History of Italy

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of Italy in terms of human settlement in the Apennine Peninsula and the islands surrounding it can be traced back 1.3 to 1.7 million years, with modern humans appearing in Italy around 43,000 to 45,000 years ago and several millennia alongside the Neanderthals lived. Until the 6th millennium BC Hunting, fishing and gathering formed the basis of its existence. Around 6100 BC . AD brought the first group from outside the peninsula - probably by sea from Southeast Anatolia and the Middle East - the agriculture with; the hunters and gatherers disappeared. In the 2nd millennium BC A development began that made the villages into early town-like settlements, and the societies showed clear traces of hierarchies for the first time .

UNESCO plaque for designation as a World Heritage Site, here Naples. The more than 50 sites in Italy range from individual buildings to entire core cities to thematically overlapping groups such as the rock carvings of Valcamonica , prehistoric pile dwellings , the places associated with the rule of the Lombards or a group of late Baroque cities .

The history of Italy, as documented by written sources , only begins after the colonization by Italian peoples . Alongside them, the Etruscan culture , whose origin is unclear, experienced around 600 BC. Their heyday. In the 8th century BC The Greek colonization of the southern Italian mainland and Sicily had begun, Phoenicians settled on the west coast of the island . These colonies later belonged to Carthage .

From the 4th century BC BC began the expansion of Rome , 146 BC. Chr. Were Corinth and Carthage destroyed, the conquest of the Mediterranean, and later parts of central and northern Europe brought cultural influences and people from across the kingdom and neighboring areas to Italy. The peninsula formed the center of the Roman Empire and remained so, with some restrictions, until the fall of Western Rome around 476. In the process, the agricultural economic base, which had initially consisted of peasants, was transformed into a system of spacious latifundia based on slave labor . A dense road network connected the expanding cities, thanks to which the exchange of goods, but also the dependence on external goods such as wheat and olive oil from North Africa, increased. In late antiquity , in addition to slavery and the free peasants in the country, forms of attachment to the land appeared, such as the colonate , although a distinction was still made between free and unfree colonies around 500 ( Colon Edict of Anastasius ). In the 4th century Christianity was established as the state religion.

From the 5th century, Italy came under the rule of Germanic tribes , the population decreased drastically by around 650, briefly Ostrom conquered the former core area of ​​the empire in the 6th century. In the 8th century, the north, ruled by the Lombards for about two centuries, was annexed to the Frankish Empire , later to the Holy Roman Empire , while Arabs and Byzantines ruled in the south, and Normans from the 11th century . In most regions continued in the early Middle Ages of feudalism through its relationships with the late Roman Kolonat are extremely complex. The northern Italian municipalities, which found themselves together in the Lombard League, were able to break away from the influence of the empire in the 12th and 13th centuries and establish their own territories. Of this multitude of territories, the most important were Milan , the naval powers Genoa and Venice , Florence and Rome, as well as southern Italy, which was partly French and partly Spanish. The fact that the Bishop of Rome rose to Pope of the Western Church, the separation from the Eastern Church came in 1054 and the Pope got into lengthy arguments with the Roman-German kings , then with the French King Philip IV , played a central role . The latter forced the Pope into exile in Avignon from 1309 , which lasted until 1378. The return of the popes to Rome accelerated the construction of the Papal States in central Italy, the political developments on the peninsula significantly influenced by the 1870th

From the 14th to the 16th centuries, Italy was the economic and cultural center of the Renaissance . Five leading powers had emerged, with the Papal States playing a role of their own. From the late 15th, but especially in the 16th and 17th centuries, the major European powers - France, Spain and Austria - repeatedly interfered in Italian politics. They sealed off their markets to different degrees from foreign goods. At the same time, the Ottoman Empire exerted heavy military pressure, especially on the Republic of Venice, from the late 14th century . Nevertheless, the Italian cultural metropolises, above all Rome, Florence and Venice, radiated far beyond Italy and Europe.

After four centuries of fragmentation and foreign rule, the peninsula was politically united as part of the national movement of the Risorgimento . The modern Italian state has existed since 1861, Veneto and Friuli were added in 1866, followed by Julisch Venetia (Trieste and Gorizia), Trentino and South Tyrol after the First World War . Italy waged colonial wars mainly in Libya (independent in 1951) and Ethiopia ( Battle of Adua in 1896, War of Abyssinia 1935/36). From 1922 to 1943, the fascists ruled Italy under Benito Mussolini ; in the last two years of the war, the German National Socialists controlled large parts of the country until it was liberated by the Allies .

In 1946, the Italian people decided to abolish the monarchy in favor of the republic . For the first time women were also allowed to vote. Since then, frequent changes of government have shaped the political culture, until the beginning of the 1990s with the continuous participation of the Democrazia Cristiana . Up until the end of the Cold War, disputes over Eurocommunism , partly militant political disputes, the contrast between northern and southern Italy, the influence of the Catholic Church , but also corruption right up to the political leadership groups and organized crime all point to some of the central lines of conflict in the Society. The collapse of the old party system and a constitutional change in the wake of the Tangentopoli affair at the beginning of the 1990s marked a political turning point and the transition to the so-called Second Republic.

Prehistory and early history

Paleolithic: hunters, gatherers, fishermen (1.3 million years old)

Human remains of the "Little Prince", who was buried in Liguria around 23,000 years ago . He was given a fur cloak made from 400 vertical strips of squirrel skins. Museo di archeologia ligure of Genoa Pegli

The excavations of Pirro Nord in Apulia , where the oldest human traces of Italy were found, show that hunters and gatherers lived there 1.3 to 1.7 million years ago. Italy has been inhabited continuously for around 700,000 years. Until the 6th millennium BC Hunting, fishing and collecting formed the basis of existence, with hut-like structures in addition to caves as living quarters near the French-Italian border as early as 230,000 years ago. The use of fire has been archaeologically proven since that time.

In the Middle Paleolithic , all of Italy was inhabited, with the exception of the islands of Sardinia and Sicily. Cro-Magnon humans were first recorded 45,000 to 43,000 years ago . Two teeth from the Grotta del Cavallo were dated accordingly and are considered the oldest evidence of the existence of anatomically modern humans in Europe. A few millennia later, the Neanderthals disappeared . After the end of the Würm Ice Age , sedentariness increased, especially on the coasts, where fishing dominated. In addition, shepherd cultures developed in the high and low mountain regions. The first Neolithic culture in southern Italy was the cardial or imprint culture , which began around 6200 BC. BC by influences from the eastern Mediterranean. By comparison with the land requirements of similar societies, a number of 60,000 human inhabitants could be calculated as a rough approximation. The men were on average 1.66–1.74 m tall, women 1.50–1.54 m tall.

Neolithic: Agriculture and Villages (from 6100 BC)

The first arable farmers settled between 6100 and 5800 BC. In the south of the peninsula. They came from the Greek islands, especially from Crete, from southern Anatolia and the Middle East. Mesolithic and ceramic cultures still existed in the northwest around 5500 BC. Next to each other. Different types of villages arose, with long-distance trade in obsidian and hatchet . In Neolithic Italy there are no signs of a hierarchization of society. Men were smaller than in the Paleolithic and Mesolithic, and they were never so small again afterwards. It was found that women were on average 1.56 m tall, men 1.66 m tall.

Metal Age, Immigration, Cities (from 4200 BC)

Peoples on the Italian Peninsula at the beginning of the Iron Age
  • Ligurians
  • Veneter
  • Etruscan
  • Picener
  • Umbrian
  • Latins
  • Oscar
  • Messapaper
  • Greeks
  • Around 4200 BC In Liguria, copper was the first metal to be processed; the Bronze Age continued in the late 3rd millennium BC. A. Proto-urban structures emerged for the first time, in Campania such a "city" was found near Poggiomarino , which existed from the 17th to the 7th century. This "bronze metropolis" apparently managed without defenses.

    In the Bronze Age (approx. 2300 / 2200–950 BC) numerous cultures can be identified, whose assignment to the peoples that appear in the earliest written sources is not always certain. Around 1500 BC In addition, there was again strong immigration, the villages were reinforced. Finds such as those in La Muculufa in Sicily (near Butera ) document viticulture. The Iron Age , and occasionally the Late Bronze Age, is considered the formatting phase of the tribes that appear in the written sources . The greater number of weapons additions indicates the increasing power of a warrior elite. At the same time, there is extensive long-distance trade as far as the eastern Mediterranean. Etruscans and Greeks conquered contiguous territories based on cities, a development that soon spread throughout Italy and culminated in the rule of Rome.

    Typical Villanova helmet from the early Roman period, Museo Etrusco Guarnacci in Volterra

    In northern Italy lived in the 5th century BC The Celts who had just immigrated (Latin Galli ), then Lepontier and Ligurians , in the northeast Venetians . Central Italy was from Umbrians (in present-day Umbria); Latins , Sabiners , Faliskern , Volskern and Aequern (in today's Latium ) and Piceners (Marken and northern Abruzzo). In the south there were Samnites (southern Abruzzo, Molise and Campania ); Japyger and Messapier in Apulia ; Lucanians and Bruttii . The Sikeler colonized the eastern part of Sicily. Many of these peoples were of Indo-European origin, some were considered Aboriginal . The Etruscans in central Italy were not Indo-Europeans, possibly neither were the Sicans in Sicily. Sardinians lived in Sardinia , which may correspond to the earths in Egyptian sources.

    From the 8th century BC The Greek colonization of southern Italy began. Numerous cities were founded both on the mainland (including Taras , Kyme , Metapontion , Sybaris , Kroton , Rhegion , Paestum and Naples ) and on Sicily ( Naxos , Zankle and Syracuse ). The Greek populated areas were called Magna Graecia (Greater Greece). A holdover is the still spoken Griko today .

    The Carthaginians , who had developed into an important maritime and trading power, founded colonies on Sardinia as well as on Sicily . They got caught during the 6th and 5th centuries BC. In persistent conflicts with the Greek colonies , especially with Syracuse . On the other hand, they were temporarily in alliance with the Etruscans. It was also with Rome until 264 BC. A good relationship. Carthage and Rome closed around 508 BC. A first treaty, 348 and 279 BC. More followed.


    Italy in the expanding Roman Empire (4th century BC to 2nd century AD)

    The Etruscan territories at the time of their greatest expansion with the cities of the
    League of Twelve Cities
    The she-wolf breastfeeds Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome. The she-wolf dates from the 13th century, the twins were added in the 15th century, as it turned out in 2007.
    The Western Mediterranean 279 BC Chr.

    In the 8th century Rome was a small rural community that grew out of several villages. According to traditional tradition, it shook in 509 BC. From the royal rule and the dominance of the Etruscans. In mythical memory, the expansion began in the battle with the Sabines , then against the city of Alba Longa . The emergence of the patricians and the plebeians , as well as the religious institutions, such as the priesthood of the vestals, can be traced back to this early phase . The Romans attributed the construction of the Cloaca Maxima or the Temple of Jupiter to the Etruscan King Tarquinius Priscus . With the end of the monarchy, the Senate assumed the most important role in the emerging state.

    Rome extended his dominion first over central Italy, then to an empire over the entire Mediterranean area , and finally to the North Sea area and the Persian Gulf . Only after three wars (343–341, 327–304 and 298–290 BC) succeeded in subjugating the Samnites . With the victory over the Hellenistic king of Epirus , Pyrrhus I , in 275 BC. Rome began to break the purely Italian framework and to expand its power.

    This expansion was already overwhelming in the first two Punic Wars , which with an interruption from 264 to 201 BC. The city's resources continued so that it was dependent on the help of the allies. Rome waged further wars against the Hellenistic empires in the east (200 to 146 BC), the Gauls of Northern Italy, whose territory was in 191 BC. BC became the province of Gallia cisalpina , but also areas in southern Gaul. 175 BC Liguria followed , then the Greeks in southern Italy and the Numidians in North Africa, after Carthage in 146 BC. Had been destroyed. Finally, the expansion to Asia Minor (from 133 BC) and the Iberian Peninsula (until 19 BC) followed. 58 to 51 BC Chr. Was conquered Gaul , advanced the frontier to cross the Rhine, eventually followed (but only in the early imperial period) Britannia .

    Neither the centralization on Rome nor the power and administrative apparatus were suitable to control a territorial state of this size. In many cases, social and property relations also brought the empire to the brink of breaking up. Peasant and slave revolts (especially in 135, 104 and 73–71 BC) were the result of the fundamentally changed living conditions and the extreme inequality in the material and legal conditions within society. In addition, there was an increase in the influence of Hellenistic culture , and later also of the cultures of the Middle East, which a conservative Senate group who was reluctant to change perceived as a decline in values.

    There was also another problem: Rome's victory was only possible through troops from the allies. However, since Rome refused its allies the legal equality, there were unrest at the end of the 2nd century and 90/89 BC. To the alliance war . Despite their defeat, the municipalities of Italy received Roman citizenship, 42 BC. The previously excluded cities of the Po Valley received this right . With the census of 29/28 BC Finally, all Italians were entered in the citizen lists. This made Italy a unified legal area preferred to the rest of the empire. This state of affairs lasted until AD 212, when all citizens of the empire were granted Roman citizenship and the duties attached to it. In addition, Italy, especially Rome, was an economic area to which almost all provinces were oriented. At the same time, it had to bear less and less the burden of defending the gigantic empire.

    However, until the reign of Augustus, Italy suffered from severe power struggles that began with the struggle between Sulla and Marius and that were preceded by social struggles associated with the Gracchian reforms . They reached back to the early 5th century when the office of tribune was created. These civil wars reached a further climax with the fighting, from which first Gaius Iulius Caesar , then Augustus emerged victorious.

    Pax Romana, Administration and Economics (1st to 2nd centuries)

    The division of Italy into eleven regions enforced by Augustus.

    The subsequent long peace phase ( Pax Romana ) in Italy allowed economy, arts and culture to flourish. The population density would not be reached again until centuries later. The achievements of Rome in the field of law, administration and art have profoundly shaped Western civilization .

    The inadequate organization of the administration and the military was fundamentally changed by the early emperors. Augustus divided Italy into eleven regions . Most of the republican institutions were formally reinstated, but they remained largely dependent on his decisions and changed their character to administrative activity. However, the Senate in Italy retained some privileges, such as the disposition over the minting of bronze coins from 15 BC onwards. BC, the disposal of the temples or the management of the aerarium Saturni . The tribunes of the people retained their rights, but were formally subordinated to the Senate, reversing their previous position, but in fact to the Emperor.

    While there was only a rudimentary administration in the republic - there were no principles, apparatus or trained personnel - this changed under the emperors. Claudius relied heavily on freedmen in administration (they lost their influence under the Flavians ), Domitian and Hadrian more on wealthy knights ( equites ) , i.e. the group of traders, tax farmers and the urban middle class for whom the republic never found an adequate job would have. Vespasian already drew more provincials, Trajan drew men from the East into the Senate. In particular in the financial administration there was a professionalization, especially when the Roman fiscus took over responsibility for the income from the provinces. A kind of central administration was created.

    From the 2nd century onwards, the consilium principis , which was not easy to grasp, acted as a mediator and advised the emperor informally. Hadrian brought in lawyers for the first time. In the late empire this role was taken over by the consistorium . In addition, the Praetorian Prefect exercised great influence, who was initially responsible for the emperor's security with his Praetorian Guard . He soon received judicial powers that extended beyond the military (under the Severians within a radius of 100 Roman miles around Rome, i.e. almost 150 km) and often acted as a general. Since Nero , he has had his own tax in kind, the annona, to supply troops . Administrative units that were difficult to understand emerged around him. Special areas such as the games or the libraries were only taken over by the responsible procurators . In Rome, a praefectus urbi led the urban cohorts and presided over urgent courts. The praefectus annonae was responsible for the food supply, the market supervision and shipping on the Tiber as well as the bakeries. There was also a praefectus vigilum that organized fire stations. The tasks soon became too complex, so that under Trajan subpraefecti were used, to which narrower tasks were delegated.

    In Italy the Praetorians watched over security. Tiberius brought them to Rome, only the prefects in charge of the fleets remained in Misenum and Ravenna . Municipal magistrates were right, and a court of last instance developed in Rome. The censors were no longer responsible for the road construction , but curatores viarum . The often chaotic finances of the cities have been subject to the curatores civitatis since Nerva . Around 120, the jurisdiction in Italy was to be centralized with four consulares , but the system did not establish itself until the end of the century in a weakened form. Overall, the massive self-enrichment that had resulted in republican times from the confusion of political, military and administrative offices and the short-term nature of the offices was reduced to a tolerable level. It was not until the end of the 2nd century that a relatively fixed hierarchy with corresponding salaries had developed.

    Each city co-administered its surrounding area. In contrast to most provincial cities, the Italians were not subject to the obligation to pay tribute. Incolae , common residents or foreigners, and attributi who lived away from the cities had lesser rights. The connection to the overarching institutions was established by patroni , local notables.

    The greatest relief for the Empire's economy was the end of the civil wars . This turned out to be quite different for Italy, however. There the politically and economically leading group had actually profited considerably from the supply of slaves and the tributes of the provinces, especially the large landowners. The imperial support of the municipia and the extensive imperial domains also benefited the wealth formation of the leading classes in the cities. But it was precisely the latifundia that led to the displacement of the peasants, to the depopulation of the country and to the expansion of pasture farming, which further promoted urbanization. In addition, olive and wheat growers faced stiff competition from Gaul , Hispania and Africa . The emperors, who came increasingly from the provinces since Trajan, for their part promoted the non-Italian regions at the expense of Italy.

    The Italian economy was also burdened by the fact that most of the legionnaires still came from Italy and wars like the Trajans led to high losses and to settlement in the eastern provinces. Already Nerva , Trajan's predecessor, had given Italy a special place. Trajan moved the recruiting areas to the Hispanic areas and tried to counteract the emaciation of Italy. He therefore prohibited emigration from Italy, decreed that senators from the provinces had to invest at least a third of their property in land in Italy, and provided for peasants to raise children (alimenta). This alimentary foundation, which existed until the third century, provided monthly support to probably hundreds of thousands of children through interest and loans that Trajan granted to landowners. Ports, roads and public buildings received massive support, especially in Rome.

    The insufficient supply of slaves to the latifundia and the low productivity of the goods led in the 2nd century to the fact that the large goods were increasingly divided and leased to coloni . The colonies paid taxes for their land in the form of money, goods or labor. Imperial domains were mainly in the south, but the provincial domains were more important.

    Overall, it appears that the latifundia were less the cause of wealth than the fruits of the profits made in trade and production. Mines and quarries played an important role in this, but they were also operated in the provinces and not around Luna near Carrara , as there was fear in Italy of workers being withdrawn from agriculture. In terms of production, Italy remained the leader only in wool spinning, especially in the Po Valley, for example in Altinum and around Taranto . Glass and ceramics, lamps and metal goods, however, lost their leading role. In addition, there was the fierce competition between the country estates, the villae , which were becoming more and more economically independent , against which the small craftsmen who produced the lion's share of the goods could hardly compete. After all, the emperors promoted the brick trade with their building projects.

    Detail of the Trajan Column with scenes from the Dacian War

    The barter largely disappeared, coins circulated in every town. For the first time, coin policy was of the greatest importance. Bronze coins were minted by the Senate, gold and silver coins by the Emperor. In 64 there was a first devaluation. Trajan was able to back the coin system with Dacian gold, from which Rome allegedly stole 5 million Roman pounds, i.e. more than 1,600 tons. But he devalued the copper coins by reducing the copper content. Hadrian's peace course stabilized the system in the long term, but even under Marcus Aurelius a significant inflation became noticeable, i.e. an increasing depreciation of the coins. This peaked in the 2nd half of the 3rd century. In addition, the extraction of precious metals was no longer sufficient, that is, it shook the value relation between gold and silver.

    Little research has been done into the banking system. Transactions of coins could be arranged on paper, so that the difficulties and risks of transferring coins and bars were reduced. Foreign trade brought considerable income to the peripheral provinces, but the greatest volume was trade between the provinces.

    Italy as a province in the Roman Empire, Christianization (3rd to 5th century)

    The Roman Empire and its provinces at the time of its greatest expansion under Emperor Trajan in 117

    The establishment of Christianity in the 4th century up to the status of the state religion , the founding of a second capital in the east and the division of the empire as well as the incorporation of Italy as an ordinary province, plus the political and military uncertainty that did not stop at Italy, characterized the changing situation in the country. Neither the persecutions, especially under Valerian and Diocletian , nor the pagan counter-reaction to the more Christian-friendly policies since Constantine by Emperor Julian could prevent the spread of Christianity. This religion, albeit often fissured but nonetheless ended in a few forms in the Middle Ages, together with its organs, became of central importance for the early Middle Ages .

    The calculation of the number of inhabitants in antiquity causes considerable problems, so that the results diverge greatly. By 200 AD the Roman Empire could have had 46 million inhabitants, Rome at least 700,000, other estimates are considerably higher. For the 1st century, they range from 54 to 100 million for the empire and around 1.1 million for Rome. For the 3rd century, the assumptions vary between 50 and 90 million. Marc Bloch thought it was impossible to calculate the number of inhabitants. According to the older estimates by Karl Julius Beloch, Italy had 7 to 8 million inhabitants, Sicily with 600,000 and Sardinia with 500,000, but this number fell by 500 to around 4 million and by 650 to 2.5 million.

    Section of the Aurelian Wall around Rome

    In 212, in the Constitutio Antoniniana, all citizens of the empire were given Roman citizenship, the previous preference for Italy was dropped. During the period of the so-called Imperial Crisis , which was marked by usurpations and increasing power of the military (see also Soldier Emperors ), Italy increasingly lost its role as the heartland of the empire; this development was to continue in late antiquity . In addition, Rome had to be militarily secured again after 270 with a city wall . Between 254 and 259 Germanic tribes reappeared on Italian soil for the first time, such as the Alamanni , who were repulsed in 259 near Milan and 268 on Lake Garda .

    Ambrose of Milan, mosaic in the Milan church that bears his name . It may have been made during his lifetime.

    Analogous to the rest of the empire, the peninsula was divided into provinces under Diocletian ( list ). The Dioecesis Italiciana formed part of the Praefactura praetorio Italia , two Vicarii resided in Milan and Rome. The Regiones annonariae in the north of the peninsula, administered from Milan, served the maintenance of the imperial household, the Regiones suburbicariae administered from Rome served to supply Rome. The islands were included. A politically active Praefectus urbi administered Rome, which largely lost its function as the imperial residence under Constantine .

    Theological disputes after the Council of Nicaea (325) between the Athenian western emperor Constans and the Arian-friendly Constantius II in the east soon also gave the two bishops of the metropolises of Milan and Rome a special position. Bishop Ambrosius of Milan gained considerable influence on imperial politics, while the Roman prefect gradually lost it, especially since many of the imperial incumbents tended to be more paganistic . Conversely, emperors, such as Valentinian I , interfered in the bishopric election in Rome. In addition, the clergy were exempt from duties and services, as well as from military service, with which they finally became a separate estate.

    It is true that the first Jews can be found in Italy from the 2nd century BC onwards. The first synagogue was built around 100 AD in Ostia . In the 1st century, the number of parishioners was likely to have been around 60,000, of which 30,000 to 40,000 were in Rome. But around 300 there was a first ban on marriage between Jews and Christians at the Council of Elvira (can. 16/78), with the Codex Theodosianus (III, 7.2; IX, 7.5) this ban was valid throughout the empire Death penalty. In addition, the Jews were forbidden to wear clothing, slavery was forbidden (thus denying access to latifundia property and the manor) and the assumption of public offices. From 537 they still had to contribute to the financing of these offices.

    Since Constantinople was founded as the capital of the East in 326 and the actual division into the Western Roman and Eastern Roman Empire in 395, Italy became an increasingly less important province. The western empire dissolved in the course of the migration of peoples under the pressure of the Teutons and Huns , the loss of economically important provinces, the army leadership that the emperor could no longer control and a spatially and socially fragmented society.

    Roman Empire in the 3rd century .

    In November 401 the Germanic Visigoths of Alaric , who the Romans counted to the Scythians, like Alans and Huns, were in Italy for the first time. However, they failed before Aquileia, then in March 402 before the capital Milan. Honorius resided from then on in the safe Ravenna . On April 6, 402 the Goths almost suffered a defeat , Stilicho managed to withdraw from Italy, defeated them at Verona and later won them as an ally against Ostrom. It was not until 408, when the Rhine border collapsed, that Alaric threatened to move to Italy again, which he did after Stilicho's fall and his execution on August 22nd. In 410 Rome was sacked , but in 412 the Goths withdrew to Gaul .

    After Honorius' death in 423, the Eastern Emperor determined politics in Italy. The Roman bishops, especially Leo I , managed to gain prestige both at the court of the West and that of the East. This was demonstrated by the invasion of the Huns under Attila in 452. In 455 , however, the Vandals sacked Rome and occupied Sardinia and Sicily. The Magister militum Ricimer ruled politics in the west for a few years before Constantinople supported Julius Nepos , who marched from Dalmatia to Italy. This in turn was overthrown by Orestes in 475 , who made his son Romulus Augustulus emperor, who in turn was overthrown by Odoacer in August 476 . With this, the Western Roman Empire ended de iure - at the latest with the murder of Julius Nepos in Dalmatia in 480. Odoacer formally recognized the rule of the Eastern Emperor and supplied his troops with land in Italy.

    Church organization, diocesan hierarchy and Roman Empire

    Emperor Constantine IV (center) makes Ravenna an archbishopric. Left to right: Justinian II , the Emperor's two brothers and himself, two Archbishops of Ravenna and three deacons.

    Without taking into account the differentiation between the official church and the community of the faithful, on the formal level a consolidation of the office structure and an expansion of the episcopate can be ascertained on the formal level , which in late antiquity affected every city. In contrast to many former provinces of the Roman Empire, this elevation of the city compared to the surrounding area remained characteristic throughout Italy. The borders between the Municipia often formed the later diocese borders, with monasteries such as Nonantola or Bobbio also being able to integrate their surrounding area.

    The parish in the capital played a central role, traced back to the apostles Peter and Paul , and which enjoyed a special reputation. Between the bishops Damasus I (366–381) and Leo I (440–461) came the idea of ​​a Renovatio Urbis , the resurrection of Rome as the Christian capital. Cyprian of Carthage already points to the legal continuity that refers to the chair of Peter at the church level. However, Ravenna and Aquileia also claimed to be among the oldest bishoprics that date back to the apostles. In the middle of the 3rd century, the first traditional synod of 60 bishops took place in Rome . At the end of the 6th century there were 53 churches in central and northern Italy, and 197 in the more urbanized south. Analogous to the state organization, two church provinces emerged with the centers of Milan and Rome. Aquileia was responsible for the areas up to the Danube . Ravenna was initially assigned to Rome, but under Justinian I , Bishop Maximianus of Ravenna was the first to accept the title of archbishop (archiepiscopus) and around 650 Ravenna was even withdrawn entirely from the jurisdiction of Rome by Emperor Constans II for a few decades .

    Germanic peoples and eastern currents

    Odoacer, Ostrogoths and Gothic War (476-568)

    So-called “Palace of Theodoric” in Ravenna . It became the seat of the Eastern Roman exarch. It is unclear whether the ruins are actually part of the palace.

    Even after 476, late antique structures initially continued to exist in Italy . After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Italy was first ruled by the rex Italiae Odoacer and was then from 489 and 493 the heartland of the Ostrogoths , who had invaded Italy under Theodoric on behalf of the Eastern Roman Emperor Zenon . Theodoric ruled formally on behalf of the emperor and separated civil and military power much more according to ethnic principles; the civil administration remained in the hands of the Romans, while the Goths exercised the military administration and were allocated land. It seems as if the privilege of the Ostrogoths prevented or even prevented the merging of the Roman aristocracy with the Gothic leadership group. The Ostrogoths were Arians and were therefore far removed from the ecclesiastical organs in Italy, which led Theodoric in his last years to imprison the Bishop of Rome or to have politically suspected people like Symmachus executed: after 519 the schism between Rome and Constantinople had been settled, the aging Gothic king increasingly feared that he might be betrayed to the East Romans. After the death of her father (526), his daughter Amalasuntha attempted a more Roman-friendly policy, but was murdered, which gave Emperor Justinian the opportunity to intervene militarily in Italy in 535. Sicily fell first; the civil administration there was directly subordinated to Constantinople.

    Course of Justinian's Gothic Wars

    Italy was conquered between 535 and 553 in bloody battles by Eastern Roman troops led by the generals Belisarius and Narses ( Gothic War ). Emperor Justinian wanted to renew the Roman Empire ( Renovatio imperii ), but the fighting led to the impoverishment of large areas. In 554 the administration of Italy was reorganized and most of the senatorial offices were abolished; but the office of city prefect remained untouched. Italy finally became formally part of the Eastern Roman Empire in 554 , and in 562 the last Gothic fortresses also fell. But the Lombards invaded Italy as early as 568 and conquered large parts of the country. This event is generally considered to be the end of ancient times in Italy, whose state unity has now collapsed for 1300 years. The Lombard dominion in northern Italy soon split up into many smaller duchies (ducats). The remainder controlled by Constantinople was combined under Emperor Maurikios around 585 in the Exarchate of Ravenna . In addition to the area between Rome and Ravenna, large parts of the south as well as Liguria and the coast of Veneto and Istria remained Eastern Roman-Byzantine, with Liguria being lost to the Lombards in the 7th century.

    Under Pope Gregory I , Sardinia , which was occupied by Ostrom in 534, was catholicized from 599 through the use of force. In 710 Arab troops occupied Sardinia, which had belonged to the province of Africa , but the inhabitants drove out the occupiers in 778 and repelled their last attack in 821. Four judiciaries , independent political units led by judges, emerged on the island , the last of which, the Arborea judiciary , lasted until 1478. As in the rest of Italy, the coastal towns were often abandoned.

    The Gothic War, the harsh fiscalism of the imperial administration as well as the invasion of the Lombards from 568, the breakdown of trade relations and increasing insecurity led to a drastic decline in the population, an extensive disappearance of the old senate aristocracy, a shrinking of the cities, the regionalization of agglomerations and an increased agrarianization of the economy with an increase in subsistence farming. The Mediterranean area also changed its function as a trading hub, especially since the south side was conquered by Muslim armies from the 630s onwards, which also conquered Africa , the breadbasket of Italy, up to 700 and from there began to plunder the Italian coastal towns.

    Lombards and Byzantines (568–774)

    Kingdom of Italy, (781-1014).
    Emirate of Sicily, 9th century .
    The Ratchis altar in the western aisle of the Cathedral of Cividale , detail: Madonna and Child, around 740

    The entire class of the haves was integrated into the military system in the exarchate, and local militia troops strengthened the Byzantine army. This created a military-political hierarchy of regionally different independence. Around Rome it tied itself more closely to the local bishop, around Ravenna to the exarch, in Veneto to the family structures, tribunes and duces that arose there, and in the south to the apparatuses that were more closely tied to Byzantium. Emperor Konstans II. Moved with an army from Constantinople to Italy in 662 to fight against the Lombards and Arabs; he resided in Syracuse, Sicily, until his murder in 668, but could not achieve any lasting success.

    The Lombards were not under joint leadership from 574 to 584, but the overarching coordination in the fight against the Franks made the re-establishment of a kingdom necessary. In opposition to Byzantine Ravenna, the Lombards chose Pavia as their capital, with central functions from the early 7th century. In addition, royal palaces were built in Verona (after 580), in Milan and finally in Ravenna. In contrast to the Frankish empire, the kings ruled from residences, especially the Palacium in Pavia, which had been a kind of capital since Rothari , and did not travel through their empire, as was the case north of the Alps for a long time, because its royal power was tied to his physical presence ( Travel royalty ). In contrast to the Frankish empire, there was also no merging of the Roman ruling classes with the Germanic ones, because as Arians they were remote from the Catholic population and acts of violence in the early phase of conquest drove many noble families, especially the senatorial nobility, into Byzantine territory. Around 600, however, the moderating influence of Queen Theudelinde , the daughter of the Bavarian Duke Garibald I. After that, Arian and Catholic kings took turns. King Rothari had the legal customs of the Lombards codified in 643 . Meanwhile, the Lombard dukes of Benevento and Spoleto managed to maintain a high degree of autonomy.

    King Liutprand (712-744) managed to unite the Lombards and he took up the fight against Byzantium again. In doing so, he benefited from the fact that the Lombards were now Catholic and therefore more easily connected with the ruling Roman families in order to form a common ruling class. King Aistulf's edict of 750 no longer differentiated according to ethnic or religious background, but divided the population into different military categories according to their wealth and equipment. In 751 he succeeded in conquering Ravenna.

    Allied with Pope Stephan II , Pippin , King of the Franks since 751, moved before Pavia in 756 and forced Aistulf to recognize his sovereignty and to cede the exarchate of Ravenna, which Pippin gave to the Pope ( Pippin donation ) and took over the patriciate of the city Rome. Between the Longobard Empire and southern Italy, the creation of a secular area of ​​rule by the Pope (Patrimonium Petri) had come to a provisional conclusion, since Constantinople had only been able to intervene occasionally in the west since around 650 due to the threat from the Avars and Arabs .

    Part of the Franconian Empire, "National Kings" (774–951)

    From the year 774, Pippin's son and successor, Charles I , conquered the Longobard Empire and crowned himself in Pavia with the Longobard crown as "King of the Franks and Longobards". In the course of the Carolingian divisions, (Northern) Italy became an independent kingdom again, initially under Carolingian kings, from 888 under local kings of Franconian origin such as Hugo von Vienne and Berengar von Ivrea (" national kings ").

    Frankish conquest

    In the early Middle Ages Italy remained politically divided, and there were always fighting. The Lombards had conquered Ravenna in 751 and forbade all trade with Byzantine subjects since around 750. Because of the Lombard threat, the Pope called on the Franks for help. King Pippin conquered Ravenna, which, however, was now claimed by the Pope. There were similar disputes with King Desiderius , so that Pippin's son and successor Charles I attacked the Longobard capital Pavia in 774 and conquered the Longobard Empire. Charles transferred the former Byzantine territories to the Pope and thus came into conflict with Constantinople. With his coronation as emperor in 800 by the pope, there was a rupture between the empires that lasted until 812 ( two emperor problem ). The Ducat Spoleto was incorporated into the Frankish Empire, but not the Ducat Benevento . The nobility developed there in a similar way to that of the Franks, but the ducat split into the principalities of Benevento and Salerno and the county of Capua.

    Karl divided Italy into counties and brands and brought Franconian nobles into the country as rulers. He granted the monasteries and dioceses privileges and equipped them with manors. The Lombard freemen were accepted into the Frankish army as Arimanni . They received greater influence, especially in the dioceses, and were of the same rank as the Frankish feudal nobility. At the same time there are indications from 845 on that the Lombard language disappeared. Nevertheless, the awareness of different origins was not lost, which was reflected in the name Lombardy for the Lombard core area and Romagna for the Roman-Byzantine. Thanks to the Carolingian Renaissance , there was a temporary increase in education, writing and art with recourse to Roman tradition.

    Regnum Italicum, external attacks

    After the death of Louis the Pious (840), the Frankish Empire was divided and the Regnum Italicum received a higher degree of autonomy with the capital Pavia . Ludwig II (844–875) stayed there at least once a year on his travels through the empire and called a meeting of all the greats. Around the capital, two to three days' journey away, there were royal palaces where documents were also issued. From January to April, the farm mostly overwintered in Mantua , which had been added to the small circle of residential cities since the early Carolingian times. Most of the time the court traveled to the Po valley, only rarely to Tuscany or even to Spoleto . Such trips were combined with a visit to Rome. When Ludwig stayed south of Rome between 866 and 872, this in no way diminished his authority in the north. The main task of the king was to maintain the social order as it was handed down and, above all, to administer justice. This was done by the king or his missi in front of as many witnesses as possible, with occasional greats being punished for wrongdoing against subordinates. But everyone had their position in the social hierarchy, which has always been understood as existing. The free in freedom, the servant in bondage: "liber in libertate, servus iin servitute", as it is called in a document of the Nonantola monastery from the year 852. From Berengar I, the judges (scabini) introduced by Charlemagne disappeared, and their influence on the royal or Paveser judges had long since declined. This escalation to Pavia and the legal education there was supposed to give Italy a completely different course in terms of the role of legal experts in urban development. In contrast to the scabini , they were not dependent on local masters, but on the king, but they mostly stayed away from the court. They were more closely involved in local disputes, at the same time a more complicated legal process developed, which now managed without the testimony of the pauperes (the poor). Also, the judges now almost exclusively dealt with disputes within the local elites, no longer those within the rest of the rural world. The exemption from judicial and thus royal interventions in entire rulership areas led in turn to greater internal independence, which was supposed to compensate for a fixed system of taxes and benefits vis-à-vis the king. At the same time, the lower social groups were excluded from the possibility of calling on the royal authority directly.

    Ludwig II led an independent foreign policy, especially in the south, especially towards the Arabs under the Aghlabids , who began to conquer Sicily in 827 and soon established themselves in southern Italy. They managed to conquer the island by 902, the political center now shifted from Syracuse to Palermo . From 843 to 871 there was an Arab emirate in Bari , but its troops were defeated by Ludwig II. After that, Byzantium again took possession of Apulia and even regained influence in Benevento. The now independent Ducat Naples split up into the city rulers of Naples , Amalfi and Gaeta .

    From 899 Hungarians in the north invaded Italy from the northeast. They had only been resident in the territory of their present state since 896. From there they traveled to Italy so often that the route they rode was soon called strata Hungarorum . Not only did they come to plunder, they were also used in the dynastic conflicts. In 922 they marched as far as Apulia, in 924 they set fire to the city of Pavia and the royal palace under the leadership of a salard and (possibly) as an ally of Berengar; Bishop John III also came. about life. Only after heavy defeats and with their Christianization ended their war campaigns after 955, which had covered almost all of Central and Southern Europe. In Italy the invasion of the Hungarians is considered the last invasion of the “barbarians” and thus the end of the great migration .

    Feudalization, first urban independence

    Emperor Lothar I , Lothar Gospels , Tours , written between 849 and 851, Bibliothèque nationale de France , Paris

    In the north, the territorial lords of powerful families emerged from the Franconian large units (see: Italian nobility ) . In addition, the dioceses gained considerable regional power and new priorities arose in the course of the Incastellamento . The Franconian greats, in turn, brought their allies from Burgundy and other parts of the empire into the battle for supremacy. Wido of Spoleto and Berengar I of Friuli fought for them , Hugo of Arles and Vienne became king from 926 to 941. Otto I finally challenged Berengar II of Ivrea for the royal dignity.

    In addition to the feudal rule, the first urban dominions arose in the northern half, such as Rome, which was ruled by the family of Senator Theophylact , and Venice , which was still formally under Byzantium, but led an independent foreign policy under changing Doge families with their permanent seat established in 811. In the Pactum Lotharii , Emperor Lothar I granted Venice extensive trading rights in northern Italy, and his successors recognized Venice's property on imperial territory. At the same time, the cities of the lagoon had to fight off several invasions by Frankish, Slavic (around 846), Arab (875) and Hungarian (899 to 900) armies.

    Church organization

    The conquests of the Longobards also changed the hierarchy of the church communities. The capital Pavia subordinated itself to Rome and broke away from Milan. The seat of the diocese of Aquileia was moved to Grado , the diocese of Altinum was relocated to the less endangered island of Torcello in the Venetian lagoon .

    Major changes in the diocesan borders were only enforced by the Carolingians in the 9th century, who with their reorganization created structures that were more similar to the Roman ones than the previously ruling Lombardy. The Franconian counts , who replaced the Gastalden and dukes , often resided in the diocese towns, but the bishops had to strive for lordly privileges and regalia that secured their comitatus . In many cases, episcopal territory emerged within the counties on the basis of various rights. The external attacks and the relative weakness of the Regnum Italicum contributed significantly to this independence . The bishops were mostly members of the ruling families themselves and were able to secure a following by donating income from the churches, chapels and baptismal churches (Pieven). However, several developments stood in the way of their direct exercise of power. The Carolingian laws gave the Pieven the right to collect tithes, and through the allocation of the rural population they received a kind of territorial rule - a specific feature of Italy. In addition, clerical dynasties from lay families emerged in some areas , which largely deprived the diocese of its rights. In addition, new secular rulers emerged from the bishops' followers in the cities.

    From 816, the Constitutiones Aquisgranenses introduced a new element in communal development. A cathedral chapter was created with them , as it was demanded that the clergy should live together according to the monastic model. This clergy , in turn, tried to maintain control over a larger part of the episcopal patrimony . This phenomenon was even more evident in the private churches established by wealthy aristocratic families. The cathedral church and its patrimony were still subordinate to the bishop, but the cathedral chapters now took over the administration of the cathedral. The bishop was limited to his patrimony.

    Rome emerged strengthened from the theological disputes with Byzantium in Italy and was considered to be the guarantor of the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity and its Christology . In addition, since Gregory I succeeded in converting the remaining Arians and the last pagans - in Sardinia also by force. A hierarchy of offices was established in Rome, which secured the necessary rights and income. Thus Rome became another important concentration of power in Italy, alongside the Franconian Empire and Byzantium as well as the Aghlabids and the calbites that followed them in Sicily.

    In the iconoclasm , Emperor Leo III withdrew . 732/33 the Pope gave the patrimony of Calabria (Bruttium) and Sicily. Otranto rose to the seat of a metropolitan in 986 , with Squillace , Rossano and Santa Severina new bishoprics emerged. The southern churches were organizationally and culturally strongly influenced by Byzantium, which gave the area a Greek character that still exists today.

    Imperial Italy (from 951)

    The iron crown of the Lombards, the symbol of the Italian royal dignity, which Adelheid brought into his marriage to Otto I in 951. The real symbol of power of the Lombard kings, however, was the spear. The spear of Odin , Gugingus, gave the early Lombard kings their name of origin as Gugingen (ex genere Gugingus).
    Otto and Berengar with their followers. The seated Otto I receives a downward pointing sword as a sign of submission from King Berengar II , who kneels on his right
    . A follower of Otto who stands on his left carries a sword with the tip pointing upwards as a sign of Otto's authority; the sword of one of his men wearing chain mail is pointed downwards. Illustration of a manuscript from the Weltchronik Otto von Freising , around 1200 (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana ). The protagonists are called differently: Otto is referred to as "Otto Theotonicorum rex" with a brief official title, whereas his opponent is only called "Beringarius".

    In 951 Otto I gained control of northern and parts of central Italy through his marriage to Adelheid, the widow of Hugo I, and established the connection between imperial Italy and the empire . Venice , on the other hand , was not part of the Lombard Empire and the later Holy Roman Empire , which initially only consisted of the lagoon there , but was nevertheless an influential power that spread over the east and central northern Italy from the 14th century, especially in 1405 spread.

    Under the Ottonians , their imperial church policy in Italy was continued and the dioceses were strengthened. With this, however, power was severely fragmented, even if the landed nobility were partially reconnected to the empire. The conflict with Byzantium in southern Italy was settled through the marriage of Otto II with Theophanu , but he suffered a heavy defeat against the Saracens at Cape Colonna in 982 . His son Otto III. who succeeded him in office in 983, Rome intended to make the site of the imperial coronations the capital of his empire. In 991 he made Gerbert von Aurillac Lord of the Imperial Church as Pope Silvester II , but the Emperor died in 1002.

    Numerous Italian campaigns followed in order to secure rule in imperial Italy. They were connected with the coronation of the emperor by the Pope and were often referred to as the "Rome trip". It was usually preceded by the coronation as King of Italy with the Iron Crown of the Lombards. An “Italian” department of the Reich Chancellery was responsible for issuing documents; The Arch Chancellor assumed political responsibility for Italy , an office that from 965 lay with the Archbishop of Cologne.

    Byzantines (up to 1071), Arabs (827-1091)

    During the siege of Benevento (871), Emir Soldanos (Mofareg ibn Salem) of Bari negotiated with a Byzantine ambassador, Madrid illuminated
    manuscript of the Skylitz , originally made in the 1070s; Illustrated copy from around 1150 to 1175, made in the vicinity of the Norman royal court in Palermo, Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid

    Southern Italy remained partially Byzantine or Lombard (principalities of Benevento , Capua , Salerno ) until the 11th century . Towards the end of the 11th century, these Lombard princes recruited Norman mercenaries to defend themselves against the Arabs , who ruled Sicily or parts of it from around 827 to 1091 and who ruled around Bari from 847 to 871 , and they then recruited all of southern Italy, including their principalities Clients conquered and founded the Kingdom of Sicily in 1130 in what was once Lombard, Arab and Byzantine territory .

    Muslim fleets attacked Syracuse as early as 668 and 703 , but the Arabs failed to establish themselves permanently on the island. In 827, however, Admiral Euphemios defeated the Byzantine governor of Sicily to avoid his arrest and declared himself emperor. He called on the Aghlabids , who had become independent in Tunisia since 800 , and landed at Lilybaeum ( Marsala ) under the leadership of Asad ibn al-Furāt . After protracted fighting, Palermo fell in 831, 841–880 Taranto was Arabic, until 871 they stayed in Bari . There was an attack on Rome in 846 (which led to the walling of St. Peter's Church ) and in 875 on Venice and Aquileia . On Sicily, Cefalù fell in 857, Enna 859, finally Syracuse in 878 and Taormina 902. Around 880 to 915 the Arabs settled in Agropoli north of Naples , and in 900 they destroyed Reggio in Calabria. Rometta lasted until 965, Byzantium managed to occupy Taormina from 965 to 983. In 849 a papal Campanian fleet succeeded in defeating a Saracen fleet off Ostia . In 871 Ludwig II, Byzantium and Venice, supported by troops of Lothar II, Croatian and Dalmatian auxiliaries, advanced in southern Italy and retook Bari. The emir fled to Adelchin of Benevento. The Aghlabids responded with an attack of allegedly 20,000 men on Calabria and Campania, but they were subject to Ludwig's troops in 873 in Capua. In 876 Bari submitted to Byzantium, who succeeded in conquering Taranto in 880. Nevertheless, the power of expansion of the southern Italian-Tunisian Muslims only flagged from 915.

    The Arabs were not only active as conquerors and plunderers, often in the service of the southern Italian greats. They also brought new irrigation techniques and crops with them. Lemons and oranges, dates, but also cotton, pistachios and melons as well as silk became important products on the island, whose main markets were now in the south. Palermo replaced Syracuse as the largest city in Sicily. The successors of the Aghlabids, the Fatimids , installed Hassan al-Kalbi as emir in Sicily in 948 , who founded the Kalbite dynasty. Otto II lost to them in 982 in Calabria. When there were disputes within the dynasty around 1030, Byzantium tried to use this opportunity to recapture. General Georgios Maniakes occupied Messina in 1038 and Syracuse in 1040, but the Byzantines had to withdraw again in 1043.

    In 1063 a Pisan fleet attacked Sicily, but only the Normans succeeded in conquering the island in a tough battle from 1061 to 1091 - Catania fell in 1071, Palermo in 1072. They had already subjugated the Lombard territories and also expelled the Byzantines, whose last city Bari fell in 1071. Before the end of the conquest, the Normans turned to the heartland of Byzantium, which they tried to conquer from 1081. Byzantium was faced with a simultaneous attack by the Normans in the west and the Turkish Seljuks in the east. In this situation, Venice supported Emperor Alexios I with his navy and in return received trade privileges that exempted its traders from all taxes from 1082 onwards.

    Economy, trade, credit and market quota in the high Middle Ages

    Around 1000 there was an intensification of trade and an increase in production. This was due to an improvement in climatic conditions, a decline in epidemics such as malaria , but also to the decline in invasions from the east (Slavs, Hungarians) and the south (Arabs, Berbers). The population of Italy, which rose again, is estimated to be 2.5 million by 650 and 5 million by the late 11th century. By the end of the 14th century it was around 10 million.

    This increase in population caused or enabled increased internal colonization , which reached its peak during the 12th century. The villication system largely dissolved, the (re-) introduction of citrus fruits, olives, cotton and silk production with only minor technological changes led to an intensification of the exchange. Cities in southern Italy, such as Amalfi , then Salerno , Gaeta , Bari , and the cities of Sicily benefited from the economic lead of the Muslim empires and the Byzantine Empire . They traded wood, slaves , iron, and copper throughout the Mediterranean , for which they bought spices, wine, luxury goods, dyes, ivory and works of art.

    Colonial empire and main trade routes of Venice in the eastern Mediterranean
    Colonies of Genoa

    In the 10th century, Venice, thanks to its close ties to Byzantium and the Muslim empires, succeeded in not only becoming a trading but also a maritime power. Genoa and Pisa, on the other hand, faced considerably stronger opposing forces in the Tyrrhenian Sea , but were able to gain the upper hand within a century around 1100. These three soon-to-be-dominant maritime powers benefited from technical innovations such as the compass and portolan , but also the enlargement of the cargo space, the improved training of the merchant's sons and the state protection of trade convoys. They also extended trading hours and shortened the winter breaks.

    The dominance over large parts of the Mediterranean made the northern Italian fleets a given means of transport for pilgrims and crusaders, which in turn produced enormous fortunes. Ultimately, the Genoese and Venetians succeeded in largely eliminating Byzantine competition and dominating trade to Constantinople and deep into Asia, thanks to privileges granted mainly under external constraints . Both Genoa and Venice initially conquered a chain of bases far to the east, which they expanded into real colonial empires. In addition, they maintained merchant colonies in numerous cities, which received varying degrees of autonomy.

    This trading system in the east had to be countered by a corresponding system in the west and north in order to acquire goods and develop sufficient sales markets. This was true on the one hand for Italy itself, whose growing population was supplied with goods through a large number of trade fairs and the expansion of local markets, on the other hand for Western Europe, where Italian merchant colonies developed. They sat in the cities of Provence , Catalonia and Castile , the Rhineland, Flanders and England . Analogous to the Eastern merchants, they formed the switching stations for trade, for information and even for training the next generation. They were also the ones who met the luxury needs of the courts, including those of the Pope.

    This rise in connection with the commercial revolution was able to build on the urban continuity, which was greater here than in most other areas of the former Roman Empire, in addition to the favorable spatial location of Italy and the contacts with economically more developed neighbors. The cities were the official seats of bishops and abbots, of royal administrative bodies, whose economic bases were nevertheless predominantly in the countryside, and the cities had markets and fairs, ports and long-distance trade routes and profited from the need for luxury. In addition, they were able to make themselves largely independent of the sovereigns in the north and force the landed gentry to move into the city. With these developments, the dominance of the agricultural over the urban in Italy collapsed. Trade, monetary affairs and commercial enterprise under the aegis of an emerging bourgeois ruling class shaped the country. The urban population is believed to have increased five or six fold between the 11th and early 14th centuries. This growth was largely due to the influx from the countryside, so that alongside the economic revolution, there was a city ​​revolution . On the one hand, this influx caused a massive expansion of the cities, and on the other hand, the emergence of a construction industry that became one of the most important branches of the economy.

    The municipal leadership groups consisted of long-distance traders, real estate owners and landowners. They were urged to invest their capital in trade trips and shipbuilding, but also in state welfare tasks, such as the supply of grain and bread, the massive turnover of which played a major role in the creation of large fortunes. The goods on board the ships also mostly belonged to one or more investors who were linked to the skipper by a contract. Business such as banking and exchange companies were soon added to trading and looting . This applied both to the small, local credit market and to long-distance trade credits, which in Venice were more publicly organized and in Genoa more privately organized. From the 12th and 13th centuries, the traders joined together to form companies (compagnie) that emerged from family associations and formed branches. In Venice, brothers were even automatically considered to be members of the same trading company.

    The techniques of transferring money and lending were noticeably improved from the 12th century onwards. Much earlier than in the rest of Europe, the risks of coin transfer and the hurdles of changing from one coin system to another were overcome and, at the same time , an extensive credit system based on bills of exchange was developed through hidden interest payments, which were forbidden due to biblical prohibitions . Based on Roman law , maritime and commercial law was also expanded.

    By 1250 the commercial revolution had taken hold to the point that it dominated the essence of the Italian metropolises. The mentality of the management layers was based on spatial expansion, such as to Russia , China , India and Africa, but also Norway and the Baltic Sea region, in Italy itself the turnover of goods expanded on the basis of increasing money and market mediation of most economic transactions. In order to pave the way for the greatly increased volume of trade, the waterways that were naturally available were expanded by building canals and improving the roads. The vast majority of the trade, especially that of bulk goods, continued to be done on the water.

    Commerce and industry formed a unity that was difficult to define in the cities. The craft guilds (arti) mostly related to the shop (bottega) and only rarely took on "industrial" dimensions. The situation was completely different in mining and shipbuilding as well as in the textile sector. Up to the 12th century Calabria and Sicily were the centers of silk production, from the 13th century also Tuscany and Emilia, there again Lucca and Bologna . Initially, the Italian cloth merchants were mainly active in the intermediate trade between Brabant - Flanders and northern France, but they began to develop a mixture of craft, wage and home work in a kind of publishing system (opificio disseminato) .

    Silver coin, Venice between 1253 and 1268
    Gold coin, Venice 1400

    Italy's mediating role forced a double coin system of silver and gold coins, which initially operated the southern Italian cities on a small scale as the successor to the Muslim ones, whose tari they took over. In the middle of the 13th century, Florence and Genoa, and at the end of the century also Venice, switched to a double system of gold and silver coins, which brought the cities considerable income and at the same time made it possible to manipulate prices and shift social burdens. So Florence installed a domestic currency and a currency for foreign trade that was kept stable. This made it possible to reduce wages compared to the income from foreign trade without endangering social peace at home.

    Around 1200, especially after the sack of Constantinople (1204) in the course of the Fourth Crusade , the supply of capital exceeded the corresponding market. This gave new opportunities to moneylending and banking, with some of the banks specializing in high finance businesses . They financed royal courts and organized the papal finances. Wars were also increasingly being pre-financed by them. The risk, however, was that there was no minimum coverage of the issued capital and, above all, that there was little opportunity for foreign borrowers to force them to repay.

    In contrast, the development in southern Italy was completely different. The cities there were on the threshold of a commercial revolution in the 11th century, but after the expulsion of the Byzantines and Berbers, Norman rule brought pronounced feudalization under the dominance of the newly raised nobility. Its latifundia and the peasants' continuing ties to the plaice prevented the development of agricultural diversity, especially since wheat, as an export good that was used to finance war, took up ever larger areas. Both Normans and Staufer, Anjou and the Spanish rulers used this wealth to finance their court rulings and their battles among themselves and their attempts to expand against Byzantium. At the same time, the municipalities were subjected to rigorous tax administration and fiscalism adapted to fluctuating financial needs, and municipal self-organization was largely suppressed. Craftsmen and traders' corporations also played only a minor role.

    This led to the fact that the Italian north viewed the south as a raw material country - such as wine, oil, cheese, wood, salt, cattle, seafood, etc. - and deepened the conditions created by the domestic dynasties. The merchants from Genoa, Florence, Pisa and Venice settled in large numbers in the port cities in the 12th century. After the end of the Hohenstaufen dynasty (1268), the Florentines dominated the empire of the Anjou, the Pisans dominated the Aragonese Sicily. They were joined by Catalan merchants in the 14th century, who also contributed to the fact that the capital flowed out and hardly any investments were made in the country.

    All efforts of the Hohenstaufen, for example to promote mining, sugar production, handicrafts and trade, to expand the Anjou's road network, and even the establishment of new trade fairs and markets brought hardly any improvements in view of this basic constellation. However, these state control attempts benefited the port cities, as they profited greatly from exports. Naples became important again as the capital for shipbuilding and as a center for luxury goods. After the unification of Naples with Sicily (1442), trade with the Spaniards intensified immensely, but here, too, southern Italy tended to play the role of supplier of raw materials. Silkworm farming took off in Calabria, merino sheep were imported, tuna and corals were increasingly exported.

    Attempts at reform by the church and society

    In the north, the increasing urbanization was accompanied by power struggles between the land-based captains and the Valvassors , who were more like the towns and who held fiefs and enjoyed imperial rights. At the same time, city lords and local communities fought for supremacy. The Milan Pataria of 1057 also caused the reform papacy , which, like the rebels, fought against simony and Nicolaitism , came into conflict with imperial rule. This was mainly due to the fact that Pope Gregory VII claimed the right to appoint the Milanese bishop, and finally from 1075 that of all bishops. As early as 1024, the Cives Pavias destroyed the royal palace, thereby ending its role as a royal residence. From the 1080s onwards, consular constitutions in the cities became tangible, from 1093 onwards, formal alliances between cities.

    Heinrich V's document from 1122 (see Worms Concordat ), in which he renounces the investiture of the bishops with ring and staff .

    In Italy in the 11th century, reform efforts of the church were combined with efforts to reduce dependence on transalpine kingship. In the northern dioceses in particular, the imperial church system had created a strong dependency of the churches, which was also reflected in the fact that Bavarian bishops in particular resided there, such as in Aquileia, in the march of Verona and in Ravenna. In other cities, the bishops often came from the group of feudal Italian captains, and from the 12th century also from the Valvassors. Although the bishops retained a certain degree of independence, they were increasingly integrated into the ruling system of the empire, which was organized on the basis of the manorial system. There was increasing resistance to the submission of bishops to the will of a lay royal. The uprising of Pataria of 1057, which was primarily aimed at the moral restoration of the church, continued to have an effect after its suppression. In 1067 the cardinal legates in Milan confirmed to the bishop the spiritual power exercised out of his office over the entire clergy, the community of believers and in particular over the baptismal churches, regardless of whether the associated benefits were due to laypeople or clergy. In 1075 Pope Gregory VII explicitly forbade the appointment of clergy by lay people to their offices. Up until the Worms Concordat (1122), there was an initial phase of dispute with the German rulers.

    Saint Dominic and the Albigensians in Albi (1207) - Catholic and Cathar scriptures are thrown into the fire, but only these burn - Pedro Berruguete around 1495.

    The spiritual and social dimensions of the reform movement should not be underestimated in view of the underlying economic and power interests. Around 1034, with the heretics of Monforte in Piedmont, heterodox movements appeared for the first time , groups whose teaching the church leadership considered incompatible with their dogmas. In addition to the Pataria (1057) already mentioned, above all Arnold von Brescia (1155), the Cathars , the Humiliates , the Italian Waldensians or the Passengers should be mentioned, but also Ugo Speroni († after 1198), who opposed hierarchy, Applied priesthood and sacraments.

    Initially, reform-minded hermits, such as Petrus Damiani , who wanted to strengthen the life of the clergy in communities, often acted on the edge of the accepted spectrum . Canonical pens, initiated by clerics and laypeople, sprang up everywhere . In the monastic sector, the Virginians , the Order of Pulsano, the Wilhelmites , the Carthusians , the Cistercians and the Floriacians were created by Joachim von Fiore . Against the diversity of movements inclined towards the world, a movement emerged that turned away from the world, practiced contemplation and penance and thus revived Benedictine traditions more strongly. This is how the Congregations of the Coelestines and the Silvestrians came into being .

    Lay movements like the Alleluia Movement were equally influential; some of them were antiheretic. In the 13th century the flagellant movement arose, to which the third order of the Franciscans long leaned. Finally, Franciscans and Dominicans were added , and later also Carmelites , Augustinian hermits , Servites and sack brothers . The Pope used the first two in particular in his propaganda struggle against the emperor.

    The execution of Savonarola in the Piazza della Signoria in Florence

    In the 14th and 15th centuries, numerous congregations turned to charitable work, as beguines and begarians had done earlier. The result was an extremely dense network of hospitals and brotherhoods, many of which were in municipal hands or were brought into being by the cities. That the representatives of these movements were by no means satisfied with this is shown by men and women such as Bernardine of Siena , Catherine of Genoa or Franziska of Rome , who gave mysticism new impulses, but above all Girolamo Savonarola , who carried out his ideas from 1494 to 1498 seized political power in Florence.

    Italy was largely spared from the persecution of witches. They did exist in the Alpine valleys (the most severe persecutions took place in Valcamonica from 1518 to 1521 and in Como until at least 1525 ), but Andrea Alciati (1492–1550), leading commentator on the Codex Iuris Civilis , wrote reports on the occasion of the persecutions there , in which he spoke of “nova holocausta” with a sharpness that could hardly be surpassed. He accused the Inquisition of creating the phenomenon of witchcraft instead of fighting it, as they claimed. The Franciscan Samuel de Cassini from Milan had already opposed the persecutions in 1505, but they occurred occasionally until after 1700.

    The Inquisition was founded by Rome in disputes with the numerous social and religious movements and was based primarily on the Dominicans. The Waldensians, the "poor of Lyon", were in 1184 in the Pope Lucius III. written Edict Ad Abolendam listed as a heretic . Another conviction followed in 1215 under Pope Innocent III. In 1252 the Waldensians were condemned again along with other groups in the bull Ad Extirpanda written by Pope Innocent IV . From the 1230 / 1240s, the persecution started from the Inquisition. While the Inquisition eradicated the Waldensian creed in Calabria and Provence, it survived in some valleys of the Cottian Alps .

    Pope, Normans, Staufers (until 1268)

    In the high and late Middle Ages, large parts of central Italy were dominated by the Roman Catholic Church and, like northern Italy, were directly affected by the power struggles between the emperor and the pope (beginning with the investiture dispute and ending in the 14th century) and by the battles between the municipalities . The latter usually assigned themselves to the main contending parties as Ghibellines and Guelphs . In addition, there were often strong tensions within the municipalities.

    The end of Arab and Byzantine rule in the south played a significant role in this. In 1038 and 1040, Byzantium managed to recapture Messina and Syracuse , but disputes at court and the spread of the Normans brought into the country as mercenaries led to the collapse of both Byzantine and Arab rule.

    Henry II intervened in the south in 1021; the southern Italian princes submitted to him and he besieged the Byzantine Troy in Apulia. The papacy, which until 1012 was dependent on the Crescenti , now depended on the Tusculans . However, his son and successor made several long-term decisions with far greater consequences: With the appointment of Suidger von Bamberg as Pope Clement II , Heinrich III. 1046 the requirements for the reform papacy. He also enfeoffed the Norman Rainulf II in 1047 with the county of Aversa and Drogo von Hauteville with his Apulian land that was on Byzantine territory. This was the first time that Norman leaders entered into a feudal bond with the empire. The Pope, in turn, enfeoffed Robert Guiskard in 1059 with Apulia, Calabria and Sicily, which was still to be conquered. Under his leadership, the Normans then conquered Sicily in a kind of crusade from 1061 to 1091

    Italy around 1050

    Another important factor was the enforcement of feudal law in northern Italy, in which the emperor stood up in favor of the Valvassors ( Constitutio de feudis , 1037), in order to assert the power of the greats who had become independent in Italy, which the emperors rarely visited Counterbalance. In order to further limit the power of the great , he endowed several cities with privileges. Accordingly, one of the most powerful Capitans, Gottfried the Bearded of Tuscia , became the protector of the reform popes. This was all the more important as the Normans were unreliable allies; so they marched in 1066 into the patrimony of Petri , and despite the ban on him, Robert Guiskard occupied the principality of Salerno (1076), the last Lombard rule. This extremely threatening situation for Pope Gregory VII may have caused his comparatively mild behavior towards Henry IV during his penance to Canossa .

    The Pope recognized all conquests of the Normans in 1080 and released Robert Guiskard from the spell. Robert now took a massive stand against Henry IV and freed the Pope from captivity. In addition, the Normans ensured a slow re-Catholicization - in Santa Severina the Orthodox rite was retained until the 13th century - of the once Byzantine dioceses and the establishment of new episcopates. Gallipoli kept the Byzantine rite until 1513, Bova even until 1573 (a Greek dialect still exists there today). In Sicily, the dioceses that had been abolished by the Muslims were re-established. In addition, Robert made preparations to conquer Byzantium , which had been weakened by the conquests of the Seljuks . With this, in turn, he made an enemy of Venice, which no longer tolerated the establishment of power on both sides of the Adriatic in the interests of the freedom of its trade routes.

    Mathilde von Tuszien and Hugo von Cluny as advocates of Henry IV. , Vita Mathildis des Donizio, around 1115. Vatican City, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, Ms. Vat. Lat. 4922, f. 49 v )

    The Hohenstaufen now laid claim to the Mathildic estates and courted Milan, which had started to create its own territory with the subjugation of Lodi (1111) and Como (1127).

    The schism of 1130 - in Rome the families of the Pierleoni and the Frangipani fought each other - which was only ended by the Second Lateran Council in 1139 , on the other hand, weakened the papal side, which was now forced to grant the Normans numerous rights. Lothar III. sought at the request of insurgents to fight Roger II, who had been crowned king since 1130, from 1136 to 1137. Roger was defeated in the Battle of Nocera (July 24, 1132) against the rebels under Rainulf von Alife. Lothar now pulled Milan on his side. As a result, Milan's enemies, especially Pavia and Cremona , almost automatically became his opponents. Pisa, Venice and Genoa in turn supported Lothar in the conquest of Bari . But the army refused to pursue Roger to Sicily, so that by 1138 he succeeded not only in imprisoning Pope Innocent II , but also in regaining all rights in southern Italy after Roger's main adversary Rainulf had died in 1139. In 1143/44 the Pope was also in distress due to an uprising in Rome under Arnold von Brescia .

    Conrad III. negotiated with the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I about an alliance against the Normans who had attacked Byzantium. In 1148 they decided on a joint campaign that should lead to the division of the Norman Empire. Roger allied himself with the French king and with the Guelphs . After the emperor's death, his successor Friedrich I pursued a similar policy, but he did not tolerate any Byzantine involvement. He also drew Welf VI. on his side by enfeoffing him with huge estates. In 1154 Roger II died.

    Peter III's fleet
    from Aragón - the king is identified by the crown - lands in Trapani in Sicily, Biblioteca Vaticana. The island remained in Spanish hands until 1861.

    The Norman Empire was now an important Mediterranean power (it conquered Tunis in 1146), especially since it now had considerable economic resources at its disposal. In 1155 and 1156 he succeeded in reaching an agreement with the Pope as well as with Genoa and Venice. However, it tried in vain to conquer the Byzantine Empire, and made a last attempt under Wilhelm II in 1185 , which also failed. The crusades had not only led to excessive looting, but also to an intensification of trade relations, especially between southern Italy and later also northern Italian with the entire Mediterranean region. The Norman Empire fought in Italy in alternating coalitions against imperial and papal claims, but was able to grow into the role of protector against the claims to power of the Roman-German emperors through its long-term change to the side of the Pope from 1155 until it was inherited by the Hohenstaufen in 1190 fell. These received the Norman Empire in 1194. Palermo was the capital and residence of Emperor Frederick II , who grew up in the south.

    Despite the dynastic connection in the Staufer period, southern Italy was never formally part of the Holy Roman Empire and also represented a papal fiefdom. The popes feared that the Staufers would "embrace" the Papal States and fought against its dominance. In the dispute between Frederick II and the Popes, which his successors continued, the last two Staufers were defeated in 1266 and 1268 by Charles I of Anjou . In 1282 a popular uprising brought first Sicily ( Sicilian Vespers ), then an inheritance in 1442, the mainland southern Italy to Aragón (which became part of Spain from 1492 ).

    Communes, signories, imperial politics (11th to 15th centuries)

    Communal independence

    In northern Italy, the cities emancipated themselves from imperial rule from the end of the 11th century and gradually extended their rule over the surrounding area by submitting the small Valvassors to their own urban fiefdom. The “republican” -oriented consular constitution, which is available from around 1080, was soon typical. The Lombard League , which was formed from 1164, defeated the Roman-German Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa , who wanted to subject the cities to greater imperial control, in 1176 in the battle of Legnano . With the end of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, the cities became de facto independent (even if they continued to formally accept imperial rule, provided they were in imperial Italy) and usurped imperial rights ( regalia ).

    Among the municipalities in the south that faced the much more centralized power of the Normans and, from 1268, the Anjou, only those in the north were able to achieve a status of extensive independence. The Republic of Venice , which was the only one formally independent from the empire, also managed to become largely independent from Byzantium in the 9th and 10th centuries. In 992 and 1082, their traders received trading privileges which, despite severe setbacks, led them to dominate trade in the eastern Mediterranean. Pisa competed with them, but Venice largely displaced this competition between 1099 and 1126 when the Byzantine emperor was forced to give up his plan to play Pisa against Venice. After his successor had all the Venetians arrested in 1171, Venice used the Fourth Crusade to conquer Constantinople. From 1204 to 1261 the city ruled the Latin Empire , after the fall of which Genoa controlled the flow of trade. As a result, Venice supported the reconquest plans of the Staufer and Anjou and fought four comprehensive wars with Genoa, which only ended in 1381. However, the competitive relationship remained.

    Milan was subjugated and destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa in 1162, but quickly recovered. But first the Lombard League and the Verona League, which came into being under the influence of Venice, emerged under the leadership of Cremona . They were in league with the Normans, the Pope and the Byzantine Emperor, against whose annexation plans Friedrich had turned, so that the Roman-German rule collapsed. After the battle of Legnano (1176) and the peace treaties of Venice (1177) and Constance (1183), many imperial rights were restored, but the independence of the communes was no longer fundamentally in danger.

    On the other hand, the marriage of Henry VI. with Konstanze , the heiress of the Norman Empire, in 1194 that the Roman-German was united with the Norman Empire. However, in order to be able to assert himself against the Guelphs, Frederick II had to renounce the Papal State in the gold bull of Eger (1213) in Innocent III. acknowledge the scope created. On the other hand, he enforced a centralist regime in the south, which, following Norman traditions, left little room for communal freedoms. He also broke the resistance of the regional nobility and covered the country with a network of castles; at the same time he monopolized large parts of the trade.

    Staufer and Anjou

    The Carroccio of the Lombard League , an ox-drawn triumphal chariot that fell into the hands of Emperor Frederick II's troops at the Battle of Cortenuova , 14th century

    Against this threatening power for the communes, a new Lombard League was formed in 1226. At the same time there were violent conflicts between the Hohenstaufen and the popes, which led to the ban against Friedrich in 1227 and then to open war. The Lombard League supported the Pope, while numerous other cities, such as Cremona and Pisa, supported the Emperor, in many cases because this was the only way to ward off the expansion pressure of their neighbors. Frederick won at Cortenuova in 1237 , but his demand for the unconditional submission of Milan led to the war continuing. Now Genoa and Venice were openly united against the emperor, especially since he had not succeeded in conquering Brescia in 1238 .

    After the death of Frederick (1250), his followers in Italy initially tried to enforce imperial rights, but Charles of Anjou , King of Sicily crowned by the Pope, ended the power of the Hohenstaufen in two battles ( Benevento and Tagliacozzo , 1266 and 1268). Charles resumed the Norman plans to conquer Byzantium and found the support of Venice, since Constantinople was again the capital of Byzantium in 1261 and the emperor there refused entry to the Venetians. Emperor Michael Palaiologos not only succeeded in defeating the invaders, but also sparked an uprising in 1282 that weakened the Anjou and led to Sicily coming to Aragón. This split power in the south into two domains that fought for decades.

    The papal state was hardly more firmly established than before, especially since the popes resided in Avignon from 1309 (until 1378, see Avignon Papacy ) and became increasingly dependent on the French king. The economy also suffered from the protracted battles and the fiscal exploitation of the cities, so that these were soon overtaken by the northern Italians. Naples fell into Genoese, then mainly Florentine dependence. There were repeated conflicts between the individual municipalities and also within the cities; this tense situation in northern and central Italy is reflected in Dante's (1265–1321) works several times.

    Italy had largely decoupled itself from imperial politics, which can also be seen in the fact that it was not until 1310 to 1313 that a king, Henry VII , moved to Italy for the coronation of the emperor, where he was initially received mostly in a friendly manner and was sometimes even regarded as a "bringer of peace" ( for example by Dante and Dino Compagni ), before his policy, which aimed to claim lost imperial rights, met resistance from many Guelphs. Because of his fragile position in imperial Italy, Heinrich, emperor since 1312, was forced to award the imperial vicariate to the most powerful signatories for large sums , from which the lords of Verona and Milan in particular benefited. In 1313 Heinrich took offensive action against King Robert of Anjou , who had acted against him and even denied the claim of the Roman-German kings to imperial Italy, but the emperor died before a campaign against Naples. The Pope, who claimed this right in the absence of an emperor, appointed Robert as imperial vicar in Italy after Heinrich's death. Plans by King John of Bohemia to include the French king in the rule of law failed in 1333. They immediately brought about an alliance between Guelf and Ghibelline cities, which even Robert of Anjou joined.

    Ludwig IV undertook an Italian campaign in 1327 and was crowned emperor in January 1328 by representatives of the city of Rome. Due to his conflict with the papacy, however, the coronation was de facto illegitimate and he himself withdrew from Italy in 1329. His successor Charles IV also pursued a limited Italian policy, which was aimed primarily at monetary payments; His grandson no longer attached any importance to the enforcement of imperial rights, like Henry VII did, because he considered this to be no longer enforceable. The claim of the Roman-German kings to imperial Italy was formally maintained, but in fact an effective exercise of rule was no longer possible.


    The city fortress Castelvecchio of the Scaligeri, the Signori of Verona

    In the communes of Upper and Central Italy between the 13th and 15th centuries, the signoria (signory) prevailed, a form of monocratic exercise of rule in which a “strong man” (signore) was at the head. This was due on the one hand to the permanent conflicts between the Guelfs and Ghibellines, and on the other to internal conflicts between populus and milites or magnates. Oligarchic and plutocratic groups continued to dominate the cities, and in many cases the communal structures continued to exist. The cost of the mercenary troops , which have become indispensable in these battles, made it possible for fewer and fewer cities to assert themselves militarily. Little by little, a few signories won the smaller cities in changing coalitions, which they conquered in numerous wars. The most prominent cities at the end of the 14th century were Florence, Pisa and Siena , Milan, Mantua and Verona , Bologna , Padua and Ferrara , and finally Venice and Genoa. In the course of the 15th century, Florence prevailed in Tuscany (1406 occupation of Pisa), Milan in Lombardy, Venice in the northeast, while Mantua and Ferrara were able to hold out. The Visconti in Milan secured a position under imperial law, while Genoa and Venice fought each other from 1378 to 1381 ( Chioggia War ) and Florence still suffered from the consequences of the Ciompi uprising of 1378. In 1396 the French king took control of Genoa. In 1435 Venice was able to get Emperor Sigismund to recognize his conquests of the last three decades under imperial law.

    Papal States and the Occidental Schism (1378–1417)

    Rome as a widow dressed in black, mourning the loss of the papacy, Bibliothèque nationale de France , MS Ital. 81, f. 18th

    The Papal States largely prevailed in central Italy, but the Western Schism led to the spread of nepotism and the establishment of local dynasties that resisted the unification of the Papal State. In addition, there were several massive interventions by King Ladislaus († 1414), whose kingdom, however, fell into a serious crisis after his death, as there were succession battles. In the north, the conflicts between the Guelfs and Ghibellines intensified again, which strengthened the institution of the signory.

    The bishops, who had largely lost their position of power, tried many times to win it back. The cathedral chapters, which carried out the bishops' elections, were increasingly dominated by the locally dominant families who tried to steer the elections in their favor. Therefore, John XXII. 1322 the benefit of the Patriarchate Aquileia. Something similar happened in Milan and Ravenna, Genoa and Pisa.

    But it was much more serious that after the election of Urban VI. in 1378 two obediences came about, areas in which different popes were recognized. In the outskirts of northern Italy in particular, two competing bishops were often installed; French bishops often came to the country, especially in the south. This state continued until 1417, when you look at the Council of Constance on Martin V. agreed. Other congregations arose, such as the Olivetans , the Ambrosian Brothers , the Hieronymites and the Jesuats .

    Changing coalitions, Charles VIII of France

    Italy after the Peace of Lodi (1454)
    Entry of King Charles VIII of France into Florence, Uffizi Gallery , Francesco Granacci , 1518

    In 1442 the Kingdom of Naples fell to Aragón, creating a new great power in the western Mediterranean, which often interfered in the political disputes in Italy. The rule of the changing popes, who, like the other powers, kept changing coalitions, was also characterized by tensions with the councils , by changing places of residence and by times when several popes simultaneously claimed the pontificate. Briefly, the conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans (1453) brought about the Peace of Lodi in 1454 , which for the first time recognized the fact that no power could unite Italy. With the connection to the now allied rivals Venice and Milan through Florence and Alfonso V with the participation of the Pope even a Lega italica came about. However, two and three alliances had a stabilizing effect until the Lega was renewed again in 1470, shortly after the Ottoman conquest of Negroponte. As a result, Venice received brief support, but the old conflicts between France and Aragón, between Florence and Rome ( the Pazzi conspiracy of 1478) and between Venice and Rome against Milan, Florence and Naples (Ferrara War, until 1484) soon broke out again. Even the occupation of Apulian Otranto by the Ottomans in 1480 could not prevent this permanently.

    In 1494 Charles VIII marched from France to Naples and occupied the city, but Alexander VI united . , Venice, Milan, Spain and Maximilian I in the " League of Venice " against him. Despite this defeat, the campaign opened a series of external interventions.

    The enormous costs of the politico-military conflicts caused the large banking houses, which were ultimately almost the only ones able to guarantee the financing, to grow rapidly. This applies to the Bardi and the Peruzzi , for example . In addition, the agricultural towns were falling behind, because a considerable part of the income went to the dominant houses in the north. At the same time, the south became a peripheral area under Spanish rule. They snatched Sardinia from Pisa in 1326 - but Genoa managed to defend Corsica.

    Expulsion of the Jews from the Spanish territories, ghettos (from 1492)

    Gates in the ghetto of Rome

    After the unification of the two Iberian powers Aragon and Castile in 1492 and the conquest of the last Muslim rule, the Emirate of Granada , the Alhambra Edict began a policy of conversion and expulsion against Muslims and Jews. It was transferred to the Spanish part of Italy.

    From the 5th to the 13th century, the Jews there lived predominantly in Rome, in the south and on the large islands, and in the High Middle Ages also in the north. Moses of Lucca and his son Kalonymus , whose Responsa (around 940) are considered the oldest script of the Ashkenazim , went to Mainz in 920 . The rather large communities prospered among the Muslims in the south, and they were also allowed to farm under the Byzantines.

    But the Normans were increasingly burdening them, especially some popes. At the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, Jewish clothing was prescribed and all Jews were to live in demarcated quarters. In 1429 Pope Martin V protected the Jews, but his successor Eugene IV prohibited the construction of synagogues in 1442. From 1471 the popes again pursued a more tolerant policy, and Jewish printing companies flourished. End-time preachers appeared around 1500, including Ascher Lemlein .

    The Anjou also exposed the Jews to strong pressure to convert. In 1288 there was a first expulsion in Naples, in 1293 most of the communities in the kingdom were destroyed. On the other hand, they fared better under the Aragonese rule; When Aragón took over the Kingdom of Naples in 1442, the Jewish community there prospered. Around 1300 about 12,000 to 15,000 Jews lived in southern Italy, and from 1399 they held their own synods. Since the prohibition of interest collection in the north stood in the way of credit supply, especially in the small towns, hundreds of small communities emerged. The moneylender's family lived with his employees in the Jewish houses there . In 1397 moneylenders were specifically brought to Florence.

    In 1492 the Spanish expulsion policy was extended to Sicily and Sardinia, and in 1541 to Naples (valid until 1735), many fled to the north, especially to Rome, Venice, Milan and Livorno . The largest synagogue in Venice was the Scuola Spagnola, built in 1555 . When Milan became Spanish in 1597, 900 Jews had to leave the city. The numerous immigrants from the Iberian Peninsula brought the local languages ​​with them. In 1638 Simone Luzzato , the rabbi of the Venice community for 57 years , called for a policy of tolerance for the first time and argued economically.

    In the wake of the Franciscan anti-usury campaigns, Jews were forced to settle in fixed, closed districts in many cities, such as the Roman (from 1555) or the Venetian (from 1516) ghetto. The latter was dissolved in 1797 at the instigation of Napoleon , the Roman ghetto existed until 1870, although the French had already dissolved it between 1798 and 1814. Paul IV had the Talmud publicly burned in 1555 , and in 1559 it was placed on the index . From 1569 Jews were only tolerated in Rome and Ancona .

    Late Middle Ages economy, commercial revolution

    Economic decline

    One of the towers of the Peruzzi in Florence, to which entire quarters belonged.

    From 1347 to 1351 several catastrophes hit the Italian economic system. On the one hand there were the biggest bankruptcies of the Middle Ages, on the other hand the plague hit his entire trading area from 1348 , there was also a politico-military crisis in the Byzantine area and in the west the Hundred Years War began in 1337 . The famine of 1315 had already indicated the fragility of the system ( late medieval agricultural crisis ). Italy's population, estimated at 11 million at the beginning of the 14th century, fell to 8 million by around 1350. By 1450 it might again reach 9 million, only to fully recover in the 16th century. Numerous devastation was also connected with the flight to the cities, where rising wages attracted due to the lack of craftsmen. These in turn soon gave rise to increased mechanization. At the same time, the inner-city conflicts between the dominant class and the craftsmen intensified, culminating in the Ciompi uprising in Florence in 1378. Prices rose sharply until 1370/80, stabilized around 1400, and then stagnated until around 1480/90.

    Changes in the local economy

    The craft businesses were now increasingly outsourcing specialized activities, with many focusing on the growing need for luxury goods. Silk, printed matter, iron, metal, leather and precious stone processing expanded, as did paper production and some areas of the construction industry. Italy's dominance in the economy declined significantly overall, to which the threat to its dominance of the Mediterranean fleet also contributed.

    The return of the Pope from Avignon, on the other hand, directed considerable capital flows to Italy and thus promoted the rise of the Medici , Salviati and Strozzi in Florence, the Borromeo in Milan, the Grimaldi and Spinola in Genoa or the Chigi in Siena . The number of medium-sized and small companies - such as that of Francesco Datini - also increased. War costs often meant that the municipalities kept their dealers 'and bankers' assets harmless, which in turn led them to seek influential positions in the cities or to invest their assets in real estate. On the one hand, one could profit from the municipal posts, on the other hand one could gain influence on legislation and financing methods. Income from tax leases and municipal expenses now contributed much more to the wealth creation of the leading classes.

    Land development, rural communities, half-lease

    Despite the urbanization, the basis of the economy remained agriculture, in which most of the people found their occupation. In the cities, wheat regained its primacy over other types of grain such as millet , while in the country these varieties continued to play an important role, as did legumes. This also applied to the urban poverty , which relied on the cheaper millet or beans , and from the 16th century on corn . The main suppliers of meat were pigs, sheep and goats, as well as poultry and fish. Cattle was raised only in the 15th century and then mainly in the Po Valley, with dairy farming playing a significant role. Until then, cattle were mainly bred as draft cattle and leased to farmers. Pasture farming often existed as transhumance in the alpine area, in Abruzzo and Sardinia, but also as alpine farming in the Alps. In contrast to wheat and livestock farming, viticulture expanded rapidly, as did the cultivation of olive trees.

    In contrast to the high Middle Ages with its internal colonization, there was now more of an amelioration . New and traditional cultures were expanded, the agricultural landscape changed, especially in the vicinity of the numerous cities. Gardens for vegetables and fruit were systematically created in the surrounding area and in the suburbs and, like the farmers' fields, guarded day and night. In Bologna in 1291 45 guards were hired to prevent the export of grain. The expansion of land cultivation into the forests, which were increasingly being cleared, undermined the food sources of considerable parts of the rural population, who until then could partially feed themselves without market mediation and supply themselves with firewood and construction wood. The deforestation also endangered shipbuilding, so that Venice, for example, placed forests under protection. In addition, the soil erosion increased and the floods were much less intercepted in the source area, so that on the lower reaches of the river there were many catastrophes and the destruction of arable land and ecological reserves. At the same time, the soil often leached out, so that the farmers were forced to plow pastures.

    The yield index rose after 1350 from 3: 1 to 4: 1, despite rural exodus and population decline. Contrary to all negative developments, this enabled a relatively secure supply of the urban population. At the same time, with the dissolution of the Fronhof system, almost every form of bondage, apart from some regions in the north and south, was abolished. Real rural communities emerged that were exempt from taxes. However, in the middle of the 13th century, partial lease agreements based on the delivery of natural produce appeared. The most common form that existed well into the 20th century was the mezzadria ( lease in kind ) , which had modest beginnings in the 12th and 13th centuries, but spread throughout most of Italy in the 14th to 16th centuries. Through indebtedness the farmers got back into a personal relationship of dependency. In many cases they had to sell their land and their cattle and increasingly lost control of the rural communities. Due to their direct market access, smallholders stayed almost only in the vicinity of the cities. Farmers in the Po Valley also managed to position themselves between the rural population and landowners and to act as tenants (fittavoli) . The farmers had to pay taxes to both the landowner and the tenant, and also to the municipalities.

    Division of roles between the power centers

    The northern Italian metropolises experienced a phase of intensified trade and a significant increase in population even before the beginning of the crusades ; they also gained greater and greater autonomy. The farmers' yields rose, and the municipalities managed to adapt their surrounding area economically to the needs of the city. While Genoa and Venice lived primarily from long-distance trade, war and piracy in the Mediterranean and penetrated deep into Asia, Milan profited from it as well as from transalpine trade, similar to Verona . Florence, on the other hand, became the center of the European cloth trade. Its sheep pastures were in England until the 15th century and later in central Italy, especially Abruzzo , in Castile in the 16th century . On the other hand, the incessant fighting between Pope and Emperor, and after the end of the Staufer between Anjou, Byzantium and Aragón, led to the fact that the profitable raw material exports in southern Italy gained the upper hand and communal self-organization was increasingly restricted.

    By the end of the 13th century, the great Florentine companies managed to almost monopolize the wheat exports from southern Italy. There they bought the quantities of wheat demanded in the cities of northern Italy and mainly offered Tuscan cloths, which they mainly sold in Naples . The Anjou, who ruled the south since the 1260s, needed huge amounts of money because they wanted to conquer Byzantium and after the Sicilian Vespers of 1282 they fought Aragón , which had occupied Sicily. They do everything in their power to increase their raw material production. The wheat trade made the Florentine banking houses of the Peruzzi , but also the Bardi and Acciaiuoli, who divided the trade among themselves and even displaced the Venetians for a time, extraordinarily rich.

    Trade, precious metals, monetary policy

    Gold florin, minted between 1332 and 1348 in Florence; Lily of Florence, John the Baptist with nimbus. To the right of the Baptist there are three crescents, the Strozzi coat of arms .

    Despite the development of the bill of exchange, the credit system and the deposit banks, the circulation of goods in the late Middle Ages was based on coins. Their precious metal content determined their value. Dealing with calculating money did not fundamentally change this dependency. In Byzantium, Venetians and Genoese paid with silver, while they received gold coins for their goods, that is to say mainly gold hyperpyra . In the 12th century, however, Italy's trade was still based either on barter or on silver coins, because only the Kingdom of Jerusalem , the Kingdom of Sicily and the Empire of the Almohads brought gold coins into circulation alongside Byzantium. While the silver lost value in the west, the artificially expensive silver of the northern Italian trading cities flowed to the east. As a result, they threatened to lose their function as a trading hub due to the depletion of their silver reserves.

    In 1252, the trading cities of Florence and Genoa were the first to break the separation between the silver region and the Islamic-Byzantine gold region by circulating both precious metals, which now reached the cities in sufficient quantities, as coins. The gold inflow from the trade with the Levant and the Maghreb and the unacceptably fluctuating fineness of the gold tari already circulating in southern Italy may have played a decisive role in creating the Genovino for Genoa . In the Florentine case, grain purchases in Sicily may have played an important role in the introduction of the florin (Scudo d'Oro from 1533). Venice hesitated to introduce the gold ducat until 1284, as the gold influx was initially even lower here.

    The value ratio between gold and silver depended heavily on their availability. Gold was eleven times as expensive as silver in 1284, but its rate rose from 1305 to 1330 to 1: 14.2. From around 1320 the gold mines in the area of ​​the Hungarian Kremnitz supplied large amounts of gold, which from 1324/25 onwards allowed the minting of a Hungarian gold coin. In 1327, Hungary and Bohemia also agreed to stop exporting silver to Italy. In addition, there was an increased flow of gold from the Urals and from Mali (up to the 1370s) in the 1330s , which slowed the silver price decline and temporarily reversed it. Within a few years Venice became the leading exporter of gold, whereas before it had been the leading exporter of silver.

    Gold was getting cheaper and cheaper. In 1331/32 the gold price fell from 1: 14.2 to 1350 to a low of 1: 9.4 compared to the silver price. Now the mints reversed their policy and tried to increase the inflow of silver. The Venetian Zecca stopped minting silver coins in 1354 in order to maintain their value through an artificially created shortage. During this time, the rate stabilized between 1: 9.9 and 1: 10.5, fluctuated between 10.7 and 11.6 between 1401 and 1500, and around 1509 it was 1: 10.7. The decisive factor here is likely to have been that Venice paid for its Middle Eastern spice purchases, which it practically expanded into a monopoly, almost exclusively with gold ducats. The city thus became the largest “gold leak” in Europe.

    Again and again the cities intervened massively in the exchange rates between the coins, the gold and silver content of which was reduced more and more, while the dealers were forced to continue to change at the nominal rate. Venice even went so far that in 1353 it had heavily overvalued coins forcibly exchanged en masse in its colonial empire in order to conserve its silver reserves. According to Alan Stahl , the Zecca minted around 6 million coins in 1375 alone and made a profit of almost 3,000 ducats through compulsory exchange. The profits were so high that Venice was prepared to accept the resulting inflation.

    The use of the coin systems became so common that it was also used as a means of destabilization policy. Milan put 1429 strongly overvalued coins into circulation, which brought 20% profit in exchange for Venetian silver money. Venice then halved the silver content of the circulating Bagattino , at the same time it refused payments in this coin and demanded "good coins" from its subjects. The mercenary leader Francesco Sforza was paid with the profits . A little later, Milan brought new coins into circulation, which in addition to meltdowns meant that the Venetian coins disappeared completely and only the “bad” Bagattino was left. In 1453 the Senate instructed the Zecca to mint a coin intended exclusively for Northern Italy. But huge amounts of counterfeit coins quickly made it necessary to reduce the face value. In 1463, 20,000 counterfeit Bagattini were confiscated. Only in 1472 did the Venetian Council of Ten say goodbye to this variant of “coin imperialism”, as Reinhold Mueller called it. This apparently happened because Milan tried again to take advantage of the Venetian coin policy by flooding Northern Italy with counterfeit coins. The Council of Ten reduced the value of the threatened coins by a full 40%, which, according to Antonio Morosini, amounted to the destruction of a million ducats in purchasing power. At the same time, the bad silver coins were replaced by trustworthy copper coins, the value of which was controlled by limiting the number of copies.

    Renaissance (from the 14th century)

    The Vitruvian Man , study of proportions according to Vitruvius , also by da Vinci, around 1492

    The Renaissance began in Italy in the late 14th century; the 15th and 16th centuries are considered to be the core period. The essential characteristic is the rebirth of the ancient spirit, humanism was the formative intellectual movement. The pioneers of the development were Italian poets of the 14th century like Francesco Petrarca , who through his preoccupation with ancient writers and through his individualism promoted the belief in the value of humanistic education and the study of languages, literature, history and philosophy outside of a religious context advocated as an end in itself. In addition, there was a reorientation in science, where the theocentric worldview of the Middle Ages was replaced by a more anthropocentric view of things.

    In literature, Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy ( La Divina Commedia, 1307-1321), Francesco Petrarca's letters, treatises and poems and Giovanni Boccaccio's Il Decamerone (1353) ushered in the Renaissance era. The three authors, known for their outstanding importance as the “three crowns” of Italian literature (tre corone fiorentine) , wrote in the vernacular, the volgare . Count Baldassare Castiglione describes in Il Cortegiano (1528) the ideal type of a Renaissance man.

    The precondition was the possibility of acquiring knowledge of Greek and Arabic. The social and political conditions in Italy also contributed to the upheaval. The memory of antiquity was still most vivid there, traffic routes connected them with the centers of education and in politically fragmented Byzantium there was the possibility of acquiring art and books. The great fortunes generated by trade made it possible to commission large public and private art projects. In addition, the development towards pragmatic writing experienced an upswing in the early 13th century, the correspondence of merchants deepened and broadened literacy, so that the number of people literate increased.

    In the 15th century Italy was one of the most urbanized regions in Europe. The cities offered relatively great political freedom, which inspired new scientific and artistic paths. This was especially true for the independent powers of Italy, i.e. the Duchy of Milan , the Republic of Venice , Florence , the Kingdom of Naples and the Papal States , but also for the courts of Ferrara and Mantua.

    The popes behaved little differently from the secular princes. They waged wars and intrigued to try to increase the power and wealth of their families . The son of Pope Alexander VI. Cesare Borgia , who worked as a mercenary leader and power politician and tried to bring Italy under his rule, served Niccolò Machiavelli as a model for his state-philosophical work The Prince .

    Competition between world powers, economic crisis, population decline

    The Habsburg territories in Europe in 1547
    The Ottoman Empire between 1481 and 1683

    After the discovery of America in 1492 by the Genoese Columbus , but also of North America in 1497 by Giovanni Caboto , who went from Venice to England , and the increasing use of the sea route to India , Italy gradually lost its outstanding economic importance by shifting the main trade routes from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. Other states, especially Spain and Portugal , increased in economic and political importance, as they initially opened up new raw material resources and sales markets in South America due to the colonization and also had greater internal resources than the Italian city-states. At the same time, trade with the Ottoman Empire, which was expanding into the Middle East and North Africa, lost importance, while at the same time competition from the Dutch and the English increased.

    Especially in southern Italy dominated the agricultural economy and the large estates, factory and later factory were the exception. But agriculture also stagnated, so that the yield figures in Italy remained at 7, while in England and Holland they rose to 9 by the second half of the 17th century, and even to 10 a hundred years later. This was one of the reasons that the population there increased sharply, while in Italy it decreased from about 13.5 million (around 1600) to 11.7 (1650). This contrasts particularly strongly with the fact that the population grew from 9 to 13.5 million between 1500 and 1600, i.e. by about half.

    European theater of war (1494–1559)

    Italy around 1494
    Pope Leo X had (1513-1521) in a given by his predecessor commissioned painting by Raphael as Pope Leo I (440-61) portray as the Hun Attila confronts in 452 unarmed. According to legend, the saints of Rome, Peter and Paul, appeared with swords and persuaded Attila to give up his march to Rome. Eliodorian Room of Raphael's Rooms , Vatican 1514

    One of the reasons for the population decline was the constant war. After the death of King Ferrante of Naples, King Charles VIII of France intervened in Italy in 1494. The next year he forced Florence, the Papal States and Naples to surrender. Ferdinand von Aragón , Maximilian I as well as Venice , Milan and the Papal States joined forces on March 31, 1495 in a " Holy League " and forced the French king to retreat across the Alps.

    Louis XII. resumed the expansive policy of Charles VIII and annexed the Duchy of Milan in 1499 . He and Ferdinand of Aragón divided the Kingdom of Naples among themselves in the Treaty of Barcelona in 1500. Then the north would come to France and the south to Spain. In the Treaty of Lyon 1504, after another war, Lower Italy was reintegrated into the Kingdom of Aragón, as the French had to leave Naples. In 1507 the French succeeded in seizing the Republic of Genoa . The League of Cambrai (Austria under Maximilian I, the Pope, Spain, England, Hungary, Savoy and some Italian states) attempted to divide up the Venetian Maritime Republic in October 1508 , but failed.

    Pope Julius II. (1503–1513) switched to a new political goal: the liberation of Italy from the "barbarians". The Confederation, Spain, Venice and the Pope united to form the " Holy League " to drive the French out of Milan, which they succeeded in 1512. The Swiss restituted the Sforza dynasty and annexed most of Ticino ( Domodossola , Locarno , Lugano ). However, in the Battle of Marignano in September 1515 the Swiss were again subject to the French and they had to evacuate Milan. Francis I of France and Charles I of Spain agreed on the status quo in the Treaty of Noyon 1516 .

    In 1525, Charles , who had been Roman-German Emperor since 1519, succeeded in bringing Milan to his house in the Battle of Pavia and ending French supremacy in Italy. The emperor's troops sacked Rome ( Sacco di Roma ) in 1527 . In 1529, Charles made peace with France and the Pope in the Treaty of Cambrai when the Ottomans were marching on Vienna . In the Peace of Crépy in 1544, Francis I renounced his claim to Naples and received Burgundy back from Charles V in return . In 1559, Philip II was able to win Naples in the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis .

    Reformation and Counter Reformation

    Historiae Concilii Tridentini by Paolo Sarpi

    The 5th Lateran Council (1512–1517) made little progress with church reform . It banned the printing of unauthorized books and confirmed the Bologna Concordat (1516) between Leo X and King Francis I. This recognized French conquests from the Italian wars, and reversed the increasing detachment of the French Church from Rome.

    The Reformation was not only successful beyond the Alps, but also initially in Italy. But the Catholic side took sharp action against any Protestant statement. In 1530 Antonio Bruccioli was expelled from Florence and the converted Bishop Pietro Paolo Vergerio , who was installed in Venetian Croatia , left the country. In 1531 there was a public disputation in Padua, but it remained the only one. Erasmus of Rotterdam , which was first published in Italy in 1514, was considered a heretic, sometimes even a "Lutheran" (Erasmus lutheranus). However, other groups, such as the Calvinists , sacramentarians and Graubünden Reformed , were also referred to with this name .

    In 1542 the Inquisition was reorganized to fight Protestantism. In 1558 Bartolomeo Fonzio, the translator of Luther's work To the Christian Aristocracy of the German Nation, was executed by the Christian class , Bruccioli in 1566, and the humanist Aonio Paleario in 1570 .

    The Council of Trent (1545 to 1563) dealt with church criticism of the Reformation . Its resolutions included, in addition to dogmatic resolutions, the abolition of abuses in indulgences , the prohibition of the accumulation of offices in the episcopate and the establishment of seminaries as well as an index of forbidden books (1559). In addition, bishops were allowed to take action against heretics. For Martin Luther , Venice was the gateway to Italy, but the Protestant groups encountered severe repression. In 1571 the Index Congregation was created , which dealt with the comprehensive control of the rapidly growing book market and thus continued the activities of the censorship commission established in Trento in 1562.

    Ottoman Empire

    The Ottoman Empire oppressed the Italian sea powers and directed their trade with Asia and North Africa according to its political interests. In 1453 the Ottomans conquered Constantinople , in 1475 Genoa had to give up its colony in Kaffa on the northern edge of the Black Sea , a region in which Genoa and Venice had been at war for centuries. Venice lost its bases in the Peloponnese in 1460 , but it was able to hold the main island of Crete until 1645 or 1669. Under Suleyman I (1520–1566) the Ottomans, who had already occupied an Italian place with Otranto for the first time between 1480 and 1481 , expanded towards Belgrade and Rhodes , which they conquered in 1522. The Hungarian king was defeated at Mohács , and Vienna was besieged by the sultan in 1529 .

    Further successes in the east followed the victory of Khair ad-Din Barbarossa in 1538 over the fleet of the Holy League under Andrea Doria near Preveza . Although the combined fleets of Spain and Venice were able to defeat the Ottomans in the battle of Lepanto in 1571, the modernized Turkish fleet posed a serious threat again a few years later, and Venice was unable to recapture Cyprus . In addition, the corsairs of North Africa attacked the trade convoys through the western Mediterranean, especially after they had succeeded in retaking Tunis, which had been occupied by Spain since 1535, in 1574 .

    Spanish and Austrian supremacy

    Milan coin with the Spanish king

    The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) consolidated Spanish rule in all of southern Italy, on the islands, in Milan and in the Stato dei Presidi in southern Tuscany . At the same time, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and Genoa as well as other small states were under Madrid's sphere of influence . Savoy has repeatedly become the battlefield between Spain and France. Only Venice could keep its independence.

    At the end of the 16th century, trade increasingly shifted from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic , to which the wars in Italy also contributed. There the imperial and French interests initially collided in the War of Succession of Mantua (1628–1631). As a result, Spanish fiscalism, but also the plague epidemics from 1630 to 1632 and 1656 to 1657 (Naples, Rome, Liguria, Veneto) damaged economic development; Tuscany blocked all traffic with the south, enforced quarantine based on the Venetian model, and informed the neighboring powers. With these measures, Italy managed to contain epidemics, albeit incompletely, long before modern medical treatment options. Looting, hunger, and epidemics all promoted the process of economic and political decline, which, however, contrasted sharply with cultural development. Italy remained a leader in both artistic and scientific fields for a long time.

    There were revolts against Spanish fiscal policy, the most famous in Italy being that of the fisherman Tommaso Masaniello from Naples. It caught fire in 1647 from taxes on food, and although Masaniello was murdered, the insurgents, led by Gennaro Annese , succeeded in driving the Spaniards out of the city on December 17th. They found support from the French Henri II. De Guise . As a descendant of René I of Anjou, he claimed the Kingdom of Naples and was able to defeat the troops of Juan de Austria . The insurgents proclaimed the Republic of Naples , which existed until April 5, 1648. Internal disputes, however, led to the Neapolitan Gennaro Annese opening the gates to the Spaniards. While trying to regain the city, Henri II was captured by the Spanish on April 6th. Similar popular uprisings took place in 1647/48 under the leadership of Giuseppe d'Alesi in Palermo and under Ippolito von Pastina in Salerno . In 1701, the nobility of Naples rose in vain in the Macchia conspiracy against Spanish rule, an uprising that was named after Gaetano Gambacorta , Prince of Macchia.

    With the end of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs , there were fierce succession battles from 1701 onwards . An alliance around the Austrian Habsburgs and England fought against a coalition led by France. Ultimately, France succeeded in installing the reigning Bourbon dynasty with Philip V. In the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, Milan , Naples (excluding Sicily ) and Sardinia, previously Spanish , were granted to Austria . It thus became the dominant power in Italy. Against the Austrian rule there was an uprising in Genoa in 1746, which a young stone thrower is said to have triggered; his short name Balilla can be found in the Italian national anthem .

    The Duke of Savoy received Sicily and Montferrat . In 1720 the House of Savoy and Austria exchanged their possession of Sardinia for Sicily and thus received the royal dignity. The first ruler of the new Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont was Viktor Amadeus II.

    Genoese bridge over the Tavignano near Altiani in eastern Corsica

    Spain acquired Naples and Sicily in 1735/38, Parma in 1748 and founded a secondary school there . After the Medici died out in Florence in 1737, the Duke of Lorraine donated a secondary school for the House of Habsburg-Lorraine there . In 1768 the Republic of Genoa sold the island of Corsica to France. Italy was a theater of war between the great powers from 1701 to 1748 (European Wars of Succession). This system remained stable until 1796, but Italy fell apart politically, economically and socially. Although the population increased from 13.6 to 18.3 million between 1700 and 1800, the proportion of the total European population fell in view of the considerably faster growth rates in many neighboring countries. Above all, however, despite attempts at liberalization, for example in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (1764), agricultural production was barely able to keep up with the number of consumers.

    Mercantilism, expansion of capital movements

    Despite a certain increase in coin-less monetary transactions and the size of the credit system, Europe's economy remained dependent on the supply of precious metals. The supply of silver and gold increasingly depended on Latin America. Around 1660, gold and silver worth around 365 tons of silver came from there, while Europe only produced 20 to 30 tons per year. At the same time, the runoff into the Baltic Sea region, the Levant and East Asia increased so much that only 80 t remained in Europe. Spain invested the greater part of this flow of precious metals in the war against the Netherlands . France acted similarly. Short-term fiscal interests were in the foreground, but in the long term this policy triggered inflation surges and harmed the economy. The coins were devalued until they hardly contained any precious metal, so they were replaced by pure copper coins . 1607 - under Philip III. - the third Spanish national bankruptcy occurred; Arbitrary devaluations followed until 1680. The face value was much higher than the metal value, and the coins were cut again and again ( coin deterioration ). The charges, however, were based on weight. The “farmer was cruelly caught between two groups; one gave him the money only according to its face value, the other took it from him only according to its weight. "

    Portrait of the adviser to the French king Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Philippe de Champaigne 1655. Colbert's mercantilist policies hampered Italian exports and led to increased competition from France.

    France, too, initially opted for the copper currency, last from 1654 to 1657, and imported large quantities from Sweden for this purpose. Colbert , adviser to King Louis XIV. , However, from 1659 onwards focused more on curbing the outflow of precious metals from France and promoting the inflow. To achieve this, he strengthened the export trade, increased the gold rate at the expense of the silver rate. In doing so, he stabilized the national debt so much that many foreigners decided to invest their precious metals here. From 1671 Colbert issued bonds against a cash deposit at 7% interest; he also kept the value ratio between gold and silver at around 15: 1.

    The Holy Roman Empire, on the other hand, saw strong copper inflation (see Kipper and Wipper times ), which only declined during the Thirty Years' War . The currencies stabilized towards the end of the century. The winners of this development were the Netherlands , which introduced the ducaton (based on the model of the Venetian ducat ) not as a gold coin, but as a large silver coin of great prestige. This in turn increased the inflow of Spanish silver and its re-export. In 1683 it was found that of the 15-18 million guilders that flowed in as Spanish silver, only 2.5 to 4 million remained in the country. But not only in this respect did the Netherlands and, shortly afterwards, England gain a decisive advantage. First, the Wisselbank was founded in 1609 based on the model of the Venetian Banco di Piazza di Rialto (1587–1638) . It not only succeeded in stabilizing the coin value, but also enforced that all major bills of exchange could only be settled through this clearing house . This cashless balancing of accounts receivable gave it one of the characteristics of a central bank .

    But they went much further than in Italy to increase and accelerate the flow of money . They allowed the customer to deposit similar in Venice gold, which they as a receipt Recepissen received. At the precious metal market in Amsterdam , which soon became the most important, all coins were on the one hand in sufficient quantities, but above all only the receipts circulated as cash for larger amounts. France achieved a similar expansion of monetary transactions by issuing interest-bearing government bonds, which could also be sold by endorsement . The amount of money in circulation was expanded and long-term loans were made cheaper, which in turn further stimulated trade and production. It was precisely during this period that, after the Venetian pepper trade had resisted for a long time, its volume fell considerably from the 1620s. A few years later, pepper was no longer considered an "Eastern" commodity, but rather a "Western" one. Dutch and English - the latter succeeded in entering the gold currency in 1663, currency stabilization in 1697/98 -, temporarily Portuguese, had largely monopolized the spice trade. In addition, the land trade routes to Asia fell back more and more, Venice gradually lost its colonies.

    Trade with the East came increasingly into Dutch and English hands in the course of the 17th century, only to be largely dominated by the English in the 18th century. They were superior in their trade organization, in their agile adaptation to changing fashions and markets, but also in the political power behind the dealers and, ultimately, in their better capitalization. While industrially manufactured cloths pushed their way onto the Italian market, sugar and cotton production, two important branches of production since the 15th century, migrated to America.

    Endorsement was forbidden in Italy until the second half of the 17th century . Cashless traffic thus remained in the hands of the messbankers, not the merchants. Italian mercantilists such as Bernardo Davanzati (1529–1606) took up the French ideas, but his Lezione delle monete (1588) had more effects abroad than in Italy. Antonio Serra (1568–1620) discussed how to interpret the trade balance and how to secure the circulation of money in areas that did not have gold or silver mining, such as the Kingdom of Naples (printed 1613). The Italian states reformed their coin systems, which were still based on gold and silver ( bimetallism ), tried to limit copper coins and to adapt the coin values ​​to the gold-silver ratio. Venice reformed its coinage in 1722 and 1733, Genoa from 1745, Savoy in 1755 and Milan in 1778. There were approaches not only to standardize the national currency areas and to reduce the number of different coins, but also to achieve standardization throughout Italy.

    In addition, the idea prevailed that money should be neutral in the economic process (see money function ). The emerging central banks should not arbitrarily issue money, but accelerate the circulation of money through lending. For David Hume (1711–1776) it should only represent “oil for the economic transmission”; Adam Smith (1723–1790) completely separated the monetary and economic spheres. It was not yet possible to enforce a paper currency ; Failed attempts, such as by John Law , increased suspicion of such attempts, so that the partial dependence on mining continued. England enjoyed another economic advantage after stabilizing banknote issuance. The Bank of England obtained a monopoly in London while Country Banks mobilized rural capital from 1708. From the middle of the century onwards, private banks such as Barings Bank began to emerge .

    In 1821 the Bank of England re-established the obligation to redeem banknotes in gold (" gold cover "), a regulation that it maintained even during the banking crisis of 1825/26 with recourse to its gold reserves . Soon the gold standard prevailed and the central bank took on the role of a bank of banks to ensure the liquidity of the banking system.

    In Italy, when the country was unified (1861), there were five banks that were allowed to issue notes. These were the Banca nazionale del Regno d'Italia , the Banca nazionale toscana , the Banca Romana , the Banco di Sicilia and the Banco di Napoli ; In 1870 the Banca toscana di Credito was added. After the collapse of the 'Banca Romana', the Banca d'Italia was founded in 1893 ; in 1920 it received the monopoly on issuing banknotes.

    Napoleon, Congress of Vienna (1796-1815)

    40 lire piece with Napoleon as King of Italy

    In 1796/97 Napoleon Bonaparte subjugated large parts of Upper and Central Italy in the Italian campaign and in the Peace of Campo Formio forced Austria and the Roman-German Empire to recognize their conquests and to renounce their feudal rights in Italy. After the self-dissolution of the Republic of Venice, Austria received its territory (except for the Ionian Islands ). France established vassal states in the rest of Italy . Parts of northern Italy were combined to form the "Transalpine Republic", which was then renamed the Cisalpine or Cisalpine Republic . Genoa became the Ligurian Republic , and the Kingdom of Naples , conquered in 1799, became the Parthenopean Republic . On January 7, 1797, the congress of the short-lived Cispadan Republic declared a forerunner of the flag of Italy to be the national flag of an Italian state for the first time with the green-white-red tricolor imported from France - in the version with horizontal stripes at the time ; the green-white-red tricolor became an important symbol of the Italian national movement. In 1798 the French took Pope Pius VI. caught and left the Papal States to the Roman Republic proclaimed.

    In the Second Coalition War , France suffered a defeat against Austria and Russia in Italy in 1799. The French rule in Italy collapsed, the old order (such as the Papal States) was partially restored. In 1800 the French conquered again, Napoleon had Italy reorganized. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany became the Kingdom of Etruria , the Cisalpine Republic the Republic of Italy with Napoleon as the first consul. Piedmont remained under French military administration. After his coronation as emperor in 1804, Napoleon converted the Republic of Italy into the Kingdom of Italy . He was crowned in 1805 in Milan with the Iron Crown of King of Italy . In the Peace of Pressburg in 1805 after the Third Coalition War, Austria lost the Venetian territory again to France, which added the western part of Veneto to the Kingdom of Italy and from the eastern part (the areas on the eastern Adriatic) formed a new vassal state, the Illyrian provinces . In 1806 the Bourbons were again driven out of the Kingdom of Naples and Napoleon's brother Joseph was appointed ruler there, and in 1808 his brother-in-law Joachim Murat .

    Italy in 1812
    Italy after the Congress of Vienna

    In Sicily and Sardinia, the (southern Italian) Bourbons and the Savoy were able to keep under British naval protection. In 1808 Napoleon reoccupied the papal state and added it to the Kingdom of Italy. Parts of the papal state were annexed, as well as the kingdom of Etruria, Liguria and Parma. With the exception of Sicily and Sardinia, Italy was under direct or indirect French rule before Napoleonic rule collapsed in 1814/15.

    The Congress of Vienna reorganized Italy. Austria now got Veneto in addition to Lombardy, which finally lost its independence; the papal state was restored, but Avignon lost to France; the Kingdom of Sardinia was awarded the Republic of Genoa; in Parma-Piacenza and Guastalla Napoleon's wife, the Habsburg Marie-Louise , was installed as ruler; Modena-Reggio was ruled from then on by the House of Habsburg-Este; the Grand Duchy of Tuscany , ruled by a Habsburg branch line, was restored; the previously formally separate kingdoms of Naples and Sicily were united to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies .

    Independence movements and wars of unification (until 1870)

    The era of the founding of the nation state - with controversial time limits - is described in Italy with the term " Risorgimento " ("resurrection").

    Fight against foreign rule, dismemberment and absolutism

    After 1815, the Kingdom of Sardinia was the last significant state under an indigenous dynasty. Italy was still subject to the influence of foreign powers, although with the fall of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation in 1806, "Imperial Italy" with the claims and titles attached to it disappeared. The more the (usually foreign) princes of Italy endeavored to turn social conditions back to the time before Napoleon, the more the Corsican was seen as a progressive, anti-absolutist ruler.

    The Bourbon Palace of Caserta (Reggia di Caserta) was built from 1752 and was to become the most impressive palace in Europe. The park alone extends over an area of ​​120 hectares. In addition to the palace in Naples, there were three other main residences. Today the entire facility is a World Heritage Site.
    Barricades during the Five Days of Milan , watercolor, Felice Donghi (1828–1887), March 1848

    The desire to free Italy from foreign rule, dismemberment and absolutism seized more and more people. Secret societies emerged, especially the “ Carbonari ” (Koehler) , who were influential in Naples and who fought against the French and organized uprisings . The publicist Giuseppe Mazzini and the movement “ Giovine Italia ” (Young Italy) he founded played an important role, which many former members of the Carboneria joined in the 1830s after it was largely broken up. In July 1820, the Carbonari forced the Spaniards who had returned after Napoleon under Ferdinand I to adopt a constitution that emphasized the people as sovereign and the origin of power alongside God. However, it was revoked after the uprising was suppressed. A second wave of uprisings in Modena-Reggio and in the Papal States, triggered by the French July Revolution in early 1831 , also failed.

    Leadership role of Piedmont, failed revolutions

    The relatively liberal ruled Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont , which in 1848 enforced the emancipation of the Jews and a constitution , adopted the demand for an unification of Italy and the Italian Wars of Independence came about .

    After several days of street and barricade fighting, provisional governments were formed in the revolutionary year of 1848 in Milan (March 18-22, 1848), Venice (March 17, 1848 to August 22, 1849) and Palermo, whose parliament declared Sicily independent (March 12 , 1848) January 1848 to May 15, 1849). In the following year the population of the Eternal City rose against the secular rule of the Pope, whereupon the Roman Republic ruled by a triumvirate (February 9 to July 4, 1849) was proclaimed.

    The revolutions were all crushed; the army of Sardinia-Piedmont, whose king Karl Albert had declared war on Austria on March 24, 1848, was defeated by the Austrians under Radetzky in July 1848 at Custozza and after the resumption of war in March of the following year at Novara . The monarch then abdicated in favor of his son Viktor Emanuel II . As a result, the rule of the Bourbons, Austria and Pope Pius IX was restored .

    Garibaldi and Victor Emanuel II , Sebastiano De Albertis (1828–1897), around 1870

    State foundation, connection of the south to Piedmont (1860)

    Italy 1860–1866
    Italy 1866–1870 after the third war against Austria

    In 1855/56 Savoy took part in the Crimean War on the French side , which meant that Victor Emmanuel won the support of the local government for his unification plans. In 1859, the Savoy attacked Austria in northern Italy again, this time with the support of France ( Sardinian War ). The Austrians were defeated in the battles of Magenta and Solferino , in the preliminary peace of Villafranca Lombardy fell to Savoy. At the same time, there were riots in Tuscany, Modena and other areas. As a result, Parma-Piacenza , Tuscany , Modena and parts of the Papal States joined Sardinia-Piedmont in 1860.

    The referendums, the voting mode of which cannot be called free or fair, on the annexation to Italy produced the following results in the regions:

    area Yes No date
    Tuscany 366,571 14,925 11./12. March 1860
    Emilia 426.006 756 11./12. March 1860
    Nice 25,743 160 April 15, 1860
    Savoy 130,533 237 April 22, 1860
    Naples 1,302,064 10,312 October 21, 1860
    Sicily 432.053 667 October 21, 1860
    Brands 133,807 1,212 4th / 5th November 1860
    Umbria 97.040 380 4th / 5th November 1860
    Venice , Mantua 647.246 69 21./22. October 1866
    Rome , provinces 133,681 1,507 October 2, 1870

    The voluntary associations led by Giuseppe Garibaldi played a special role in the unification process. They brought the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies under their control in 1860 in the course of the legendary " Train of a Thousand " . King Francis II fled here too , and Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of Sicily in the name of Viktor Emanuel. The Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont, Cavour , sent an army to the south, on the one hand to come to Garibaldi's aid and on the other to prevent the Risorgimento from receiving a republican attack. The troops of Sardinia also occupied other parts of the Papal States (Umbria and Marche). Plebiscites in Umbria, the Marche and both Sicilies sealed the connection to Sardinia-Piedmont. On March 17, 1861, Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of Italy.

    Connection of Veneto and Friuli (1866) and the Papal States (1870)

    As a result of Austria's defeat by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz in the war of 1866 , in which Italy was an ally of the victor, but suffered traumatic defeats at Lissa and Custozza themselves, Veneto and Friuli arrived in accordance with the Peace of Vienna of October 3, 1866 Italy. The official handover of the city took place on October 19, plebiscites confirmed the connection on October 21 and 22.

    1870 also of the Pope has been since 1860, remaining part of the Papal States connected. Then Rome became the new capital of Italy. Pope Pius IX who had thus lost his secular rule, saw himself as a "prisoner in the Vatican" until his death in 1878 and forbade Catholics to participate in the political life of Italy. The so-called Roman Question weighed on the relationship between the nation state and the Church until the Lateran Treaty was signed under Mussolini in 1929.

    Equality of the Jews

    In the north, the Jews, whose number rose comparatively slowly from 34,000 to 43,000 between 1800 and 1900, were a long unrecognized part of society, as demonstrated by the Viva Maria movement of 1799, which raged in Tuscany after the French withdrew who fell victim to 13 Jews in Siena alone. But even Napoleon was hostile to “these gallows birds” from 1806 at the latest, but he aimed more at their constitution and rejected proposals to expel them. He wanted to make “useful” French out of them and place them under the control of a specially established “Great Sanhedrin”, which was also responsible for the areas in Italy that had been annexed to France. Napoleon's sister Elisa Baciocchi , who became Grand Duchess of Tuscany in 1809, campaigned for equality for Jews. For their part, the Jewish communities, especially the elderly, were mostly hostile to the French reforms, especially the introduction of civil marriage. At the end of French rule, appropriately prepared army units prevented new pogroms in Florence and Livorno, which threatened to flare up because many believed that the Jews were allies of the foreign rulers. But the economic damage of this foreign rule was so great that the communities celebrated the return of the old masters.

    The younger generation was increasingly relying on the national unification of Italy, initially on a constitution. They made contact with the Carbonari, but above all they used the vehicle of the common language, the Tuscan dialect, to emphasize national unity. During the revolutionary years of 1848 and 1849, shortly before that in Tuscany, the Jews received full legal equality for the first time. But in 1852 the constitution was annulled in Tuscany, which was sharply criticized in the rest of Italy. Many Jews had meanwhile taken up professions and feared a return to the old conditions. Duke Leopold was soon alone with his neo-absolutist policy of re-Christianization. With the unification of Italy, the Jews were finally put on an equal footing, even if anti-Semitic currents persisted, especially in the scientific field.

    Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946)

    Kingdom, East African Colonies, Giolitti Era

    The Kingdom of Italy, founded in 1861, was confronted with economic and social difficulties, the north-south antagonism and the briganding system in the south, which from 1861 to 1865 took on the form of civil war. For years, the state of emergency was extended again and again, military tribunals were an unknown number of rebels and henchmen ( manutengoli ) imprison or execute by firing squad . From 1861 to 1862, 1560 brigands were "eliminated" in the province of Catanzaro alone . Only the dissolution of the military zones in 1870 testified to the end of the rebellions. It was neglected to improve the conditions there through land reform and fair taxation. Over 75% of the 21.8 million inhabitants were illiterate when Italy was founded (1861).

    Until 1876, the “historical right” ( Destra Storica ) was in government in liberal Italy ; it was not until 1876 that the “left” ( Sinistra ) came to power with Agostino Depretis , which remained there until Francesco Crispis took office in 1887. These camps are not to be confused with political parties . The practice of government in liberal Italy was increasingly characterized by trasformismo , which aimed to pull parts of the opposition into their own camp.

    Ethiopian troops attack Italians, engraving around 1896

    In 1882 Italy joined the dual alliance (Austria-Hungary and the German Empire ), which was concluded in October 1879 , which became the Triple Alliance . Italy sought connection to the colonial powers. 1881–1885 it conquered Ethiopian territories on the Red Sea , which in 1890 were combined to form the colony of Eritrea . The southern part of Somalia followed in 1889 ; they later became Italian Somaliland . The attempt to conquer further Ethiopian territories failed in 1894-1896 with the defeat of Adua . In the war with the Ottoman Empire in 1911/12, Italy conquered Libya and the Dodecanese . The Italian expansionist urge in the age of imperialism was decisively supported by the upper bourgeoisie; in the case of Libya, Giovanni Giolitti (Prime Minister of five cabinets from November 1903 to March 1914) played an important role.

    Title page of a Spanish newspaper on the death of King Umberto I.

    Strong social tensions became evident, Italy's social legislation took last place in Europe, the socialists were not only in opposition to social policy, but also to colonial expansion. Prime Minister Francesco Crispi financed the colonial policy with tax increases and austerity measures. The political contradictions culminated in the Bava-Beccaris massacre in Milan. On May 7, 1898, there were mass demonstrations there against the rising price of bread. After the state of siege had been declared, General Fiorenzo Bava-Beccaris fired artillery and rifles into the crowd. Depending on the information, between 82 and 300 people were killed. King Umberto I congratulated the general in a telegram and awarded him a medal. In doing so, he made enemies for himself, and in 1900 he, reigning king for 22 years, was shot in Monza by the anarchist Gaetano Bresci .

    His successor was Viktor Emanuel III. Politically dominant, however, was Giolitti , who was initially Minister of the Interior from 1901 to 1903, and from 1903 with interruptions until 1914 Prime Minister (and often also Minister of the Interior). He dominated or shaped Italian politics to such an extent that one speaks of the Giolitti era . He was ready to make concessions to the reformist and revolutionary movements and promoted industrialization. State subsidies for private health insurance had been introduced in 1886 and the first compulsory accident insurance had been introduced in 1898, but it was not until 1912 that Giolitti introduced state social insurance based on the German model. In addition, he reformed the electoral law so that there were no more property limits and the number of those entitled to vote rose to 8 million men. Unemployment insurance was established as early as 1919, eight years before Germany.

    Mass emigration, hesitant industrialization, workers' parties

    Mass Emigration by Region from Italy, 1876 to 1915

    The state reaction to the drastic social changes came very late, because the social elites refused for a long time and often relied on the work of the church, which had dominated the social systems since the Middle Ages. But it was no longer supported by an adequate communal or guild system. The population of Italy rose from 18.3 million around 1800 to 24.7 around 1850, finally to 33.8 around 1900. Nevertheless, Italy's share of the population of Europe continued to decline. On the one hand, this was due to the fact that it was lagging behind in development and, on the other, was due to the fact that, from around 1852, there was massive emigration. By 1985, around 29 million people were recorded. From 1876 to around 1890, most of them came from the north, especially from Veneto (17.9%), Friuli-Venezia Giulia (16.1) and Piedmont (12.5%). After that, more Italians emigrated from the south. From 1880 to 1925, 16,630,000 people emigrated, of which 8.3 million came from the north, of which 3,632,000 came from Veneto. 6,503,000 emigrated from the south, the rest from central Italy. The main destinations were the United States of America, in which the descendants of Italians today represent the third largest European immigration group after Germans and Irish with a population of 6%, Argentina , where people of Italian origin make up about half of the population, and Brazil . Many also emigrated to Canada , Australia and other Latin American countries.

    The extent of the emigration can be explained on the one hand by the decline of agriculture and the sharp conflicts that were exacerbated by the preservation of old structures and the lack of capital as well as by the large landowners and the partial leases . At the same time, the hesitant industrialization in the rapidly growing cities hardly offered enough jobs. In addition, domestic consumption was low, especially as fiscalism , which was deemed necessary to expand infrastructure, continued to weigh on income. After all, the companies had little capital compared to the foreign ones. For this reason, the government set up high tariff barriers from 1878 to 1887 and pursued a protectionist policy that was intended to protect the still weak textile and heavy industry in the development phase. The protective policy responded to France again with corresponding counter duties.

    The railway network in 1861
    and in 1870

    While industrialization was promoted and the infrastructure expanded in the north , the government supported the latifundia in the south , whereby in both cases the protagonists of heavy industry and agriculture were able to assert their influence in the north and south. The railway network was expanded from 1839 ( Naples-Portici , 1840 Milan-Monza, 1844/46 Pisa-Livorno and -Lucca, 1846 Milan-Venice, 1855 Turin-Genoa), as well as the ports. The Lombard-Venetian Railways , founded in 1837, were taken over by Italy in 1866, and management went to the Rothschild family . In 1905 the state railways that still exist today were established . The production of locomotives remained low until the First World War due to high raw material prices, with the wagons being dominated by the models designed for goods transport.

    Monetary policy caused great problems, because during the Franco-German war Italy had also suspended free convertibility . Now the gold standard prevailed, which ensured that banknotes were only allowed to be issued in a fixed ratio to the gold reserves . It was expected that this would stabilize the currency relations through the gold automatism , whereby the respective central banks had to adhere to strict rules. If a currency became weaker, this led to an outflow of gold in the direction of the stronger currency, which meant that banknote issuance had to be reduced in line with the reduced gold reserves. This raised interest rates and lowered prices. In contrast, in the gold-flowing country, this resulted in more paper money in circulation, which lowered interest rates and raised prices. At a certain point the flow of gold reversed, the balance of payments was balanced, the currency stabilized. Even if the central banks often did not adhere to the guidelines, the system was successful because they trusted that money and gold could be exchanged at any time. With the connection of the Latin Monetary Union, founded in 1865 and based on gold and silver coins, and thus the lira to gold, the government was able to establish so much trust that foreign investment capital came to Italy. Treasury Secretary Sidney Sonnino also tried to burden large fortunes in the same way as consumption was burdened, but failed because of conservative resistance. After overcoming the economic crisis from 1896 onwards, it was nevertheless possible to achieve a balanced budget.

    Fiat also sold the automobiles produced in Turin from 1903 onwards in Paris, postcard, 1905
    Filippo Turati (1857–1932), one of the founders of the Socialist Party and head of a rather social democratic group; later he fought Mussolini

    In the 1880s there were heavy labor disputes, around 1889 repression against the Partito Operaio (Labor Party) began, so that the amalgamation of all socialist organizations in the country in one party was sought. The industrial workers managed to organize in the Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani (Party of Italian Workers) in 1892 , which was renamed Partito Socialista Italiano (Socialist Party of Italy) in 1893 . Prime Minister Francesco Crispi enforced exceptional laws against the socialists from 1894, but ultimately they were unsuccessful. In 1901 his successor Giovanni Giolitti tried to integrate the party, which had won 32 seats in the elections, into the government, but this refused. But from 1908 to 1912 there was collaboration with the bourgeois left until radical syndicalism prevailed. In 1912 the Partito Socialista Riformista Italiano split off, which for patriotic reasons agreed to the war against the Ottomans . In 1917 the majority of the socialist MPs switched to the war advocates, but the party leadership continued to oppose the war.

    First World War

    Although Italy was bound to Germany and Austria by the Triple Alliance , the Antonio Salandra government declared the country's neutrality at the outbreak of World War I , since the government believed the Triple Alliance was a defensive alliance (and Austria-Hungary had entered the war offensively). As a result, a domestic political dispute broke out over participation in the war. The interventionists, including Benito Mussolini , who was still part of the Socialist Party at the time , saw entry into the war as an opportunity to implement the irredentist plans and ultimately won the upper hand. The irredentism included the demand for the connection of the Trentino and Istria , in part also in other areas (Corsica, Nice , Savoy, Monaco , Ticino , Dalmatia, Malta, San Marino , South Tyrol ). The areas of Trentino (then part of Tyrol ) and the coastal region (Istria, Trieste and part of Friuli ), which were under Austrian rule, were the primary goals. In March 1915 Italy negotiated with Austria-Hungary , which was at most willing to cede southern parts of the Trentino. The Entente powers promised Italy more on their side in the event that the war entered the war: southern Tyrol to the Brenner Pass (including South Tyrol), the areas that made up the Austrian coast, the east Adriatic coast (especially Dalmatia , which became a republic until the end of the 18th century Venice owned), and an expansion of colonial possessions . After these territorial expansions were promised in the London Treaty on April 26, 1915, Italy terminated the Triple Alliance on May 4. On May 23, it declared war on Austria-Hungary (in 1916 also its ally, the German Reich ) and sided with the Entente.

    Italy and Austria-Hungary faced each other on two fronts : in the mountainous Isonzo region and in the Alps in Trentino and south of it. So Italy began largely a mountain war that favored the defenders. There were also minor sea battles in the Adriatic. From 1915 to 1917 eleven battles took place on the Isonzo Front , which brought Italy little territorial gains. In 1916 Austria-Hungary tried to break the Isonzo front in a major attack in Trentino . However, the attack failed after initial gains and had to be discontinued because of a Russian offensive on the Eastern Front.

    When Italy conquered the Bainsizza plateau in the eleventh battle of the Isonzo in 1917 , the southern section of the ailing Austro-Hungarian Isonzo front was in danger. Several German divisions were made available for a relief attack on the upper Isonzo . In October 1917, German and Austro-Hungarian troops achieved a breakthrough at Karfreit / Caporetto in the twelfth battle of the Isonzo , which threw the Italian army back to the Piave . At the same time, the Italian mountain front collapsed northeast of Asiago . However, a further advance of the Central Powers failed on Monte Grappa and the high water on the Piave. Shortly afterwards, the Allies sent reinforcements to stabilize the area. The Italian Chief of Staff Cadorna was replaced because of this severe defeat. In February 1916, Vienna began air raids on cities in northern Italy such as Verona and Padua. Venice was attacked by Austrian aircraft on August 14, 1917 and February 27, 1918, and in 1917 the hospital (ospedale civile) was hit.

    Italy after the Treaty of Saint-Germain

    In June 1918 Italy was able to repel the last Austrian attempt to break through in the second battle of the Piave . In October 1918 Italy began an offensive in which Austria-Hungary was defeated on October 29 in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto . In the Villa Giusti armistice , Austria-Hungary was forced to comply with all Allied and Italian demands, which amounted to an unconditional surrender. Italian troops then occupied the areas assigned to them, including South Tyrol. The armistice on the western front preceded a planned offensive through the Inn Valley against the German Reich. A separate theater of war from January 1916 was southern Albania , which Italy regarded as its sphere of influence and where its troops did not withdraw until 1920.

    Italy had mobilized a total of 5,615,000 men, 650,000 of whom were killed and 947,000 injured. 1976 Production plants were involved in war production, at FIAT alone the number of employees shot up from 4,000 to 40,500. In 1917 168,000 workers took part in 443 strikes, in 1920 factory occupations took place , in which a million workers took part.

    In the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain , Italy was assigned to Trentino , South Tyrol , the Channel Valley , the entire coastal area and part of Carniola , the city of Zara and some northern Dalmatian islands . Italy got less than it had expected. It had to forego the hoped-for rule over the entire East Adriatic region and the expansion of its colonial holdings. The Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando left the peace negotiations in protest . Mussolini later attempted to achieve these goals by intervening in World War II in June 1940 (details here ).

    The mostly Italian-speaking city of Fiume , which had not been assigned to the kingdom, was occupied by paramilitary groups under the direction of Gabriele D'Annunzio in 1919 : The latter proclaimed the Italian reign on the Quarnero , which, however, remained without international recognition, including from Italy. After D'Annunzio was forced to give up, Italy and Yugoslavia agreed in the Rapallo border treaty to recognize an independent Free State of Fiume . In a coup d'état in 1922, Italian nationalists who sought annexation to Italy took power there. This was sealed with the Treaty of Rome in January 1924.

    Fascism and World War II (1922–1943 / 45)

    Flag of the Fascist Party .

    The deep economic, social and political crisis after the First World War, which Italy had won, but whose victory, according to the nationalists, had been "mutilated" by Italian politicians and the Allies ( Gabriele D'Annunzio coined the enormously influential catchphrase Vittoria mutilata ) , led the country to the brink of civil war. The two "red years" ( Biennio rosso ) 1919 and 1920 were marked by political agitation on the left: demonstrations and strikes, which often ended with violent factory and land occupations, paralyzed Italy's economy. The governments of Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and Francesco Saverio Nitti did not manage to cope with the difficult situation. Benito Mussolini used the fear of a Bolshevik revolution to present himself as a guarantor of law and order . He found support in large parts of the bourgeoisie, especially the industrialists and landowners affected. The two "black years" ( Biennio nero ) followed in 1921 and 1922 . Fascist squadrists, the paramilitary organized black shirts , used violence against socialist and Catholic trade union movements as well as against left-wing political opponents that were described as subversive. A total of around 1,000 fascists and anti-fascists died in the civil war-like battles between 1919 and 1922 .

    After Mussolini had created a party, the Partito Nazionale Fascista (PNF), out of the loosely connected fascist movement at the end of 1921 , he organized a star march in October 1922 with around 26,000 fascist supporters , which became known as the March on Rome (Marcia su Roma) in history received. On October 28, these groups arrived at the gates of Rome in the pouring rain. The leader of the march later traveled in a sleeping car from Milan when, as a result of alleged coup threats, King Victor Emmanuel III. Prime Minister Luigi Facta had already sacked. The King then appointed Mussolini Prime Minister ; the fascists marched into Rome for a victory march.

    The Sardinian Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937), member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party founded in 1921, was a member of parliament from 1924 to 1926. He is considered one of the most important Marxist theorists in Italy.

    In July 1923, a new electoral law, the Legge Acerbo , severely restricted the influence of opposition parties. In 1924, the socialist opposition politician Giacomo Matteotti was kidnapped and murdered. Evidence suggests that Mussolini himself had commissioned this murder - in a notorious speech to the Chamber of Deputies on January 3, 1925, he himself admitted this. At the same time, he used the opportunity to announce and promote the building of the fascist dictatorship , after having come under heavy pressure from the church, from the trade unions and the opposition, but also from “intransigent”, revolutionary-squadist circles of fascism in the wake of the crisis. In November 1926 all opposition parties were finally banned. Only candidates who were approved by the PNF ran for the 1928 elections; With the creation of the "Fascist Grand Council" (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo) , a body now also existed that combined party and state functions. The institutional restructuring of the Italian state into a fascist dictatorship was thus complete.

    True to nationalist ideology, the regime pursued a strict policy of Italianization . Those who suffered the most were ethnic minorities in the country, especially Franco Provençals , Slavs and South Tyroleans .

    On February 11, 1929, the Lateran Treaty between the Vatican and the Kingdom of Italy was concluded. In the treaty signed by the Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Gasparri and Mussolini, the sovereignty of a Papal State was recognized, relations between the Church and the Italian state were regulated and compensation was awarded to the Vatican. The fascist regime thus solved the problem of the relationship between the Catholic Church and the Italian state, which had been simmering since 1870 with the capture of Rome by Italian troops. This success brought fascism the approval of many bourgeois-conservative circles who had been deterred by the fascist politics of violence.

    In terms of economic policy, the regime had to struggle with the consequences of the Great Depression . The three most important, almost bankrupt banks were already taken over by the public sector in 1926 and placed under the protective umbrella of the state corporation Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale , founded in 1933 , which was only dissolved on June 28, 2000. There was massive investment in public infrastructure. More and more the regime supported a protectionist course. The wheat battle (battaglia del grano) should achieve self-sufficiency in the food supply. The drainage of the Pontine Plain was an extensive job creation program for poor families from northern Italy, especially for Veneto and Emilia.

    In terms of foreign policy, after the clumsy attack on Corfu in 1923 , Italy initially pursued a policy that was intended to make the country appear as a pillar of the international order and a guarantor of peace in the Mediterranean region. Increasingly, however, fascist culture and politics became radicalized - a return to brute force, now on an international level, was the consequence of a worldview that was based on the idea of ​​an eternal struggle and the imperialist expansion of Italy. Mussolini thus continued the war in Libya with a previously unknown brutality , which liberal Italy under Giolitti had initiated as early as 1911. At the end of the 1920s, he also began to exert subversive influence through secret agents in numerous European countries. According to the peso determinante maxim, advocated by Dino Grandi , Italy was the “decisive weight” on the scales of European diplomacy and should in no case begin enmity with England.

    Abyssinian War, Spanish Civil War, participation in World War II

    With the Italo-Ethiopian War from 1935 to 1936 , Italy began a bellicose, expansionist foreign policy in order to gradually implement the dream of an Italian living space ( spazio vitale ): The Abyssinian Empire was conquered despite international protests and, with the existing colonies of Eritrea and Somalia, became Italian- East Africa united. It resulted in numerous international law crimes and massive use of poison gas; at the same time, Mussolini's party suppressed contacts between Italian soldiers and African women (madamato) . The initial military success - the fighting in Abyssinia actually continued until the withdrawal of Italian troops from Africa in 1943 - consolidated the fascist rule and popularity at home, but led to increasing isolation abroad. The League of Nations imposed sanctions, although Germany , which was ruled by the Nazi regime , did not participate. This and the intervention of both states in the Spanish Civil War in favor of the nationalist military around Francisco Franco - on the other side the Garibaldi battalion fought until 1939 - led to a rapprochement with Germany in 1936, the so-called " Rome-Berlin Axis ".

    Mussolini in 1937 with Hitler in Munich

    In 1937 Italy left the League of Nations after joining the Anti-Comintern Pact founded by Germany and Japan in 1936 in November 1937. In 1939 the Kingdom of Albania was occupied and the war alliance with the German Reich, known as the “ Steel Pact ”, followed. In 1938 Italy passed racist laws that primarily discriminated against Jews and Africans.

    Italy initially did not intervene in the Second World War . It was far from being ready for a major war and its armed forces were in a phase of modernization after the intervention in Spain and East Africa. In 1939, Mussolini first proclaimed the "non-warfare" (non belligeranza) of his country.

    In view of the successful German campaign against France, Mussolini feared that he would not be able to benefit from a peace conference without his own military successes. The "Duce" declared war on Great Britain and France against the advice of his generals on June 10, 1940 and justified this step with the ambition to revive the Roman Empire : Italy wanted its territory on Nice , Corsica , Malta , the entire coast Expand Dalmatia, including Albania , Crete and other Greek islands. Tunisia , Egypt (with the Sinai Peninsula ), Sudan and parts of Kenya would be added to the previous colonies in order to create an overland connection from Libya to Italian East Africa . The territories of British and French Somaliland as well as parts of French equatorial Africa were to be taken into possession and agreements on zones of influence were to be made with Turkey and Arab states. In addition, Aden and Perim should come under Italian control.

    In its own war efforts, however, Italy - apart from a short-lived expulsion of the British from East Africa (→ East Africa campaign ) - was not successful: the attack on France, which had already been militarily defeated, got stuck in the Alps after minor gains in terrain; the offensive against the British in North Africa at the end of 1940 and the campaign against Greece (from October 28, 1940) each turned into a disaster that could only be masked by the intervention of the German Wehrmacht (→ Balkan campaign (1941) , African campaign ). The causes were a lack of training, in some cases poor equipment, but above all amateurish strategic planning and excessive self-overestimation of the "Duce" and some generals. Despite superiority on paper, the Italian Navy failed to drive the British Navy from the Mediterranean. Later, a lack of fuel prevented such projects. Many Italians adapted the explanation that Italians are more human than Germans; they could not hate and therefore not commit war crimes.

    At the German attack on the Soviet Union took from 1941 to 1943 , the expeditionary force and the 8th Army with a total of 62,000 or 230,000 man part. The 8th Army alone lost around 77,000 men. In the Balkans, too, the Italians partially pursued a nationalist regiment, especially against the Slovenes and in cooperation with the fascist Ustasha movement in Croatia . In September 1942 the last German-Italian offensive in North Africa failed ; since then the chain of their military defeats has not broken off. After the Axis troops surrendered in Tunisia in May 1943, American and British troops conquered the islands of Lampedusa and Pantelleria at the end of June and landed in Sicily in July (→ Operation Husky ). In Ethiopia, the Italian army was subject to British troops supported by Ethiopian units. In May 1941, Haile Selassie moved back to Addis Ababa.

    The Lion of Judah , caricature by Arthur Szyk from 1941: Haile Selassie kicks Benito Mussolini in the buttocks.

    Under the impression of these defeats, Mussolini was deposed and captured by the great fascist council on July 25, 1943 with a simple majority. King Victor Emmanuel III took over the supreme command of the armed forces and commissioned Marshal Pietro Badoglio to form a military government. Badoglio declared the fascist party and its branches dissolved by law. On September 8th, the Badoglio government concluded the Cassibile armistice with the Allies . Between 1940 and then about 198,500 Italians had died in the war.

    Republic of Salò, German occupation

    German defense lines in central Italy, 1943
    German and Italian soldiers arrested civilians in front of Palazzo Baberini after the attack on a South Tyrolean police unit on March 13, 1944. They were later murdered in the Ardeatine Caves.

    The German Reich tried to bring the "black shirts" back to power and had Mussolini freed on September 12, 1943 in the company Eiche . Northern Italy was occupied by German troops as far as Rome and a puppet government was installed in this area under Mussolini, who proclaimed the Italian Social Republic (Republic of Salò) . This parallel government remained allied with Germany, for its part declared war on the part of Italy occupied by the Allies and waged war against partisans in northern Italy . About 20,000 Italian soldiers joined the partisans in Greece.

    The king had already left the capital Rome, which at the same time was declared an open city for the first time on August 14, 1943 .

    On October 1, 1943, two German operational zones were established in the north, namely the Adriatic Coastal Operational Zone , consisting of the provinces of Udine , Gorizia , Trieste , Pola , Fiume and Laibach (Ljubljana was also briefly under Italian administration) and the Alpine Foreland operational zone , consisting of the provinces of Belluno , Bolzano and Trento . The Northwest Alps operational zone was created from a 50 km deep strip along the border with Switzerland and France .

    Central Italy in particular was devastated by the heavy fighting along the advancing front. The civilian population became the target of German reprisals (→ German war crimes in Italy ). During the massacre in the Ardeatine Caves on March 24, 1944, 335 civilians were shot, including 57 Jews, on Lake Maggiore at least 56 Jews were murdered from mid-September 1943.

    The contribution of the partisans or the Resistancea to the liberation of Italy was judged very contradictory due to the disputes between communists, socialists, Catholics and liberals. In September 1943 the Comitato di Liberazione Nazionale was established , in which representatives from six parties cooperated. The number of fighters is estimated at 130,000, the total number of active supporters at perhaps 250,000. The SS in particular, but also Mussolini's troops, took terrorist measures against partisans, for example in Sant'Anna di Stazzema near Lucca, where the SS murdered around 560 civilians, or in the Marzabotto massacre .

    On the initiative of Pius XII. Field Marshal Albert Kesselring declared Rome an open city in early June 1944, which was liberated by Allied troops on June 4, 1944.

    In view of the looming defeat, Mussolini attempted to flee to Switzerland shortly before the end of the war, but was recognized and captured by communist partisans in Dongo on Lake Como on April 27, 1945. Despite a promise to hand him over to the Allies, he was shot together with his lover Clara Petacci on April 28 in Giulino di Mezzegra . On April 29, the German armed forces surrendered unconditionally. 30,000 Italians in German prisoner-of-war camps were interned in France (65,000 in total), and a further 11,000 in the Soviet Union. Of the 40,000 Italians who fought on Tito's side, about half were killed; a total of around 70,000 partisans died, at least 77,000 soldiers died between September 8, 1943 and the end of the war.

    Exclusion of the Jews, attempts of the Jews to flee and their murder

    Freight wagon in which Jews were transported to the extermination camps erected in Verona to commemorate the 2007 Holocaust

    In 1924 there were 54,000 Jews, which corresponded to about 0.14% of the population of Italy at that time (for comparison: about 550,000 Jews live in the German Reich). In 1931 there were 23 Jewish communities in Italy. In 1936 there were 28,299 Jews in Libya. In August 1938 a census of Jews was carried out according to the criteria of the fascists, in which 58,412 Jews were registered, 46,656 of whom were "Mosaic faith". Most of them lived in the big cities of the north, in 1938 there were 12,799 in Rome. Wherever the Spaniards had ruled for a long time and expelled almost all Jews, i.e. in the entire south, very few of them lived - in 1931 there were only about 1,500.

    In the north, however, they were part of society, even if it was not free from anti-Semitism . Leonida Bissolati fabulated in 1879 (at the age of 22) about the different intelligence of Semites and Indo-Europeans, but politics stayed away from these theses. This did not apply to some sciences, such as anthropology , whose founder in Italy, Giuseppe Sergi , attributed different cultural education abilities to the races in 1889. In 1886 the linguist Angelo De Gubernatis was the first in Italy to publicly claim a "contrast between Aryan and Semitic races". These thought patterns, which were reinforced by colonialism and which were also widespread in medicine and no longer aimed at the protection and preservation of the individual, but of the race, made their way into politics only late, without initially having any tangible effect.

    Ernesto Nathan (1848–1921), 1907–1913 mayor of Rome

    The equality of the Jews allowed some of them to advance in society. In 1876 Isacco Artom became the first Jewish senator, Giuseppe Ottolenghi became Minister of War in 1902, Alessandro Fortis (1905–1906), Sidney Sonnino (1909–1910) and Luigi Luzzatti (1910–1911) were prime ministers, in 1922 the parliament had 24 Jewish members. Giuseppe Emanuele Modigliani (brother of the painter Amedeo Modigliani ) or Claudio Treves (uncle of Carlo Levi ) represented the Socialist Party. Ernesto Nathan was Mayor of Rome from 1907 to 1913. In the early years, numerous Jews were active in the opposition parties and in the resistance, but some were also among the supporters of the regime, such as Enrico Rocca , the founder of the fascist party in Rome. From the beginning there were people with a clearly anti-Semitic orientation within the fascist movement, but Mussolini himself mocked Hitler's racial theories and the regime's policy was not anti-Semitic until 1938.

    Mussolini's attitude changed only after the conclusion of the “ Rome-Berlin Axis ” in 1936. With the “ Law for the Protection of the Italian Race ” of September 17, 1938, Italy passed racial laws directed against the Jews. They had to leave the public service, were only allowed to have small real estate and only manage small companies. The “ General Directorate for Demography and Race ” was set up in the Ministry of the Interior, which ran a census of Jews and gradually excluded the Jewish population. After the start of the war in June 1940, forced labor for Italians and internment in concentration camps for foreign Jews followed. The catalog of discriminatory laws and regulations was constantly expanded; When Mussolini was overthrown in July 1943, there was hardly a profession that Jews were allowed to practice legally.

    After the Wehrmacht occupied Italy on September 12, 1943, Heinrich Himmler ordered the deportation of the Italian Jews on September 24, 1943 . On October 13th, the Biblioteca della Communità Israelitica was confiscated. On October 16, the first "Jewish raid" took place in Rome under Wilhelm Harster . 1007 Jews were deported to Auschwitz. Of these, 811 died immediately, mainly from mass gassings . Only 149 men and 47 women survived. In the Republic of Salò , the remaining 39,000 Jews were first expropriated, then 8,566 were deported via transit camps such as the Risiera di San Sabba near Trieste to the extermination camps in Eastern Europe. National Socialist and Fascist authorities worked closely together and the henchmen received rewards. About a quarter of Italy's Jewish population perished in this way. In 1946 over 20,000 of the survivors traveled illegally from La Spezia to Palestine, which was still British at the time ( La Spezia affair ).

    In 1995 the Jewish communities had 26,706 members, in 2001 only 25,143 and at the end of 2010 24,930. The total number is estimated at 28,400, around half of whom lived in Rome, whose chief rabbi was Elio Toaff from 1951 to 2002 .

    Republic of Italy

    End of the monarchy, cession of territory

    Border shifts between France and Italy in 1860 and 1947
    This map shows the approval rates for the introduction of a republic in the 31 Italian constituencies in the referendum of 1946. The color gradations show strong regional differences in voting behavior: while in the north more than 50% of voters welcomed the new form of government, in the south the monarchists received a large majority.

    King Victor Emmanuel III resigned on May 9, 1946 in favor of his son Umberto (II) , discredited by fascism (Mussolini's appointment as premier, signature of the race laws) . On June 2, 1946, at the same time as the election for a constituent assembly , a referendum on the future form of government took place. For the first time women were allowed to participate in both elections . 54.3 percent voted for a republic, the remaining 45.7 percent for a monarchy. Members of the House of Savoy then had to leave Italy.

    The Republican Constitution came into effect in 1948. Based on the experience with the fascist dictatorship, the focus of political power was placed on a complicated parliamentary system with two equal chambers . The government, which was dependent on both chambers, was given a relatively weak position. The comprehensive decentralization planned for the first time was only implemented hesitantly in the years that followed.

    In the Paris Treaty of 1947, Italy also formally lost its colonies of Libya , Ethiopia and Eritrea . Italian Somaliland was first occupied by the British and then placed under Italian administration (1949–1960) as a trust territory by the United Nations.

    The area around Trieste between 1947 and 1954 or 1993

    The Italian metropolitan area was also affected by territorial assignments. The communities Briga and Tenda (French: La Brigue and Tende ) had to be ceded to France, the Dodecanese (with Rhodes ) fell to Greece. Italy also had to cede most of the Julian Veneto ( Istria , the cities of Fiume and Zara and the northern Dalmatian islands) to Yugoslavia . Trieste and the surrounding area were first internationalized and divided into two zones ( Zone A and Zone B ) (creation of a Free Territory of Trieste ) before a settlement was made in 1954. The city of Trieste remained with Italy, the southern hinterland was added to Yugoslavia. With the Paris Treaty of 1947 , the current borders of Italy were established, subject to the territory around Trieste. In the course of these border changes, as well as before between 1943 (armistice) and 1945, the communist partisans of Yugoslavia massacred the Italian population and Slavic anti-communists ( Foibe massacre ). Between 200,000 and 350,000 ethnic Italians (Esuli) were expelled from Yugoslavia between 1943 and 1954. The territories that fascist Italy had acquired during World War II or shortly before it, ie "Central Slovenia", Dalmatia and the Kingdom of Albania (which after the division of Yugoslavia also included the Albanian-speaking parts of Kosovo and the Vardar Banschaft ), Italy also lost.

    Cold war and economic miracle, conflict between Christian Democrats and Communists

    Under Prime Minister Alcide De Gasperi , the country was one of the co-founders of NATO , the Council of Europe and the European Economic Community . His party, Democrazia Cristiana , was the most important political party in Italy between 1945 and 1993 and provided almost all of the prime ministers during this period. It saw itself as a moderate Catholic people's party, whose social and economic program had already been determined during the war between July 18 and 23 in the Camaldoli monastery ( Codice di Camaldoli ).

    The Italian Communist Party, with its chairmen Palmiro Togliatti and Enrico Berlinguer, was the strongest communist party in Western Europe with over two million members and around 30% of the vote. In 1976 the party achieved its best result in the parliamentary elections with 34.4%, in 1984 it succeeded for the first and only time to emerge as the strongest party in an election. It reached 33.3% of the vote in the European elections in 1984 and was ahead of the Christian Democrats with 33.0%.

    Although the PCI broke away from Soviet-style communism under Berlinguer and tried to follow the path of Eurocommunism - this is how it condemned the invasion of Prague in 1968 - the fear of participation in power persisted. On the part of the United States , too, there were considerable reservations about the Communists' participation in government, as they feared a domino effect . In 1950, the secret paramilitary unit Gladio was founded to carry out guerrilla operations against the invaders after an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops . Their existence became known in 1990.

    While maintaining proportional representation (without a 4 or 5 percent hurdle), the Democrazia Cristiana succeeded in removing the communists from one by including four or five smaller parties ( socialists , social democrats , republicans and liberals , so-called pentapartito ) To hold government takeover. But these parties increasingly represented particular interests, numerous government crises and an increase in organized crime, even in government circles, were related to this.

    After the war, Italy, like the rest of Western Europe, experienced an " economic miracle " ( miracolo economico ). The population grew from 47.5 to 50.6 million between 1951 and 1961, but from 1959 to 1962 the gross national product grew considerably faster, namely by 6.4 and 5.8, then by 6.8 and 6.1% .

    The boom, however, was mainly limited to north and central Italy. Many southern Italians still had to leave their homeland to find work and emigrate to other European countries (especially Germany, Switzerland, Belgium and France) or to a region in northern Italy (see also guest workers ). From 1973 many guest workers from other European countries returned to Italy. For one thing, extreme poverty had almost completely disappeared in the south too; instead of slums and shacks, which in the postwar years at the edges by rural exodus and urbanization had developed rapidly growing cities often been as a result of Law 167-1962 large housing estates built. On the other hand, the first oil price crisis (from October 1973) began a long period of stagnation and inflation (“ stagflation ”) with relatively high unemployment rates in many industrialized countries .

    1970s and 1980s: Leaden Years, Historic Compromise

    The aftermath of the 1968 movement was evident in Italy in social liberalization and new social movements that emanated from the “red” universities, such as the women's movement . In 1975 employers and trade unions agreed on the scala mobile , according to which wages should automatically follow inflation developments. On the other hand, some left movements have become radicalized, leading to a wave of violence and terrorism.

    Prime Minister Aldo Moro captured by the Red Brigades

    The left-wing extremist terrorism of the Red Brigades and the attacks by neo-fascist extremists, in which secret services may have been involved, shaped the country in the 1970s, which were known as anni di piombo (leaden years). Between the bombing of the Piazza Fontana in 1969 and 1983, more than 14,000 attacks were carried out, with 374 dead and over 1,170 injured. The destabilization of the political situation made a coup seem unlikely. The coup plans of the Carabinieri under Giovanni De Lorenzo in 1964 ( piano solo ) and the Golpe Borghese by Prince Junio ​​Valerio Borghese are well known .

    In this situation there was a rapprochement between Christian Democrats and Communists. The Christian Democrat Aldo Moro and the communist Enrico Berlinguer were involved in drafting the historical compromise (compromesso storico) . After the elections of 1976 , in which the communists rose strongly, Giulio Andreotti became prime minister of a minority government that relied on the toleration of the communists. On March 11, 1978, again under the leadership of Andreotti, a government of national solidarity was formed, in which the communists were to take part for the first time. Aldo Moro was kidnapped on March 16 and murdered by the Red Brigades on May 9 after 55 days of being held hostage. The attack in Bologna in 1980 marked the climax of terrorist acts in Italy.

    The influence of the Catholic Church on society waned. In 1984 a new Concordat was signed with the Church through which Catholicism lost its status as the state religion . As early as 1970, the divorce was made possible against their resistance; the law was approved by 59.3% of voters in a 1974 referendum, with 87.7% of the vote. In 1979, abortion was legalized.

    The proportion of the population who obtained a university degree increased dramatically as the education expanded . In the 2006/07 academic year, 1,809,186 students were enrolled at 95 universities, which was around 3% of the population, compared with 0.4% or 217,000 students in 1960/61.

    When the Bretton Woods system collapsed in the early 1970s , a period of free exchange rates began worldwide. The oil price crisis in the winter of 1973/74 helped to increase inflation; there was stagflation . A second oil crisis followed in 1979/80. The Italian economy was particularly hard hit by the consequences of the crisis, and the government of the socialist Prime Minister Bettino Craxi reacted from 1983 with cuts and a gradual abolition of the scala mobile . The Craxi years were characterized by extraordinary economic growth, with population growth slowing (from 1971 to 1981 from 54.1 to 56.5 million inhabitants, by 1991 to 56.8 million). In 1987 the Craxi government announced the sorpasso , because Italy had "overtaken" Great Britain and had now risen to become the fifth largest economic nation in the world. This growth could only be sustained through a massive increase in national debt , which dramatically worsened the public finances; the national debt doubled in the course of the 1980s. The inflation remained relatively high, the lira was devalued (promoted which exports and imports slowed, so the domestic industry was based).

    Disintegration of the established parties and privatizations (1990–1994)

    In the fight against organized crime, the state achieved some successes in the early 1990s. After the attacks on public prosecutors Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino in 1992, the laws were tightened again.

    From 1992 onwards, the exposure of corruption and party financing scandals ( Tangentopoli and Mani pulite ) resulted in a fundamental reorganization of the party landscape. The Christian Democrats, Socialists, Social Democrats, Liberals, and Republicans who had ruled the country for forty years either ceased to exist as separate parties within a year or disappeared into utter insignificance. At the same time, the collapse of the Eastern bloc plunged the communists into an ideological crisis. The PDS ( Partito Democratico della Sinistra ) , which is now oriented towards social democracy, as well as numerous new communist foundations emerged from the KPI . In the affluent north of the country, popular discontent with politics was addressed by the secessionist Lega Nord . This breakdown of the established party system and the associated political changes are considered to be the greatest turning point in Italian post-war history. Although the constitution from 1948 remains unchanged, it has become customary to speak of the period before the upheaval in 1992–94 as the First Republic ( prima repubblica ) and the years after that as the Second Republic ( seconda repubblica ).

    Italy was also on the verge of collapse financially, debt exceeded GDP and the lira devalued by 20%. This prompted the government under Giuliano Amato in 1992 to implement severe austerity measures. As an extreme measure, all bank accounts were subjected to a one-time special taxation, which reduced the wealth of most households for the first time since the 1960s. The Ciampi government , an independent government of experts ( governo tecnico ), continued this course of privatization and the dissolution of the networks of state-private patronage and clientele relationships in 1993 in order to be able to introduce the euro, for which Ciampi received the nickname Signor Euro . In the course of the restructuring of the state finances, the privatization of the numerous state-owned companies corrupted by political patronage began . At times, these generated half of GDP. The beginning was made in 1990 by the banks, which were obliged to transform themselves into public limited companies. In 1994, 73% of the share capital was already in the hands of savings bank foundations, which privatized the entire capital by 2005. The five largest banks were able to increase their market share among the banks, which had been reduced from 1,100 to 800, from 34 to 54%. This ultimately resulted in two large groups, in 2007 the Intesa-San-Paolo and the Unicredit group. Far behind are Mediobanca , Monte dei Paschi di Siena and Unione di Banche Italiane . In 1993 the separation of commercial and financial banks, which had been introduced in 1936, was abolished, so that universal banks came into being. All in all, all privatizations brought in well over 100 billion euros for the tax authorities, making them the largest wave of privatizations ever carried out. The sales of the shares in ENI and Enel alone brought in 35 billion dollars. However, strategic shares in the energy supply, the aerospace industry and services of general interest remained in state hands. While the free float of company shares increased, shareholder agreements tended to strengthen control by individual families, while the influence of the banks declined.

    Changing government alliances, economic crisis (since 1994)

    In the parliamentary elections in 1994 , in which a mixed majority and proportional representation with a threshold clause was applied for the first time, the coalition of the construction and media entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi surprisingly prevailed against the left-wing alliance led by Achille Occhetto . His Forza Italia , founded just a few months earlier, had allied itself with the Lega Nord and the Alleanza Nazionale , which had emerged from the post-fascist Movimento Sociale Italiano . But the coalition broke up after only a few months. The then convened government of experts under Lamberto Dini , the former director general of the Italian central bank and finance minister under Berlusconi, ruled from January 1995 to May 1996.

    The 1996 elections were won by a center-left coalition ( Ulivo ) led by former Christian Democrat Romano Prodi . Eurocommunist ministers sat in the Prodi I government (May 1996 - October 1998) for the first time. Prodi's strict austerity policy paved Italy's way into the euro zone . Abandoned by his allies, he had to resign and leave his office to Massimo D'Alema or Giuliano Amato . The Partito Democratico della Sinistra (PDS), which emerged from the Communist Party in 1991, had renamed itself to "Left Democrats" ( Democratici di Sinistra , DS) in 1998 after unification with other socialist groups . Its chairman D'Alema remained Prime Minister until 2000, followed by Giuliano Amato, who had already held this office from June 1992 to April 1993.

    Berlusconi's alliance Casa delle Libertà won the 2001 elections . After five years in office, he was again defeated by Romano Prodi in the 2006 parliamentary elections . In mid-May 2006, Giorgio Napolitano, the candidate Romano Prodis, was elected President of the Republic, with whom a former member of the Communist Party assumed this office for the first time.

    Reforms were carried out at the municipal, provincial and regional level as well as at the national level. Reforms of the armed forces were also introduced in 1997 , which resulted in the suspension of conscription in 2005 . However , it was not possible to agree on a constitutional reform to strengthen the government, improve parliamentary work and introduce representation of the regional authorities .

    Public finances continued to suffer from high levels of tax evasion (20–30% of GDP , depending on the estimate ), from the growing burdens in health care and pensions, and from the regions' financing that was too much geared towards Rome. Rising interest rates and a simultaneous rise in taxes and duties burdened the economy as a whole. The sluggishness of the judiciary and administration is also seen as problematic. The structural problems of southern Italy are unsolved; The influence of organized crime on economic life is seen as particularly inhibiting.

    In January 2008 the alliance led by Romano Prodi disintegrated after the coalition partner UDEUR withdrew from the alliance. Prodi failed in the vote of confidence . President Giorgio Napolitano then instructed Senate President Franco Marini to form a transitional government, but he had to give up the mandate to form a government on February 4th. Thereupon Napolitano dissolved both houses of parliament and announced new elections .

    From these, with 46.8% (Chamber of Deputies) and 47.3% (Senate), Silvio Berlusconi's new electoral alliance Popolo della Libertà - Lega Nord - Movimento per l'autonomia emerged as the winner. The fourth government of Silvio Berlusconi was sworn in on May 8, 2008. Due to the financial crisis, the gross domestic product shrank by 1% in 2008 and by a further 5% in 2009. Thanks to its banking system and the low level of household debt, the country was initially able to protect itself from the economic consequences, but was hit by the euro crisis in 2011 .

    Giuseppe Conte ,
    Prime Minister since June 1, 2018

    Led by the President of the House of Representatives Gianfranco Fini , numerous parliamentarians left Berlusconi's coalition since mid-2010, until it no longer had a majority in the House of Representatives in November 2011. Scandals that he himself triggered and pending legal proceedings as well as the escalation of the euro crisis forced Silvio Berlusconi to resign on November 12, 2011.

    President Napolitano tasked the non- party and former EU Commissioner for Internal Market and Competition Mario Monti with the formation of a new government . The debt crisis in the euro area worsened, at the end of 2011 Italy had a debt of 1.9 trillion euros. The interest rate for bonds with a ten-year term reached its highest rate in November 2011 at 7.56%. Unemployment was 9.3% in March 2012, while the long-standing high unemployment rate among 19 to 24-year-olds rose to 31.9%. In December the unemployment rate was already 11.2% or 2.9 million.

    On February 25, 2013, Pier Luigi Bersani's center-left alliance narrowly won the election with 29.54% of the vote, ahead of Berlusconi's alliance, which received 29.18%. The five-star movement ( MoVimento 5 Stelle ) founded by the professional comedian Beppe Grillo celebrated a surprising success with 25.09%. Enrico Letta from the Partito Democratico was elected as the new Prime Minister by Parliament on the proposal of President Napolitano. After an internal power struggle, Letta was replaced after less than a year in office by the former mayor of Florence, Matteo Renzi . Under the Renzi government, numerous reform projects were carried out on the labor market, in the social systems and in state institutions, as well as socio-political liberalizations such as same-sex civil partnerships ( unione civile ). The constitutional amendment sought by Renzi was rejected by the people in a referendum on December 4, 2016 , as a result of which Renzi resigned. The new Prime Minister was Paolo Gentiloni , who previously served as Foreign Minister in Renzi's cabinet.

    In the parliamentary elections on March 4, 2018 , the five-star movement with 32.68% and the now Italian national Lega (without the addition North) with 17.34% recorded the largest gains and together formed a government under leadership of the non-party Giuseppe Conte . Luigi Di Maio from the Five Star Movement and Matteo Salvini from the Lega each took on the post of Deputy Prime Minister. After Salvini announced the end of the governing coalition, Conte reshuffled his cabinet , which since September 5, 2019 has been supported by the Partito Democratico, Liberi e Uguali , Italia Viva and the Movimento Associativo Italiani all'Estero alongside the five-star movement .

    Population growth, immigration

    Share of foreigners as of January 1, 2011 by region

    In 1861 Italy had 21.7 million inhabitants, at the 1901 census over 30 million and in 1931 41.6 million inhabitants. While the birth rate per thousand inhabitants was 38.6 in 1850, it fell to a still very high 31.7 by 1913, but the death rate fell much more quickly from 29.9 to 18.7 during the same period, making the population steep rise. In 1946 Italy had around 45.5 million inhabitants, over 50 in 1960 and over 55 million in 1975. The total fertility rate in 1946 was 3.01 children per woman and in 1976 it was above the natural reproduction rate at 2.11. Then it decreased to 1.17 by 1995 and has fluctuated between 1.2 and 1.3 since then. In 2006, it was about twice as high for new immigrants; by 2009 it had dropped to 2.05.

    The population continued to rise, to around 60 million inhabitants in 2011, with the population growth now largely due to immigration, the annual balance of which was between around 300,000 and 600,000; Otherwise, the number of deaths has exceeded the number of births since 1993, in 2010 by 25,000. In 2010 the birth rate was 9.3 and the death rate 9.7. The life expectancy rose from 50 years in 1920 to 77.5 in 1994. 2010 was it at 79.1 years for men and 84.3 for women.

    The number of immigrants has risen sharply since the 1990s, after Italy had been predominantly a country of emigration until 1972. In 1991 the statistical institute ISTAT counted 625,034 foreigners with a population of 56.8 million; in 1997 the number was estimated at 1.25 million, and at the beginning of 2011 at 5.4 million. 969,000 of them came from Romania , 483,000 from Albania , 452,000 from Morocco ; then followed China (210,000) and Ukraine (201,000). Most of the immigrants live in northern Italy. By March 2012, 64,000 refugees from North Africa came to Italy via the Mediterranean route .
    Immigration and refugee policy was and is an important issue in Italian politics.

    Cultural heritage management

    The Ministry of Cultural Goods and Activities has existed under changing names since 1974 . 157 state archives , 298 archaeological sites, 58 libraries, 244 museums, a total of 1052 state institutions are assigned to the ministry , plus 2,119 non-state institutions (as of February 26, 2012). Some of the museums are national museums. These include the National Archaeological Museum in Ferrara, as well as those of Florence , Rome , Naples and Taranto, and the Museo Nazionale Alinari della Fotografia in Florence. There are also the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in Reggio, the Museo Nazionale GA Sanna in Sardinia and the National Museum of Art of the 21st Century in Rome. However, the designation “National Museum” is not precisely delimited, so that numerous other nationally important state museums must be included.

    In no other country are there so many UNESCO World Heritage sites (2019: 55). The earliest protected sites are the rock carvings of Valcamonica, registered since 1979, and the entire historical center of Rome since 1980, and that of Florence since 1982. In addition to the protection that a Comando Carabinieri Tutela Patrimonio Culturale serves, the institutions work primarily to preserve and restore the cultural treasures and to make them accessible to the public and research.


    Overview works

    Regions and cities

    • Adele Cilento: Bisanzio in Sicilia e nel sud dell'Italia. Magnus, Udine 2005. ISBN 88-7057-196-3
    • Thomas Dittelbach: History of Sicily. From antiquity to today. Beck, Munich 2010. ISBN 978-3-406-58790-0
    • Chris Wickham : Medieval Rome. Stability and Crisis of a City, 900-1150. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2015.
    • Claus Gatterer : In the fight against Rome. Citizens, minorities and autonomies in Italy , Europa Verlag, Vienna / Frankfurt / Zurich 1968.
    • Cinzio Violante : Economia, società, istituzioni a Pisa nel Medioevo. Dedalo, Bari 1980.
    • Volker Reinhardt : History of Florence. Beck, Munich 2013.
    • Robert Davidsohn : History of Florence. 4 vols., Berlin 1896–1927 (once a standard work, many times out of date, enormous depth of detail).
    • John M. Najemy: A History of Florence, 1200 - 1575. Blackwell Publishing, 2006 (Italian: Storia di Firenze dal 1200 al 1575 , Einaudi, Turin 2014).
    • Teofilo Ossian De Negri: Storia di Genova. Giunti Editore, Florence, 2003. ISBN 88-09-02932-1
    • Matthias Schnettger : “Principe sovrano” or “Civitas imperialis”? The Republic of Genoa and the Old Empire in the Early Modern Period (1556–1797). Habil., Von Zabern, Mainz 2006. ISBN 3-8053-3588-1
    • Alberto Tenenti , Ugo Tucci (eds.): Storia di Venezia. 12 vols., Rome 1992-1995.
    • Giovanni Treccani degli Alfieri (Ed.): Storia di Milano. 16 vols., Milan 1962.
    • Alessandro Barbero : Storia del Piemonte. Dalla preistoria alla globalizzazione. Einaudi, Turin 2008.

    Economic history

    • Vera Zamagni : Introduzione alla storia economica d'Italia. Il Mulino, Bologna 2007 (introduction, Middle Ages to the present). ISBN 978-88-15-12168-4
    • Gino Luzzatto : Storia economica d'Italia. Il Medioevo. Sansoni, Florence 1967.
    • Alfred Doren : Italian economic history. Jena 1934 (often out of date, nevertheless an epochal work).
    • Valerio Castronovo: Storia economica d'Italia. D'all Ottocento ai giorni nostri. Einaudi, Turin 2006. ISBN 88-06-13621-6
    • Rolf Petri: Storia economica d'Italia. Dalla Grande guerra al miracolo economico (1918–1963). Il Mulino, Bologna 2002.
    • Neville Morley: Metropolis and Hinterland. The City of Rome and the Italian Economy, 200 BC-AD 200. Cambridge University Press, 1996.
    • Richard A. Goldthwaite: The Economy of Renaissance Florence. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 2009. ISBN 978-0-8018-8982-0
    • Gino Luzzatto : Storia economica di Venezia dall'XI al XVI secolo. Venice 1961, reprint 1995.
    • Mercanti e banchieri ebrei (= Zakhor. Rivista di storia degli Ebrei d'Italia I). Giuntina, Florence 1997. ISBN 88-8057-047-1
    • Paolo Malanima , Vera Zamagni: 150 years of the Italian economy, 1861-2010. In: Journal of Modern Italian Studies 15 (2010), pp. 1-20.

    Statutory history

    • Margherita Mussi : Earliest Italy. An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Springer, 2001, ISBN 0-306-46463-2 .
    • John Robb: The Early Mediterranean Village. Agency, Material Culture, and Social Change in Neolithic Italy. Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-84241-9 .
    • Andrea Pessina, Vincenzo Tiné: Archeologia del Neolitico. L'Italia tra VI e IV millennio aC 2nd edition. Carocci, Rome 2010, ISBN 978-88-430-4585-3 .
    • Robert Leighton: Sicily before History. An Archaeological Survey from the Palaeolithic to the Iron Age. Cornell University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8014-8585-1 .

    Antiquity, early Middle Ages

    • Furio Durando among others: Magna Graecia. Art and culture of the Greeks in Italy. Hirmer, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-7774-2045-X .
    • Sabatino Moscati: Italia Punica. Rusconi, Milan 1986, 1995 (Tascabili Bompiani 2000).
    • Moses I. Finley : Ancient Sicily. From prehistory to the Arab conquest. Dtv, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-423-04592-2 .
    • Martin Dreher : Ancient Sicily. Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-53637-3 .
    • Hans-Joachim Gehrke , Helmuth Schneider (ed.): History of antiquity. A study book. 2nd, expanded edition. Metzler, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-476-02074-6 .
    • Neil Christie: From Constantine to Charlemagne. An Archeology of Italy, AD 300-800. Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot 2006, ISBN 1-85928-421-3 .
    • Cristina La Rocca (Ed.): Italy in the Early Middle Ages. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002.
    • Chris Wickham : Early Medieval Italy. Central Power and Local Society, 400-1000. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor 1990, ISBN 0-472-08099-7 .
    • Walter Pohl , Peter Erhart (Ed.): The Longobards. Domination and identity. Vienna 2005. (26 articles on archaeological, historical and linguistic Lombard studies, section 3: Lombard rule and Lombard identities in Italy ), ISBN 3-7001-3400-2 .
    • Paolo Cammarosano: Storia dell'Italia medievale. Dal VI all'XI secolo. Laterza, Bari 2001, ISBN 88-420-6338-X .
    • Ovidio Capitani : Storia dell'Italia medievale, 410-1216. Laterza, Bari 1992, ISBN 88-420-2998-X .
    • Dick Harrison: The Early State and the Towns. Forms of Integration in Lombard Italy, AD 568-774. Lund University Press, Lund 1993, ISBN 91-7966-218-8 .

    High and late Middle Ages, Renaissance

    • Johannes Bernwieser: Honor civitatis. Communication, interaction and conflict resolution in high medieval northern Italy. Herbert Utz, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-8316-4124-6 .
    • Thomas James Dandelet, John A. Marino: Spain in Italy. Politics, Society, and Religion 1500-1700. Brill, Leiden 2007, ISBN 978-90-04-15429-2 .
    • Andrea Gamberini, Isabella Lazzarini (Ed.): The Italian Renaissance States. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2012, ISBN 978-1-107-01012-3 .
    • Gudrun Gleba: The Northern Italian cities from the 12th to the 15th century. Research tendencies of the eighties. In: Journal for Historical Research 20 (1993) 463-483.
    • Elke Goez : History of Italy in the Middle Ages . Primus Verlag, Darmstadt 2010. ISBN 978-3-89678-678-4 ( review ).
    • Kenneth Gouwens: The Italian Renaissance. The Essential Sources , Blackwell Publishing, 2004. ISBN 0-631-23165-X .
    • Alberto Grohmann: La città medievale. Laterza, Bari 2010. ISBN 978-88-420-6844-0 .
    • Dennys Hay, John Law: Italy in the Age of the Renaissance 1380-1530. Longman, London / New York 1989. ISBN 0-582-48358-1 .
    • Hagen Keller : Aristocratic rule and urban society in Northern Italy (9th – 12th centuries). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1979. ISBN 3-484-80088-7 .
    • John Larner: Italy in the Age of Dante and Petrarch 1216-1380. Longman, London / New York 1980. ISBN 0-582-48366-2 .
    • Gino Luzzatto : An Economic History of Italy. From the Fall of the Roman Empire to the Beginning of the 16th Century. 2006 (reprint of the 2nd edition from 1963; Italian original edition Florence 1928).
    • Heike Johanna Mierau : Emperor and Pope in the Middle Ages , Böhlau, Cologne et al. 2010. ISBN 978-3-412-20551-5 .
    • Ferdinand Opll : Coercion and arbitrariness. Life under urban rule in Lombardy in the early Staufer period. Böhlau, Vienna 2010 (statements from 80 witnesses from 1184 form the basis) ISBN 978-3-205-78499-9
    • Bernd Rill : Sicily in the Middle Ages. The empire of the Arabs, Normans and Staufers. Belser, Stuttgart 1995. ISBN 3-7630-2318-6 .

    Until the founding of the state

    • Alberto Mario Banti : Il Risorgimento Italiano. Laterza, Rome / Bari 2004, ISBN 88-420-7174-9 .
    • Lucy Riall : Risorgimento: the history of Italy from Napoleon to nation state. Palgrave Macmillan, 2009, ISBN 978-0230216709 .
    • Ruggiero Romano , Corrado Vivanti: Storia d'Italia. Vol. 3: Dal primo Settecento all'Unità. Einaudi, Turin 1973, ISBN 978-8806364755 .
    • Alberto Mario Banti, Paul Ginsborg : Storia d'Italia. Annali. Vol. 22: Il Risorgimento. Einaudi, Turin 2008, ISBN 978-8806167295 .
    • Ulrich Wyrwa : Jews in Tuscany and Prussia in comparison. Enlightenment and emancipation in Florence, Livorno, Berlin and Königsberg in Prussia. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2003, ISBN 3-16-148077-5 .
    • John Anthony Davis: Naples and Napoleon. Southern Italy and the European revolutions (1780-1860). Oxford University Press, 2006.
    • Marco Severini: La Repubblica romana del 1849. Marsilio, Venice 2011, ISBN 978-88-317-0803-6 .
    • Lauro Rossi (Ed.): Giuseppe Garibaldi. Due secoli di interpretazioni. Gangemi editore, Rome 2011, ISBN 978-88-492-6974-1 .
    • Salvatore Lupo: L'unificazione italiana. Mezzogiorno, rivoluzione, guerra civile. Donzelli Editore, 2011, ISBN 978-88-6036-627-6 .
    • Gigi Di Fiore: Controstoria dell'Unità d'Italia. Fatti e misfatti del Risorgimento. Rizzoli, Milan 2010, ISBN 978-88-17-04281-9 .
    • Carlo M. Fiorentino, Carlo Agliati (eds.): Bibliografia dell'età del Risorgimento. 1970-2001. Olschki, Florence 2003, ISBN 88-222-5279-9 .
    • Gualtiero Boaglio: The Origin of the Term Italianità. In: Florika Griessner, Adriana Vignazia (Ed.): 150 Years of Italy. Topics, paths, open questions. Praesens, Vienna 2014, pp. 66–81.

    Kingdom and Fascism

    Republic (since 1946)


    • Andreas Mehl : Roman historiography. Basics and developments. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-17-015253-X .
    • Gabriele Zanella: Storici e storiografia del Medioevo italiano. Pàtron, Bologna 1984.
    • Fulvio Tessitore: Contributi alla storiografia arabo-islamica in Italia tra Otto e Novecento. Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Rome 2008, ISBN 978-88-6372-054-9 .
    • William J. Connell: Italian Renaissance Historical Narrative. In: The Oxford History of Historical Writing , Vol. 3, Oxford University Press 2012, pp. 347-363.
    • Edoardo Tortarolo: Italian Historical Writing, 1680-1800. In: The Oxford History of Historical Writing , Vol. 3, Oxford University Press 2012, pp. 364-383.
    • Silvia Riccardi: The exploration of ancient slavery in Italy from the Risorgimento to Ettore Ciccotti. Steiner, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-515-07137-7 .
    • Eugenio Di Rienzo: Storia d'Italia e identità nazionale. Dalla grande guerra alla Repubblica. Le Lettere, Florence 2006, ISBN 88-7166-986-X .
    • Angelo D'Orsi, Patrizia Cancian, Bruno Bongiovanni: La città, la storia, il secolo. Cento anni di storiografia a Torino. Mulino, Florence 2001, ISBN 978-88-15-07802-5 .
    • Umberto Massimo Miozzi: La scuola storica romana 1926–1943. Rome 1982, ISBN 88-8498-105-0 .
    • Ruggiero Romano : La storiografia italiana oggi. Milanostampa, Milan 1978.

    See also

    Portal: Italy  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Italy

    Web links

    Commons : History of Italy  - collection of images, videos and audio files
    Wikisource: Italy  - Sources and full texts

    Jewish history of Italy


    1. Art. Coat. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde , Volume 19, here: p. 239.
    2. Marta Arzarello, Federica Marcolini, Giulio Pavia, Marco Pavia, Carmelo Petronio, Mauro Petrucci, Lorenzo Rook, Raffaele Sardella: L'industrie lithique du site Pléistocène inférieur de Pirro Nord (Apricena, Italie du sud): une occupation humaine entre 1, 3 et 1,7 Ma / The lithic industry of the Early Pleistocene site of Pirro Nord (Apricena South Italy): The evidence of a human occupation between 1.3 and 1.7 Ma In: L'Anthropologie 113,1 (2009), p. 47 -58.
    3. ^ Margherita Mussi: Earliest Italy. An Overview of the Italian Paleolithic and Mesolithic. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York 2001, p. 18.
    4. ^ Paolo Villa: Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene archaeological record of southern France. University of California Press, Berkeley 1983, pp. 54f.
    5. ^ Wil Roebroeks , Paola Villa: On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108, 13 (2011), pp. 5209-5214.
    6. Stefano Benazzi et al: Early dispersal of modern humans in Europe and implications for Neanderthal behavior. In: Nature . Volume 479, 2011, pp. 525-528, doi: 10.1038 / nature10617
    7. Fulco Pratesi: Storia della natura d'Italia , Soveria Manelli: Rubbettino Editore, 2010, o. S. (section Un mondo in equilibrio ).
    8. Andrea Pessina, Vincenzo Tiné: Archeologia del Neolitico. L'Italia tra VI e IV millennio aC , Rome: Carocci editore, 1st edition. 2008, 2nd reprint 2010, p. 28ff.
    9. ^ RJ King, SS Özcan, T. Carter, E. Kalfoğlu, S. Atasoy, C. Triantaphyllidis, A. Kouvatsi, AA Lin, C.-ET Chow, LA Zhivotovsky, M. Michalodimitrakis, PA Underhill: Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic. In: Annals of Human Genetics 72 (2008), pp. 205-214.
    10. Andrea Pessina, Vincenzo Tiné: Archeologia del Neolitico. L'Italia tra VI e IV millennio aC , Rome: Carocci editore, 1st edition. 2008, 2nd reprint 2010, p. 32.
    11. ^ John Robb: The Early Mediterranean Village. Agency, Material Culture, and Social Change in Neolithic Italy. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2007, p. 36.
    12. In Val Petronio, east of Sestri Levante; see. Nadia Campana, Roberto Maggi, Mark Pearce: ISSEL DIXIT. In: La nascità della Paletnologia in Liguria. Atti del Convegno , Bordighera 2008, pp. 305-311. The title refers to Arturo Issel (1842–1922), who as early as 1879 assumed that copper mining was so old.
    13. The Millennium Bang, in: Die Zeit, April 10, 2003. Cf. C. Albore Livadie: Territorio e insediamenti nell'agro Nolano durante il Bronzo antico (facies di Palma Campania): nota preliminare. In: Actes du colloque L'Eruzione vesuviana delle “Pomici di Avellino” e la facies di Palma Campania (Bronzo antico): Atti del Seminario internazionale di Ravello, 15-17 July 1994. Edipuglia, Bari 1999, pp. 203-245.
    14. Harald Haarmann : The Indo-Europeans: Origin, Languages, Cultures , Munich: Beck 2010. This is followed by the further presentation.
    15. Francesco Carimi, Francesco Mercati, Loredana Abbate, Francesco Sunseri: Microsatellite analyzes for evaluation of genetic diversity among Sicilian grapevine cultivars. In: Genet Resources and Crop Evolution 57 (2010) 703-719, here: p. 704.
    16. Thomas Urban Studies on the Middle Bronze Age in Northern Italy , 1993. General information on the Veneters: Art. Veneter. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde , vol. 32, pp. 133-138, from p. 136 on the northern Italian Venetians.
    17. Fundamental: Luisa Franchi dell'Orto (Ed.): The Picener. One people of Europe. Exhibition catalog Frankfurt a. M. 1999 , Rome 1999.
    18. Basic: Gianluca Tagliamonte: I Sanniti: Caudini, Irpini, Pentri, Carricini, Frentani. Longanesi, Milan 1996.
    19. Barbara Scardigli: I Trattati Romano-Cartaginesi. Introduzione, edizione critica, traduzione, commento e indici. Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa 1991.
    20. Famed Roman statue "not ancient" , BBC, July 20, 2008
    21. Fundamental to the history of Rome in antiquity: Frank Kolb : Rom. The history of the city in ancient times. Beck, Munich 2002.
    22. Lukas Grossmann: Rome's Samnite Wars. Historical and historiographical studies on the years 327 to 290 BC Chr. Wellem, Dusseldorf 2009, p.115.
    23. Dietmar Kienast : Augustus, Prinzeps and Monarch. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1999, p. 480.
    24. ^ Paul Petit: Pax Romana. University of California Press, Berkeley 1976, p. 50.
    25. ^ Paul Petit: Pax Romana. University of California Press, Berkeley 1976, p. 56.
    26. Mark Aurel reduced this proportion to a quarter (Sabine Panzram: Stadtbild und Elite , Steiner, Stuttgart 2002, p. 67). In Pliny (Epistulae 6,19,4) it says: “Occurrit; nam sumptus candidatorum, foedos illos et infames, ambitus lege restrinxit; eosdem patrimonii tertiam partem conferre iussit in ea quae solo continerentur, deforme arbitratus - et erat - honorem petituros urbem Italiamque non pro patria sed pro hospitio aut stabulo quasi peregrinantes habere. "
    27. Gunnar Seelentag: The Emperor as Welfare. The Italian alimentary institution. In: Historia 57 (2008) 208-241.
    28. ^ Paul Petit: Pax Romana. University of California Press, Berkeley 1976, p. 83.
    29. ^ Karl Strobel: Investigations into the Dacer Wars Trajan. Habelt, Bonn 1984, p. 221, gives (like most historians) 5 million pounds. Karl Christ: History of the Roman Empire: From Augustus to Constantine. 6th edition. Beck, Munich 2009, p. 300 doubts these figures, which come from Johannes Lydos , who in turn refers to Trajan's personal physician, T. Statilius Kriton.
    30. Hans Kloft : The economy of the Roman Empire. von Zabern, Mainz 2006, p. 116.
    31. Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde , 25, p. 173.
    32. ^ Günter Stangl: Ancient populations in numbers. Verification options for demographic figures in ancient texts. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, 2008, p. 86.
    33. Michael E. Jones: The End of Roman Britain. Cornell University 1998, p. 262.
    34. ^ Marc Bloch: Les invasions. In: Annales, VIII, 1945, p. 18.
    35. ^ Karl Julius Beloch: The population of the Greco-Roman world. Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1886. His estimates were initially lower, for Italy at 6 million, but he later increased some results.
    36. ^ Josiah Cox Russell: Late Ancient and Medieval Population. American Philos. Soc, Philadelphia 1958, pp. 93f.
    37. Reinhard Blänkner, Bernhard Jussen: Institutions and event. About historical practices and notions of social order. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1998, p. 143.
    38. ^ Attilio Milano: Il ghetto di Roma. Illustrazione storiche. Einaudi, Turin 1987, pp. 15-18.
    39. Michael Borgolte, Juliane Schiel, Annette Seitz, Bernd Schneidmüller (eds.): Middle Ages in the Laboratory. Medieval Studies tests ways to a transcultural European science. Akademie, Berlin 2008, p. 446f.
    40. Orosius : Historiarum adversum paganos VII, 37, 9.
    41. Cf. Kristina Sessa: The Formation of Papal Authority in Late Antique Italy. Roman Bishops and the Domestic Sphere. Cambridge University Press 2011.
    42. Marco Aimone deals with this question: Romani e Ostrogoti fra integrazione e separazione. Il contributo dell'archeologia a un dibattito storiografico. In: Reti Medievali Rivista, 13, 1 (2012) 1-66 for the first time on the basis of archaeological investigations.
    43. Gregory demanded the forced conversion of the remaining pagans to Epist from the local authorities. 9, 204.
    44. Auguste Boullier: L'Île de Sardaigne. Description, histoire, statistique, mœurs, état social. E. Dentu, Paris, 1865, p. 78.
    45. This shows a Placitum from 845 from Trient (Joseph von Hormayr: Kritisch-Diplomatische Beyträger zur Geschichte Tirol im Mittelalter , Vol. 1, Vienna 1803, No. 2, February 26, 845), in which between “Longobardi” and “Teutisci “(Those who speak a Germanic language) is differentiated.
    46. JF Böhmer: Regesta Imperii I. The Regests of the Empire under the Carolingians 751-918 (926), Vol. 3. The Regesta of the Regnum Italiae and the Burgundian Regna. Part 1. The Carolingians in Regnum Italiae 840-887 (888), Cologne 1991 (RI I, 3 n. 99, October 852).
    47. Cristina La Rocca: Italy in the Early Middle Ages. 476-1000. Oxford University Press, 2002, section Justice: principles, personnel, and places .
    48. Liutprand von Cremona accused the Carolingian Arnulf of Carinthia , who himself was King of Italy from 894 to 899, had summoned the Hungarians against his enemies (Antapodosis I, 13, ed. Joseph Becker, Hanover 1915).
    49. ^ In addition: François Menant : Lombardia feudale. Studi sull'aristocrazia padana nei secoli X-XIII , Vita e Pensiero, Milan 1992.
    50. Frans Theuws: Rituals of Power: From Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages , Brill, Leiden 2000, p. 22 or Paulus Diaconus : Origo gentis Langobardorum , c. 3.
    51. Basic: Stefano Del Lungo: Bahr ʻas Shâm. La presenza musulmana nel Tirreno centrale e settentrionale nell'alto medioevo. Archaeopress, Oxford 2000.
    52. Ekkehard Eickhoff : Sea War and Sea Politics between Islam and the West. The Mediterranean under Byzantine and Arab hegemony (650–1040). de Gruyter, Berlin 1966, p. 189.
    53. ^ Josiah Cox Russell: Late Ancient and Medieval Population. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia 1958, pp. 93f.
    54. Italy. In: Lexikon des Mittelalters, Vol. V, Col. 732.
    55. Maureen Fennell Mazzaoui: The Italian Cotton Industry in the Later Middle Ages, 1100-1600 Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1,981th
    56. On the Italian merchants in Europe cf. Arnold Esch : Many loyalties, one identity. Italian merchant colonies in late medieval Europe. In: Historische Zeitschrift 254 (1992), pp. 581-608.
    57. ^ First published by Raymond de Roover: The Commercial Revolution of the Thirteenth Century. Contribution to the discussion on NSB Grass: Capitalism - Concept and History. In: Business History Review 16 (1942), pp. 34-39, reprinted 1962.
    58. The debate about this took place in the 1970s to 90s and divided historians and archaeologists into those who saw more of a catastrophic upheaval (the catastrofisti ), such as A. Carandini , R. Hodges, D. Whitehouse or GP Brogiolo, and the advocates a continuity (the continuisti ) such as B. Ward-Perkins, C. Wickham, C. La Rocca.
    59. See Frederic C. Lane: Family Partnerships and Joint Ventures in the Venetian Republic. In: Journal of Economic History 4 (1944), pp. 178-196.
    60. ^ Gino Luzzatto : Storia economica di Venezia dall'XI al XVI secolo. Venice 1961, reprint 1995, p. 121.
    61. David Abulafia is still fundamental to the division of Italy : The Two Italies. Economic Relations between the Norman Kingdom of Sicily and the Northern Communes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1977.
    62. Fundamental: Hagen Keller : Pataria and city constitution. In: Josefl Fleckenstein (Hrsg.): Investiture dispute and imperial constitution. Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1973, pp. 321-350.
    63. ^ Piero Majocchi: Pavia città regia. Storia e memoria di una capitale altomedievale. Viella, 2008, pp. 91f.
    64. On church reform efforts and changes in society cf. John Howe: Church Reform and Social Change in Eleventh-Century Italy. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1997.
    65. Maureen Catherine Miller examined this for the diocese of Verona: The Formation of a Medieval Church. Ecclesiastical Change in Verona, 950-1150. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1993.
    66. St Dominic and the Albigenses in the WEB Gallery of Art
    67. On the history of spirituality in Italy cf. Pietro Zovatto (Ed.): Storia della spiritualità italiana. Città Nuova, Rome 2002.
    68. On reception cf. Romedio Schmitz-Esser: Arnold von Brescia in the mirror of eight centuries of reception. An example of Europe's handling of medieval history from humanism to today. LIT Verlag, Münster 2007.
    69. This and the following according to Wolfgang Behringer: Hexen. Belief, persecution, marketing. Beck, Munich 2002, p. 44f.
    70. Massimo Prevideprato: Tu hai renegà la fede - Stregheria ed inquisizione in Valcamonica e nelle Prealpi lombarde dal XV al XVIII secolo. Vannini, Brescia 1992.
    71. Wolfgang Behringer: Witches and Witch-Hunts. A global history. Polity Press, Cambridge 2004, p. 167.
    72. Wolfgang Behringer: Witches. Belief, persecution, marketing. Beck, Munich 2002, p. 61.
    73. This classification as the earliest crusade offers Paul E. Chevedden: “A Crusade from the First”: The Norman Conquest of Islamic Sicily, 1060-1091. In: Al-Masaq: Islam and the Medieval Mediterranean 22 (2010), pp. 191-225.
    74. Ferdinand Opll : Ytalica Expeditio. The Italian moves and the importance of Upper Italy for the empire at the time of Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa (1152–1190). In: Hubert Houben (ed.): Germany and Italy during the Staufer period , Göppingen 2002, pp. 93–135.
    75. On the Italian policy of the Roman-German kings in the 14th century, see a summary of Roland Pauler: The German kings and Italy in the 14th century. WBG, Darmstadt 1997.
    76. Hubert Houben (Ed.): La conquista turca di Otranto (1480) tra storia e mito. Atti del convegno internazionale di studio, Otranto-Muro Leccese, 28-31 March 2007. 2 vol., Congedo, Galatina 2008, passim.
    77. La storia della Comunità Ebraica di Roma , website of the municipality in Rome.
    78. Gian Maria Varanini, Reinhold C. Mueller: Ebrei nella terraferma Veneta del Quattrocento. Atti del convegno di studi, Verona, November 14, 2003. Florence 2005, passim.
    79. ^ Italy , Jewish Virtual Library.
    80. ^ Rafael Arnold: Spracharkaden. The language of the Sephardic Jews in Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries. Universitätsverlag Winter, 2006, passim.
    81. Roberto Bonfil: Gli Ebrei in Italia nell'epoca del Rinascimento , Sansoni, 1991, p. 64. Other ghettos were created in: Florenz 1571, Siena 1571, Mirandola 1602, Verona 1602, Padua 1603, Mantua 1612, Rovigo 1613, Ferrara 1624 , Urbino , Pesaro , Senigallia 1634, Modena 1638, Este 1666, Reggio Emilia 1670, Conegliano 1675, Turin 1679, Casale Monferrato 1724, Vercelli 1725, Acqui 1751, Moncalvo 1732, Finale Emilia 1736, Correggio 1779.
    82. ^ Hans Conrad Peyer : On the grain policy of northern Italian cities in the 13th century , Diss. Vienna 1950, p. 54.
    83. This and the following, according to Michael North: A Little History of Money. Beck, Munich 2009, pp. 24-26.
    84. This and the following according to: Hans-Jürgen Hübner: Quia bonum sit anticipare tempus. The municipal supply of bread and grain to Venice from the late 12th to the 15th centuries. Peter Lang, Frankfurt / M. et al. 1998, pp. 126-132.
    85. ^ Alan M. Stahl: The Venetian Tornesello. A medieval colonial coinage. American Numismatic Soc., New York 1985, p. 45.
    86. Jacob Burckhardt : The culture of the Renaissance in Italy , arr. v. Walter Goetz . 12th edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-05311-4 .
    87. ^ Massimo Livi Bacci Europe and its people. A population history. Beck, Munich 1999, p. 24 (ital. Bari: Laterza 1998).
    88. Silvana Seidel Menchi: Erasmus as a heretic. Reformation & Inquisition in Italy in the 16th Century , Leiden 1993, p. 21.
    89. Silvana Seidel Menchi: Erasmus as a heretic. Reformation & Inquisition in Italy in the 16th Century , Leiden 1993, pp. 7-11 (Italian 1992) was able to prove this on the basis of Inquisition files.
    90. Silvana Seidel Menchi: Erasmus as a heretic. Reformation & Inquisition in Italy in the 16th Century , Leiden 1993, p. 33f.
    91. ^ Massimo Firpo: Riforma protestante ed eresie nell'Italia del Cinquecento. Un profilo storico. Laterza, Bari 2008, passim.
    92. ^ Massimo Livi Bacci: Europe and its people. A population history. Beck, Munich 1999, p. 105f.
    93. ^ Massimo Livi Bacci Europe and its people. A population history. Beck, Munich 1999, pp. 190f. (Ital. Bari: Laterza 1998).
    94. Ilaria Porciani: Stato e nazione: l'immagine debole dell 'Italia. In: Simonetta Soldani, Gabriele Turi (eds.): Fare gli italiani , Bologna 1993, Vol. I, pp. 385-428.
    95. ^ Massimo Livi Bacci Europe and its people. A population history. Beck, Munich 1999, p. 19 (Italian Bari: Laterza 1998).
    96. ↑ In addition Elena Maria Garcia Guerra, Giuseppe De Luca: Il Mercato del Credito in Età Moderna. Reti e operatori finanziari nello spazio europeo. Milan 2010.
    97. Michael North: A Little History of Money. From the Middle Ages to today. Beck, Munich 2009, pp. 95f.
    98. ^ Bernd Roeck: History of Augsburg
    99. Thomas Babington Macaulay, quoted from Michael North: A Little History of Money. From the Middle Ages to today. Beck, Munich 2009, p. 110.
    100. Stephen Quinn, William Roberds: An Economic Explanation of the Early Bank of Amsterdam, Debasement, Bills of Exchange, and the Emergence of the First Central Bank. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, September 2006, pp. 41-44.
    101. Pietro Custodi (ed.): Breve trattato delle cause che possono far abbondare li regni d'oro e d'argento dove non sono miniere. Milan 1803.
    102. Michael North: A Little History of Money. From the Middle Ages to today. Beck, Munich 2009, p. 124f.
    103. Michael North: A Little History of Money. From the Middle Ages to today. Beck, Munich 2009, p. 227.
    104. See for example Alberto Mario Banti : Il Risorgimento italiano. Laterza, Rom / Bari 2004, ISBN 88-420-7174-9 , p. 4.
    105. To this Rudolf Lill : History of Italy in the modern age. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 4th revised edition, Darmstadt 1988, p. 91.
    106. ^ Jens Späth: Revolution in Europe 1820-23. Constitution and constitutional culture in the kingdoms of Spain, both Sicily and Sardinia-Piedmont. (= Italy in the Modern Age , Vol. 19), Böhlau, Cologne 2012, ISBN 978-3412222192 ( review ).
    107. ^ Alberto Mario Banti : Il Risorgimento Italiano. Laterza, Rom / Bari 2004, ISBN 88-420-7174-9 , pp. 49-52.
    108. There were only the alternatives “Annessione alla monarchia costituzionale del Re Vittorio Emanuele II” and a “Regno separato” to choose from. In addition, the Piedmontese census system applied and illiterate people, almost 80% of whom were illiterate, were excluded from the vote. See Peter Stadler : Cavour. Italy's liberal founder of an empire . Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-486-56509-5 , p. 146.
    109. According to: Jörg Fisch: The self-determination right of the peoples or the domestication of an illusion , Beck, Munich 2010, p. 125, "Table 3: The plebiscites in connection with the Italian unification, 1860-1870".
    110. ↑ On this in detail Denis Mack Smith: Cavour and Garibaldi 1860. A study in political conflict. Cambridge University Press, reissued with a new preface, Cambridge 1985 (1954).
    111. Denis Mack Smith : Storia d'Italia 1861-1969. Laterza, Bari 1972 (special edition with Il Giornale ), p. 151.
    112. Michele Sarfatti: Gli ebrei nell'Italia fascista. Vicende, identità, persecuzione , Einaudi, Turin 2000, p. 9.
    113. ^ Ulrich Wyrwa: Jews in Tuscany and Prussia in comparison. Mohr Siebeck, 2003, pp. 169f.
    114. ^ Ulrich Wyrwa: Jews in Tuscany and Prussia in comparison. Mohr Siebeck, 2003, p. 179.
    115. ^ Ulrich Wyrwa: Jews in Tuscany and Prussia in comparison. Mohr Siebeck, 2003, pp. 184f.
    116. ^ Lutz Klinkhammer: State repression as a political instrument. Germany and Italy between monarchy, dictatorship and republic. In: Christof Dipper (Ed.): Germany and Italy 1860–1960. Political and cultural aspects in comparison , Oldenbourg, Munich 2005, pp. 133–157, here: p. 139.
    117. Waltraud Weidenbusch: The Italian in Lombardy in the first half of the 19th century. Written and oral varieties in everyday life , Gunter Narr Verlag, 2002, p. 67f. delivers these figures, even if she sees a higher literacy rate for Lombardy.
    118. ^ Rudolf Lill : History of Italy in the modern age. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 4th, reviewed edition, Darmstadt 1988, pp. 205-213.
    119. ^ Ute Klammer: Old-Age Insurance in Italy. An institutional, theoretical and empirical analysis. Berlin 1997, p. 90.
    120. Ada Negri dedicated a sonnet to the event with the title Sette maggio 1898 (in the adaptation by Hedwig Jahn with the title “The seventh May 1898” published in Mutterschaft , Berlin 1905, p. 104).
    121. ^ Adolphus William Ward , George Walter Prothero , Stanley Leathes (eds.): Riots at Milan . In: The Cambridge Modern History , Vol. XII, The Latest Age. University Press, Cambridge 1910, p. 220 ( online ).
    122. Raffaele Cola Pietra: Bava Beccaris, Fiorenzo . In: Dictionnaire Biografico degli Italiani - Treccani, Vol 7 (1970).
    123. ^ Ute Klammer: Old-Age Insurance in Italy. An institutional, theoretical and empirical analysis. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1997, pp. 87f.
    124. ^ Georg Wannagat : Textbook of social security law. Vol. 1, Mohr, Tübingen 1965, p. 83.
    125. ^ Massimo Livi Bacci Europe and its people. Eine Bevölkerungsgeschichte , Munich: Beck 1999, p. 19 (ital. Bari: Laterza 1998).
    126. HOME emigrati.it
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    This article was added to the list of articles worth reading on March 4, 2012 in this version .