Saint Bernard of Siena
Bernardine of Siena OFM (born September 8, 1380 in Massa Marittima , † May 20, 1444 in L'Aquila ) is an Italian saint .
He was born as Bernardino degli Albizzeschi in Massa Marittima. His father was Tollo di Dino di Bando from the Senese family degli Albizzeschi , his mother's name was Nera di Bindi degli Avveduti . At the age of six he became an orphan and stayed with his aunt Diana Avveduti in Massa Marittima, who died in 1391. Then he moved to Siena to live with his uncle Cristoforo degli Albizzeschi .
In 1400, when a plague raged in his hometown of Siena , Bernardine made a living through self-sacrificing nursing at the Santa Maria della Scala Hospital . In 1402 he entered the Franciscan order on September 8th (his birthday) . At first he belonged to the branch of the order of the conventuals. Then he became a minor brother of the Franciscan reform movement of the Observants . In this, the consistent adherence to the poverty ideal played an important role, which was interpreted less strictly by the conventuals. On September 8, 1403 he took his vow of poverty (Voto di povertà), again a year later and again on his birthday he became a priest . In the same year he became head of the Convento del Colombaio in Seggiano . In Siena, he often stayed in a hermitage on the hill of Colle della Capriola , on which the Basilica dell'Osservanza was later built . After that, Bernardine and his entourage went from town to town, completely destitute, and lived off the charity of the people. As vicar general he was responsible for the introduction and enforcement of the strict rules of the order in more than 500 monasteries.
In his sermons he condemned usury, violence and luxury as “social sins” and “emphasizes the dignity of man as God's creature”. He had a significant influence on the religious and political life of Italy and has been defamed many times. His sermons and treatises were "the subject of severe criticism". His sermons were accused as heretical under Popes Martin V and Eugene IV and at the Council of Basel (1426, 1431, 1438). However, these complaints have always been dismissed. He was the teacher of Johannes Capistranus .
Eremo delle Carceri , Assisi : Seal ( IHS ) of Saint Bernardine Sano di Pietro : Sermon of St. Bernardino in the Piazza del Campo (1445)
Death and aftermath
Saint Bernard died in 1444; he was one of the first people in modern times to have a death mask removed from his face as a model for a terracotta portrait. He was canonized in 1450. According to his own wishes, his grave is in his last place of work, L'Aquila. In the history of the sermon he is considered to be one of the most distinguished representatives of popular eloquence.
The Convento de São Bernardino in Câmara de Lobos was founded in 1459.
- S. Bernardini Senensis Ordinis Fratrum Minorum Opera Omnia iussu et auctoritate Rmi P. Pacifici M. Perantoni (et Sépinski, Augustinus). Studio et Cura PP. Collegii S. Bonaventurae ad fidem codicum edita. 9 volumes. Ad Claras Aquas, Ex Typographia Collegii S. Bonaventurae, Florence 1950–1965.
- Siena 1427. Prediche volgari sul Campo di Siena. 2 vols. Ed. Carlo Delcorno. Rusconi, Milan 1989
- Le predice volgari. La predicazione del 1425 in Siena. 3 vols. Ed. Ciro Cannarozzi. Libreria editrice fiorentina, Florence 1940
- Iris Origo : The Saint of Tuscany. Life and time of Bernardino of Siena. CH Beck, Munich 1989
- Raoul Manselli: Bernardino da Siena, santo. In: Alberto M. Ghisalberti (Ed.): Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani (DBI). Volume 9: Berengario – Biagini. Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Rome 1967.
- Letizia Pellegrini (ed.): Il processo di canonizzatione di Bernardino da Siena (1445-1450). (= Analecta Franciscana XVI). Grottaferrata 2009
- Gianmaria Polidoro: San Bernadino da Siena. Velar, Gorle 2008, ISBN 978-88-01-04094-4
- Bernhard Stasiewski : The Saint Bernardine of Siena. Investigations into the sources of his biographers. Aschendorff, Münster 1931
- Lothar Hardick OFM: The works of Bernardine of Siena as a source of historical folklore. In: Historisches Jahrbuch 72 (1953), pp. 3–12, again in: Dieter Berg (Hrsg.): Spiritualität und Geschichte. Ceremony for Lothar Hardick OFM on his 80th birthday. , Werl 1993, ISBN 3-87163-195-7 , pp. 119-128
- Lina Bolzoni: "Come tu vedi dipinto." La predica e le pitture cittadine, in La rete delle immagini. Predicazione in volgare dalle origini a Bernardino da Siena. Einaudi, Turin 2002, pp. 67-190
- Patrick Boucheron: Conjurer la peur. Sienne 1338. Essai sur la force politique des Images. Seuil, Paris 2013, ISBN 9782021134995 , pp. 25–38: "Il me venait à l'esprit ces images peintes pour vous." (A quote from Bernardine)
- ↑ Johannes Hofer (author), Ottokar Bonmann (arrangement): Johannes Kapistran. A life struggling to reform the Church. New arrangement Volume 1. Kerle, Heidelberg 1964, p. 153.
- ↑ Gerda von Brockhusen: Bernardin von Siena .. In: Peter Dinzelbacher (Ed.): Dictionary of Mysticism (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 456). Kröner, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-520-45601-X , p. 52 (53).
- ^ Gerda von Brockhusen: Bernardin von Siena. In: Peter Dinzelbacher (Ed.): Dictionary of Mysticism (= Kröner's pocket edition. Volume 456). Kröner, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-520-45601-X , p. 52 (53).
- ↑ See Giacomo V. Sabatelli: On the new edition of the works of Bernardine von Siena OFM, In: Wissenschaft und Weisheit. 29, 1966, p. 52 ff.
- ↑ as TB, smaller format, 2015; German barrel. with a few images: Banned fear. Siena 1338 Wolff, Berlin 2017. Bernhardin is referring to Ambrogio Lorenzetti's pictures in the town hall
|SURNAME||Saint Bernard of Siena|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Bernardino degli Albizzeschi|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Catholic saint through self-sacrificing nursing|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 8, 1380|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Massa Marittima|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 20, 1444|
|Place of death||L'Aquila|