the Republican Schutzbund .

Germany: In Reichsgesetzblatt is Lex van der Lubbe published a retroactively applicable criminal law for the Reichstag fire .

April 1st : Boycott of Jewish shops , law firms and medical practices organized by the National Socialists .
7th of April Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service
7th of April In the second law to bring the states into line with the Reich , the National Socialist government in Germany is empowered to appoint Reich governors .
10th of April Adolf Hitler declared May 1st as a "national labor holiday" to be a national holiday.
26th of April Decree of the acting Prussian interior minister Hermann Göring on the formation of the secret state police office
April 29 Hermann Göring founds the Reich Air Protection Association, which trains its members on air protection prevention, fire fighting , protection against gas attacks , first aid and reporting.
2.May Unions are banned.
May 3rd After the prohibition of workers' welfare , the National Socialist People's Welfare was founded in the Third Reich .
10th of May Book burning of unpopular authors

Foundation of the German Labor Front and abolition of the right to strike

17th of May Adolf Hitler gives the "peace speech" in front of the Reichstag
May 26 Austria: Ban on the Communist Party
May 27th German Empire: Thousand Mark Block : A fee of 1,000 Reichsmark is required for every trip to Austria .
20th June Siam: Younger People's Party officers put a coup against Prime Minister Phraya Manopakorn Nititada .
June 21st German Reich: SA people start the terror of the Koepenick Blood Week . The following day the SPD is banned from any activity across Germany.
October 14th Joseph Goebbels declares the withdrawal of the German Reich from the League of Nations . At the same time, Germany is leaving the Geneva Disarmament Conference .
October 29th Spain: founding of the fascist Falange
November 11th Austria: The death penalty for murder , arson and " public violence through malicious damage to someone else's property " is reintroduced.
November 12th German Empire: Reichstag election according to the unified list and referendum on Germany's withdrawal from the League of Nations
November 17th The USA recognizes the Soviet Union , which has existed since the end of 1922, under international law.
November 19th Spain: The right-wing parties win the parliamentary elections, the previously ruling liberals and socialists suffer a crushing defeat.
15th December German Reich: Forced unification of the municipal umbrella organizations for the German Municipal Day
Ongoing events

German Empire

Although the National Socialists suffered losses for the first time in the Reichstag elections on November 6, 1932, they did not succeed in establishing a stable government . The Papen cabinet was replaced by the Schleicher cabinet on December 3, 1932, with the support of President Paul von Hindenburg . Deeply disappointed by the “betrayal” of his former companion Kurt von Schleicher , Franz von Papen meets with Adolf Hitler on January 4th in the Cologne house of the banker Kurt Freiherr von Schröder for secret negotiations, during which they agree to take over government . This conversation was followed by others, most recently in the presence of the State Secretary of the Reich President Otto Meissner and the son of the Reich President Oskar von Hindenburg .

On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg. Hindenburg, who resisted for a long time, is reassured by the fact that an NSDAP leader who is "framed" by a conservative cabinet majority means little danger. Hitler then formed a so-called National Government made up of Conservatives, German Nationals and National Socialists . Von Papen becomes Vice Chancellor, the government includes only two other National Socialists besides Hitler, namely Wilhelm Frick as Minister of the Interior and Hermann Göring as Minister without Portfolio and acting Prussian Interior Minister.

Day of Potsdam, Hitler's speech in the Garrison Church

On February 1, the Reichstag was dissolved by the Reich President at Hitler's request. The last free election on March 5th was an overwhelming success for the NSDAP , which received 43.9% of the vote. The convocation of the new Reichstag will be celebrated on March 21 with the day of Potsdam .

From the beginning of the seizure of power , the National Socialists began with the elimination of democracy and the synchronization of the Reich. The ordinance of the Reich President for the Protection of the German People of February 4 restricts the basic rights of the Weimar Constitution , in particular freedom of assembly and the freedom of the press. On March 13, the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda is founded under Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels . On March 23, the Reichstag passed the law to remedy the plight of the people and the Reich , which gave the Hitler government quasi dictatorial powers. Only the members of the SPD under Otto Wels vote against this law. With the laws of March 31 and April 7, the countries are deprived of their relative sovereign rights and Reich governors are appointed.

The burning Reichstag
Book burning in 1933 as part of the "Action against the un-German spirit"
Appearance of Hermann Göring at the Reichstag fire trial
Ballot for the Reichstag election


Engelbert Dollfuss (1933)

In Austria , on March 4, due to procedural inattention, the National Council had no quorum , which the Christian Social Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss used for a coup d'état by describing it as " parliamentary self-elimination ". When the National Council under the third National Council President, Sepp Straffner , wants to meet on March 15 to correct this procedural error, the members of parliament are prevented from meeting by the Austro-Fascist federal government with police force. Although a petition signed by over a million people calls on him to recall the Dollfuss government and to initiate new elections at the suggestion of an interim government appointed by him, the likewise Christian Social Federal President Wilhelm Miklas remains inactive, which enables Dollfuss to continue to rule dictatorially. On May 23, the Constitutional Court will also be prevented from meeting in full, thus abolishing the separation of powers in Austria.

First of all, the Christian Socials state that they only want to rule authoritatively for some time and that they want to change the rules of procedure of the National Council and reform the constitution in negotiations with the opposition. However, serious discussions about it never take place. Instead , the Dollfuss government dissolves the Social Democratic Republican Protection Association on March 31 and the Communist Party of Austria on May 26 by decree. On June 19, the NSDAP is also banned.

Cardinal Innitzer around 1933

From April onwards, Dollfuss turned increasingly to Benito Mussolini for support against Germany , who in return emphatically demanded the final abolition of the party state. Dollfuss then announced the establishment of the corporate state in a speech at the Viennese trotting arena on September 11th . Since he is on Pope Pius XI. and whose social encyclical Quadragesimo calls anno , he is supported by the Catholic Church under Cardinal Theodor Innitzer . In a government reshuffle on September 20, party chairman Carl Vaugoin is ousted and Heimwehr leader Emil Fey is vice chancellor. Ernst Rüdiger Starhemberg dissolves the home bloc and joins the Heimwehr in the Patriotic Front founded on May 20 , which claims sole representation for the entire Austrian population.

The KPÖ is banned on May 26th . On March 31, the Republican Protection Association is banned, and free thinkers also fall victim to the wave of bans. Although the NSDAP usually achieves less than 25% of the votes in municipal council elections, it causes unrest among the ruling VF with more than 40% in each of the elections in Zwettl and Innsbruck . A wave of Nazi supporters of terrorism also culminated in attacks in the first few weeks of June when four people were killed and 48 injured. The Austrian NSDAP is banned on June 19, 1933. The triggering moment is an attack with hand grenades in Krems . The Nazi terror decreased in the following months, but there were still five dead and 52 injured by the end of the year.

On October 3, Dollfuss was slightly injured by two gunshots by the National Socialist Rudolf Drtil . The assassin is sentenced to five years in prison, taking into account “mental inferiority”. By decree of November 10 which is effective the following day was legal process and with it the 1920 abolished the death penalty for murder , arson and " public violence by malicious destruction of property " reintroduced.


Flag of the Second Spanish Republic

In Spain , the Second Republic managed to achieve a certain degree of stability in the course of the previous year, despite various uprisings and coup attempts. But an uprising in the Andalusian village of Casas Viejas in January, which was brutally suppressed by the government, led to a rapid deterioration in the country's climate and increased skepticism about the democratic form of government. Prime Minister Manuel Azaña creates a new paramilitary police force, the Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard), to defend it against its enemies. General Emilio Mola becomes their commander-in-chief .

1933 elections in Spain

In September the governing coalition of liberals and socialists finally breaks up. In the subsequent elections on November 19 , in which women were also entitled to vote for the first time , the conservatives under Alejandro Lerroux won and formed a government with the right-wing autonomous Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas under José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones and the monarchist Renovación Española . The turnout is almost 60% because the left-wing disappointed workers abstained in large parts of the vote.

Flag of the Falange Española

In the Teatro de la Comedia in Madrid , the fascist Falange Española is founded on October 29th . It is chaired by a group of three made up of the lawyer José Antonio Primo de Rivera , the pilot Julio Ruiz de Alda and the writer Alfonso García Valdecasas . The movement could gain around 2,000 members by the end of the year, mainly disappointed supporters of the traditional right-wing parties and students who come to the party through the Sindicato Universitario Español (SEU) student group founded in November .

Other events in Europe

Location of Nasino
  • May 18 : Around 6,100 forced deportees are abandoned on an inhospitable river island in Ob near the town of Nasino without food, accommodation, household effects or tools. Hunger, privation and attempts to escape reduce the number of abandoned people to around 2000 by mid-August. Dozens of cases of cannibalism occur. Reports of the Nasino tragedy reach the leadership of the CPSU in September. It stops its extensive plans to deport people classified as "dangerous" or "anti-social" to so-called special settlements in order to turn them into outposts for the development of inhospitable areas of the Soviet Union. Instead, these people are shot or in the labor camps of the Gulag spent.

United States of America

Distribution of electors in 1932

In the United States , on March 4, the Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt is sworn in as the 32nd US President. He replaces the Republican Herbert Hoover , whom he hit like a landslide in the presidential election in November last year. It is the last regular inauguration of a US president on March 4th. This tradition, which has existed since the dawn of the USA, was replaced by January 20 with the second introduction of Roosevelt in 1937.

Roosevelt is most likely to be trusted to solve the predominantly economic problems. With the New Deal , an election promise that he began to implement immediately after being sworn in, the Great Depression was fought over the following years .

In terms of foreign policy, Roosevelt tries to dispel the impression of US imperialism . Immediately on his inaugural speech, he announced a good neighbor policy with Latin American countries and signed on December 26 together with his Foreign Minister Cordell Hull , the Montevideo Convention , which the United States distance from a policy of intervention in terms of the Monroe Doctrine and the Roosevelt Take Corollary .

On March 23 , President Roosevelt signed what became known as the Cullen-Harrison Act to repeal the Volstead Act and permit the manufacture and sale of certain alcoholic beverages. On December 5th, the signing of the 21st amendment repealed the 18th amendment . The Prohibition in the United States , making it ended after nearly 15 years.

On November 17, the US government recognized the Soviet Union, which had existed since the end of 1922, under international law.


Juan Bautista Sacasa

In Nicaragua , the newly elected President Juan Bautista Sacasa will take office on January 1st. The last units of the United States Army left the country the very next day . They leave behind a national guard they built and trained, the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua under the command of their confidante Anastasio Somoza García .

The assumption of office by the liberal Sacasa brings an end to the civil war that has been going on since 1927, because the insurgent General Augusto César Sandino testifies his loyalty to the new government and with his troops laid down arms, which in return received amnesty and land in the north of the country Jinotega .

Other events in America



Voting recommendation of the secessionists of Western Australia for the referendum in 1933


Great Depression

New Deal in the USA

  • March 6 : President Franklin D. Roosevelt forbids banks to withdraw gold and trade foreign currency during the bank holidays . Three days later, the Emergency Banking Act allows the President to influence gold and foreign exchange trading.
  • March 31 : President Roosevelt's signature of the Emergency Conservation Work launches the Civilian Conservation Corps , a job creation scheme for young unemployed people. The law empowers the federal government of the United States to send up to 250,000 young unemployed people from major cities to the areas hardest hit by soil erosion , where afforestation and windbreaks becomes the Civilian Conservation Corps' first job. The first participants will register on April 7th . The CCC workers are housed in work camps for one year , receive food, accommodation and a salary of at least $ 30 a month, of which $ 25 must be sent to family members in their home country. The army is responsible for the logistics.
Executive Order 6102
Nellie Tayloe Ross

Synchronization in Germany

Unpopular coin

Business start-ups


science and technology

Angel somersault


Architecture and fine arts



  • January to September: Isaac Bashevis Singer publishes his novel Satan in Goraj in sequels in the Polish literary magazine Globus , which Singer publishes together with his friend Aaron Zeitlin.
"Vow of the most loyal allegiance" in the Frankfurter Zeitung from 26./28. October 1933

Music and theater






Pedestrians and corpses of starving farmers on a street in Kharkiv in 1933; Photo: Alexander Wienerberger


More disasters and accidents

The locomotive of the driven train

Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Catastrophe .


Nobel Prizes

price person country Reason for awarding the prize image
Nobel Price for physics Erwin Schrödinger
AustriaAustria Austria "For the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory" (further development of quantum mechanics) Erwin Schrödinger
Paul Dirac
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom Paul Dirac
Nobel Prize in Chemistry not awarded
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Thomas Hunt Morgan
United States 48United States United States "For his discoveries about the importance of chromosomes as carriers of inheritance" Thomas Hunt Morgan
Nobel Prize in literature Ivan Bunin
Stateless, residing in France (born in Voronezh , Russia ) Third French RepublicThird French Republic Russian Empire 1858Russian Empire  "For the strict artistry with which he represents the classic Russian line in prose" Ivan Bunin
Nobel Peace Prize
(awarded in 1934)
Norman Angell
United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom Member of the Executive Commission of the League of Nations and the National Peace Council Norman Angell



Patriarch Ilia II.
Javier Cardinal Lozano Barragán (2006)


Than Shwe in October 2010



Jean-Paul Belmondo, 2001


James Brown, 1973
Joan Collins, 2012




Sheldon Adelson 2010
Doyle Brunson
Roman Polański, 2011





Exact date of birth unknown


January February

Wilhelm Cuno

March April

Sigfrid Karg-Elert
Anna Blos

May June

Clara Zetkin, in the 1920s

July August

Hipólito Yrigoyen

September October

Hans Freiherr von Berlepsch

November December

King Mohammed Nadir Shah

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1933  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files