Large housing estate

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Example: high-rise buildings in Kirchdorf-Süd , Hamburg

As a large housing estate or housing estate are neighborhoods or large residential areas in cities called, mostly apartment buildings have emerged and are relatively short in size. This is how large estates differ from city districts that have grown through continuous expansion. There is no generally binding definition of the size and type of large housing estate.

The German Federal Ministry of Construction defined the term for the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1980s as follows

  • built after 1945
  • functionally independent settlement unit
  • dense, high-storey, relatively homogeneous development
  • at least 1000 residential units
  • predominantly social housing

However, this special definition with “after 1945” and “predominantly social housing” does not apply to all existing large housing estates and does not characterize the current development. In 1993, the Federal Building Ministry defined, based on its funding practice, that large housing estates must have at least 2500 residential units (WE). In 1995 this number was reduced to 2000 WE in agreement with all federal states.



Since the emergence of many cities in the 12th century, relatively little changed in the relationship between city and country until around 1800 . In the 19th century, characterized by strong population growth , rural exodus, industrialization and an increased demand for living space, new developments occurred. Parts of the bourgeoisie moved from the city to the suburbs or the surrounding area (→ suburbanization ). One reason for this was the living conditions in the city centers.

Trams connecting suburbs and city centers were built in many places (e.g. in Berlin , Hanover , Cologne and Frankfurt am Main ).

From around 1900 the automobile improved the mobility of those who owned a car (→ History of the Automobile ). New suburbs emerged, partly as large housing estates from the Wilhelminian era , near the factories such as in Berlin-Wedding or Berlin-Kreuzberg with tenements or as bourgeois suburbs in the countryside (see also Gartenstadt ).

Garden city

The Garden City Vision determined the thinking of city ​​planners differently through the Imperial Era, the Weimar Republic , the National Socialism and the reconstruction years up to the 1970s . Like many of the first garden cities, the Margarethenhöhe district of Essen, for example, emerged from 1907 as a factory settlement . At the height of the movement in the 1920s, its masterminds such as Bruno Taut “ dreamed of new cities with 300,000 to 500,000 inhabitants, dissolved and fully conceived in the character of the garden city, with low rows of individual houses and deep gardens for each house, completely without tenements and as cooperative Enterprises. ”() These visions of garden cities mixed with the simplicity of the Bauhaus style that was emerging at the time . During the time of National Socialism, the garden city movement had to submit to the political realities - "In 1939, with a few exceptions, all housing companies of the German Labor Front (DAF) were renamed Neue Heimat across the country ." ()

post war period


After the Second World War , between 1950 and 1970 it was necessary to create as much living space as possible in a short period of time.

Reasons were

So it said in 1957 in the Second Housing Act of the Federal Republic of Germany (II. WoBauG) u. a .: that "housing construction with special preference for the construction of apartments that are intended and suitable for large sections of the population in terms of size, equipment and rent or load ( social housing ) should be promoted as a priority task".

Despite the restoration of many houses destroyed in the war, there was consistently insufficient living space. The planning of large housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the GDR was necessary in order to alleviate the pressing housing shortage.

The war damage was seen by city planners as an opportunity to remedy deficiencies in urban planning. Many of the scolded tenements were destroyed and could now give way to the ideas of spacious facilities, streets and houses. After all the bad experiences that had been made with traditional urban planning, hopes were placed on garden city concepts. One of the planning ideas was the Athens Charter with the functional division of residential and commercial areas in the cities, but also spatial economic theories, for example by Walter Christaller . In 1954, Ernst May , an architect who had committed himself to the prefabricated building , was appointed head of the planning department at Neue Heimat.

The large housing estates of the 1960s, 1970s and some of the 1980s in the west were mostly built using traditional methods. In the east, a large part of the settlements arose since the late 1960s and above all in the 1970s and 1980s as rationally manufactured prefabricated buildings as part of the GDR's housing program , when only a few new large estates were built in the old federal states. In West Germany, the large non-profit housing associations such as Neue Heimat , which received funding from federal and state programs for social housing, were usually the builders . In East Germany, housing was built by municipal housing associations and housing cooperatives. The large housing estates developed - west as well as east - where the only settlement possibilities existed at this time: in the outskirts of the already existing settlement centers or in the axes between spaces "on the green meadow", but within the administrative city limits.

The proportion of apartments in large housing estates in the total housing stock in the Federal Republic of Germany is 7%, although the proportion is very different and in western Germany only 3%, in eastern Germany 22% and in individual cities such as Rostock 70%, Magdeburg 40 % and Schwedt / Oder at even 85%.

West Germany

From the mid-1950s to the mid-1970s, large housing estates developed in the Federal Republic of Germany. They can almost only be found in large metropolitan areas. Initially, the middle class, mostly young families, lived in the large housing estates. On the other hand, many socio-economically weaker residents, foreigners, the elderly or the unemployed, as well as middle-class owners of old houses, lived in the Wilhelminian-style, unrenovated old buildings.

In the course of the decades, the material requirements, the demands that can be met and the objectives of housing policy in the Federal Republic have changed. In western Germany, since the 1970s, more and more apartments have been built in single-family or terraced housing estates. This housing construction was satisfied because of the inexpensive building land offers in the then still rural communities around the big cities. A so-called "urban flight" often led to a reduction in the number of inhabitants in large cities and to rich and large peripheral communities. The importance of large housing estates changed. During this time, the large housing estates gradually became a symbol of inhumane urban development; According to the title of the book by Alexander Mitscherlich , it was lamented: the inhospitable nature of our cities. "In the 1980s, the" western "large housing estates with around 2.5% of the housing stock, albeit in different regional sizes, were noticed as social hotspots in the Federal Republic." () An extensive improvement initiative by the federal government, states, municipalities and housing associations has led to a The demand for housing rose again and the situation calmed down.

While around 1970 each resident still lived in an average of 22 m² of living space, this figure rose to 36 m² by 1991, and by 2007 it was over 40 m².

East Germany

In the GDR, new territorial planning objectives based on the “location distribution of the productive forces” have been implemented since the early 1950s on the basis of a centralized economic system. These should overcome “historically traditional regional” disparities . They existed between the industrialized southern parts of the country and the traditionally agricultural north and east. The industrially manufactured residential construction was thus combined with new residential complexes and areas "on the greenfield " with the establishment of new large companies or the establishment of national defense institutions.

Reconstruction after the Second World War took place slowly in the GDR. The creation of living space in the shortest possible time through the industrialization of construction was the top priority from the mid-1950s onwards with the decision of the building conference of 1955. The inner-city old building areas were thereby neglected. The qualitative requirements should be reduced in favor of overcoming the housing shortage. In contrast to the FRG, the introduction of the large housing estate in the GDR was primarily a politically motivated step. Housing policy in the GDR was linked to the social objective of “creating equal living conditions”. The introduction of a socialist way of life should be reflected in the way of living. The ideal was therefore the socialist small family with working parents and two children in a socialist city . With the large estate, several aspects could be realized at the same time. The need for many apartments has been addressed at the expense of quality. The new ideals of social equality and the concepts of the articulated and relaxed city were realized and social segregation avoided. Large housing estates and larger settlements were built using the industrial panel construction.

"In East Germany, with the general shortage of housing and the neglected old building areas, an apartment in a large housing estate was the" object of desire "because only the apartments in the large estates offered a certain standard such as district heating and hot water."

- Akira Sebastian Proske

From 1960 to 1990 2.2 million apartments were built. Initially, the block construction types were even more differentiated (type: 8 kN, 11 kN). Later building types were made in "strip construction" and in "plate" with the model buildings 35 kN type, 50 kN type, types P and QP. From 1971 onwards, a more variable type solution was created with the WBS 70 series of residential buildings , but it was implemented nationwide and less differentiated as a panel. The typical WBS-70 apartment was geared towards the socialist nuclear family and had three rooms, so an apartment had an average of 60 m² of living space. In 1990 the average living space per person in the new federal states was around 25 m²; after reunification this number increased to 34 m² living space per resident in 2000.


In England or France, independent cities ("New Towns" or "Villes Nouvelles") with up to 200,000 inhabitants, e. B. Milton Keynes .

Number and locations


The Gropiusstadt in Berlin

There are differing data on the number of large housing estates in eastern Germany with more than 2500 residential units (WE). According to the IRS , there were 147 large housing estates with 1,001,085 units in the new federal states in 1991. In 1998 the Federal Ministry of Construction ( BMBau ) corrected this number upwards to 169 large housing estates with 1,118,745 units. There were another 440 (IRS) and 517 (BMBau) larger new housing estates with 500 to 2,500 units per settlement with a total of 487,679 units and 578,099 units, respectively. According to Müller / Rietdorf, 95 of the 240 settlements with over 2500 residential units are now in the old federal states and 144 in the new.

According to Rietdorf / Liebmann, there are 386 post-war settlements with at least 1000 residential units in eastern Germany . No comparable figures can yet be found for western Germany .

While in the new federal states almost every fourth resident lives in a large housing estate, the importance in the old federal states is far less. Only every 60th inhabitant in West Germany lives in a settlement with more than 2500 residential units.

city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Freiburg in Breisgau Sewage field 3,400 9,000
Freiburg in Breisgau Vineyard 4,800 10,000
Freiburg in Breisgau Land water 3,300 7,000
Heidelberg Emmertsgrund-North 1,700 4,200
Karlsruhe Oberreut 4.231 9,956
Karlsruhe Waldstadt
Mannheim Bird rod 5,500 13,545
Mannheim Herzogenried
Stuttgart Asem Forest 1,137 1,800
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
gain Bruck 3,250
gain Büchenbach-North 2,900
Munich Neuperlach 24,000 55,000
Munich Hasenbergl
Nuremberg Long water 16,250 31,000
Nuremberg Röthenbach near Schweinau 3,200
Nuremberg Reichelsdorf-Einsteinring
Schweinfurt Bergl 9,100
Wurzburg Hypocritical court 9,900
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Berlin Hellersdorf 42,200 79,000
Berlin several settlements in the Lichtenberg district 48,000
Berlin Marzahn 58,200 110,000
Berlin Gropiusstadt 18,500 37,000
Berlin Hansaviertel 2,600
Berlin Märkisches Viertel 17,000 39,000
Berlin Thermometer settlement 4,500
Berlin Falkenhagener Feld 30,000
Berlin Obstalleesiedlung and Rudolf-Wissel-Siedlung in the Heerstraße Nord construction area 8,000
Berlin Marienfelde 3,636
Berlin Greifswalder Strasse residential complex 3,200 10,000
Berlin High-deck settlement 2,500 6,000
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
cottbus New Schmellwitz
cottbus Sachsendorf / Madlow
cottbus Sandow
cottbus Stroebitz
Eisenhüttenstadt WK I-IV 6,997
Frankfurt (Oder) New Beresinchen 8,305
Guben WW IV 4.158
Schwedt / Oder WK I - V Center / New Age 10,500
Schwedt / Oder WW VI valley sand 2,757
Schwedt / Oder WW VIII Kastanienallee 1,950
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Bremen Lüssum-Bockhorn 2,500
Bremen Tenever 4,600 10,018
Bremen Soden matt 3,192 6,911
Bremen Vahr 11,800 27.091
Bremerhaven Green yards 3,413
Bremerhaven Leherheide -West 3,700 8,000
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Hamburg Kirchdorf-Süd 2,450 6,200
Hamburg Lohbrugge-Nord 6,000
Hamburg Lokstedt Lenzsiedlung 1,130 3,000
Hamburg Mümmelmannsberg 7,300
Hamburg Neuallermöhe 3,800
Hamburg Neuwiedenthal 13,500
Hamburg Osdorfer Born 3,949
Hamburg Steep shoop 8,631
Hamburg Tegelsbarg
Hamburg Jenfeld-East
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Darmstadt Kranichstein 3,500 11,833
Darmstadt Eberstadt-South 3,089
Dietzenbach Spessart district 1,019 3,280
Frankfurt am Main Ben-Gurion-Ring settlement in Bonames and Nieder-Eschbach 1,700
Frankfurt am Main Frankfurter Berg settlement 2,000
Frankfurt am Main Adolf Miersch settlement and (settlement in the Mainfeld) in Niederrad
Frankfurt am Main Northwest town 7,000 20,000
Frankfurt am Main Seckbach (Atzelberg) 1,000
Frankfurt am Main Unterliederbach-Ost 1,000
Fulda Aschenberg 2,500
to water Giessen-West
Hanau Kesselstadt ( Weststadt )
kassel Brueckenhof
Marburg Richtsberg 9,000
Offenbach am Main Beaver West
Offenbach am Main Lauterborn
Rüsselsheim am Main Rüsselsheim am Main (Dicker Busch II) 2,000 7,000
Schwalbach am Taunus Limes city 3,000
Wiesbaden Wiesbaden (Schelmengraben) 2,500
Wiesbaden Klarenthal 10,530
Wiesbaden Wiesbaden (Parkfeld)
Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Greifswald Schönwalde I + II 9,992
Neubrandenburg Datzeberg 3,474 10,000
Neubrandenburg East town 8,700 14,000
Rostock Evershagen 8,732 16,293
Rostock Toitenwinkel 6,549 16,500
Rostock Lütten Klein 10,531 16,643
Rostock Lichtenhagen 6,925
Schwerin (1990) Dreesch I to III 20,700 57,500
Schwerin (2010) I: Big Dreesch 5,080 7,999
Schwerin (2010) II: New Zippendorf 3,781 5,452
Schwerin (2010) III: Must wood 8,157 9,774
Lower Saxony
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Braunschweig West town 12,000 23,000
Goettingen Grone-South
Goettingen Holtenser mountain
Goettingen Leineberg
Hanover Vahrenheide-Ost 2,800
Hanover Roderbruch
Hanover Ihme Center 800 2,800
North Rhine-Westphalia
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Bielefeld Sennestadt
Bochum Querenburg - Hustadt
Bonn Fir bush
Bonn Medinghoven
Dorsten Wulfen - Barkenberg (also " New City Wulfen ") 4,000
Dortmund Scharnhorst-Ost 5,400
Dortmund Hörde ( Clarenberg ) 3,200 12,237
Dortmund Wickede (Meylantstrasse settlement) 1,400
Dusseldorf Garath 8,800 18,500
Dusseldorf Hassels-Nord (Potsdamer Strasse) 1,000 4,700
Duisburg Hochheide ( Hochheide residential park ) 1,500 6,000
eat Freisenbruch-South 2,060
eat Freisenbruch-Ost (Bergmannsfeld settlement) 1,710
eat Hörsterfeld 2,500
eat Isinger field 1,140
Gelsenkirchen Bulmke-Hüllen (Tossehof settlement) 1,345
Cologne Chorweiler 20,000
Cologne Finkenberg 6,483
Cologne Meschenich ( on the Kölnberg ) 1,318
Cologne Junkersdorf (Vienna Way)
Muenster Children's home 6,000
Ratingen Ratingen-West 18,000
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Ludwigshafen am Rhein Pentecostal willow 5,000
Ludwigshafen am Rhein Oggersheim-West 9,500
Mainz Finthen-Nord (Römerquelle settlement)

city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Chemnitz Fritz Heckert area 31,306 43,000
Dresden Gorbitz 20,130
Dresden Prohlis 13,808
Hoyerswerda Station forecourt, western edge development, Elsterbogen
and Neustadt (residential complex IX)
18,703 30.302
Leipzig Grünau (1976–1988) 38,545 49,400
Leipzig Loessnig (1971–1975) 10,680
Leipzig Paunsdorf (1987–1991) 6,290 12,405
Leipzig Schönefeld (1974–1976) 5,460 9,259
Leipzig Mockau -Ost (1970s) 2,340 3,958
Leipzig Mockau-West (1970s) 1,810 4,021
Leipzig Möckern (1961–1964) 2,900 4,582
Leipzig October 18th Street (1970s) 2,560 6,662
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Halle (Saale) Halle-Neustadt 40,550 48,931
Halle (Saale) Halle-Silberhöhe 11,680 14,000
Magdeburg New Olvenstedt 18,878 11,741
Bitterfeld-Wolfen Wolfen-Nord 13,559 11,782
Stendal City lake 9,890

The population figures are from 2007 and 2008.

city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Flensburg Musicians' quarter 1,280 2,900
Kiel Mettenhof 8,000 18,630
Lübeck Colorful cow
Elmshorn Grove
Itzehoe Albert Schweitzer Ring
Heath (Holstein) Berlin street
city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Eisenach North 3750 12,000
Erfurt North 16,374 25,083
Erfurt Southeast 13,822 23,549
Erfurt Johannesplatz 3,467 5,223
Gera Lusan 15,000 23,478
Gera Bieblach-Ost 13,451
Jena Neulobeda 10,000 21,370
Jena Winzerla 11,088
Leinefelde Südstadt 4,700
Suhl Friedberg
Suhl Ilmenauer Strasse
Suhl North
Weimar Weimar-West 3,660 5,500
Weimar Weimar-North 2,600 5,400

Most of the population is from 2007 and 2008.


The driving force behind the construction of large housing estates in Sweden was the million dollar program that promoted social housing from 1965 to 1975.

city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Malmo Rosengård 22,262 (2008)


city settlement approx. number of WE approx. number of inhabitants
Naples Scampia 37,572 (2009)

Social developments


There are a number of studies in the literature that deal with large housing estates. There is little precise data on the social problems, on the image or on undesirable developments.

“High-rise estates are not necessarily popular: those who live in the better neighborhoods usually don't know anyone in the Platte. And vice versa. The hastily planned neighborhoods in the sixties are not even interesting as social hot spots, because poverty, unemployment and alcoholism do not generate ratings. Large housing estates are also burdened with a general prejudice: somehow ugly, somehow dangerous, somehow anti-social. Although in the Märkisches Viertel (Berlin) , built between 1963 and 1974 and inhabited by around 40,000 people, the crime rate is in the middle range in comparison to Berlin. "

- Lau

Part of the bad reputation of large housing estates seems to lie in their stark contrast to the ideal of the single-family house with a garden. Bad characteristics are ascribed to the new development areas, which lead to discrimination in terms of the type of housing and the residents.

The current discussion about large housing estates focuses on East German settlements, while in the old federal states and in western foreign countries the investigating studies tend to focus on disadvantaged urban districts.

Social problems

Housing discrimination is a process commonly referred to as “social stigmatization ”. According to Rietdorf and Liebmann, this stigmatization can lead to actual social problems, namely when higher earners move away in the so-called “filtering down” process through stigmatization (“push” factor) and the promotion of new buildings on the outskirts (“pull” factor). This loss of social mix can lead to undifferentiated rental prices and the relocation of tenants who are dependent on subsidies. A concentration of “socially unadjusted” turns a quarter into an actual social hot spot. In principle, the stabilizing effect of the […] mixture of social classes is lost.

"To reduce this image problem to the fact that large housing estates ... are systematically" badly talked about "would mean insufficiently considering the social reorientation and reorientation of people and denying the existing deficits and problems"

- Institute of Sociology

For many of the settlements that were built in East Germany, there are also high unemployment and high vacancy rates as problems . In addition, the buildings no longer meet the contemporary demands on an apartment and the housing needs. The offer is not particularly differentiated due to the uniformity.

“The more one-sided a large housing estate is linked to a monostructural economic development, the larger the proportion of apartments in the large housing estates of a city in the total housing stock of the city concerned and the less the urban and socio-structural integration of the large estates is, the more complicated and difficult their mediums are likely to be - and be long-term development perspective. "

- Rietdorf

Not only the departure of higher earners, but also the social decline of the residents can lead to the ( image ) problems described.

Due to the emigration of the population, the situation worsened in the east German housing estates. An increasing vacancy rate - on average z. B. in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania at 10 to 11% and in Saxony at 17 to 18% - was recorded. In some parts of the city the vacancy rate was 25 to 40%. However, the large housing estates still have relatively cheap rents. The social structure has stabilized through the urban development programs introduced in 1993 to improve the living environment and, since 1998, by urban redevelopment . While in some inner-city renovated old building areas increasingly higher vacancies were recorded, vacancies in the prefabricated buildings slowly decreased due to the demolition and upgrading measures. This development is far from over in 2007. The growing popularity of the inner-city districts of old buildings can be seen in most of the East German cities through a stabilization or often even a growing number of inhabitants with the associated decreasing vacancy rate.

Bad reputation?

Part of the bad reputation of large housing estates is based on poor information. When the media report on these districts, it is often to serve clichés, and when newsworthy events happen, it is mostly negative news - such as the arson attack by neo-Nazis in Rostock-Lichtenhagen in August 1992 - which contribute to the poor reputation of the settlements.

Studies in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in 1998 showed that the proportion of households satisfied with their housing situation in the areas examined is 80 percent . According to these investigations, the subjective feeling of living and the assessment of the area was such that 97% of those moving out viewed the move as an improvement , but three quarters of those moving in shared this assessment .

The main problem, apparently, is actually one of marketing and image. If one wants to develop large housing estates into livable districts again, one has to fight against the common prejudices. Of course, that alone is not enough, but through qualitative urban redevelopment, the objective deficiencies of the apartments, the living environment, the district and its regional integration must be improved. There are also measures such as neighborhood management and general considerations such as the social city .

If a district has actually become a social hotspot, other measures need to be taken. Here you can learn from the experiences in France . There are the so-called “ grand ensembles ” districts, which are not unlike the prefabricated housing estates. The residents are mainly North African immigrants. Since the 1980s, there has been above-average unemployment, a comparatively low level of education, a large number of school dropouts, a high proportion of drug addicts and increasing crime, especially among young people.

Further developments

A general decrease in population is expected, which will affect the large housing estates in particular. Different models of further urban development are discussed.

  • A contraction of the city gives peripheral urban areas back to nature.
  • Unused areas are being rededicated in the city, i.e. used differently.
  • Increasing decentralization leads to a suburban urban structure with decentralized concentration.

Different possible directions of development of the large housing estates are emerging:

  • They are an integral part of the city and offer affordable housing for the lower and middle classes.
  • They are located on the outskirts of the city and serve too much to accommodate “social problem groups”. This development should be avoided.
  • They are no longer required in whole or in part and they are being dismantled and converted.


In Germany, the federal and state governments have set up funding programs to improve the living environment. In 2009, the Federal Ministry of Construction also announced the energetic refurbishment of large housing estates competition based on integrated urban development concepts.

Urban redevelopment "East"

From 1991 to 2007 there was a dramatic loss of population in the new federal states due to emigration and an increasing natural population development. This population decline continues. The number of households, however, is still increasing. There will be more single and small family households. The old towns are more attractive again and single-family and row house settlements are still emerging. The losers in this development are the large housing estates, especially those on the outskirts. The already high vacancy rate is increasing. In 1996, the Pestel Institute for Systems Research demanded in a very provocative manner that one million apartments in East Germany's flat housing estates would inevitably have to be demolished. The Federal Building Ministry and the Federal Association of German Housing Companies recognized the need to demolish vacant apartments, but not to this extent. A funding program for the demolition of around 300,000 apartments was launched in 2000 by the federal government and the eastern states. The focus of this program for urban redevelopment in the east is to be the upgrading of the large housing estates. They should become an integral part of a city and offer affordable housing for a lower middle class. Typical factory estates and city quarters or parts of city quarters that are difficult to integrate should definitely be demolished. In Eisenhüttenstadt , Guben , Hoyerswerda , Schwedt / Oder , Stendal , Weißwasser or Wolfen , for example , extensive demolition has already been carried out in large housing estates.

Since 1993, the East German states have been promoting the improvement of the living environment in large housing estates with federal aid. The urban redevelopment through upgrading and demolition is to develop the large housing estates into livable, stabilized, integrated and functionally mixed districts and have the following priorities:

  • The living environment (entrances, courtyards, squares, green spaces) is improved.
  • The social and cultural infrastructure is expanded.
  • The vacancy will be eliminated by demolition and demolition.
  • Unused areas are either re-used (commercial, terraced house areas) or redesigned to natural spaces in the sense of a functional mix.
  • The apartments will continue to be modernized in line with contemporary requirements.
  • The transport infrastructure (parking spaces, cycle paths, residential streets) will be adapted and local public transport expanded.
  • The technical infrastructure is being adapted.
  • The image and marketing of the districts are strengthened through public relations.
  • District managers or district coordinators support the unity of the actors (residents, landlords, businesses, cities, planners) and social interaction.
  • Integrated district development concepts (ISEK) combine all individual specialist plans into one unit with a model and network the entire region in terms of planning.

Urban redevelopment "West"

In the old federal states, there was even a slight increase in population due to emigration from the new federal states. Only in structurally weak areas or cities (including northern Germany and the Ruhr area) was there a development comparable to that of the eastern states. A federal funding program for urban redevelopment west has initiated measures to improve the large housing estates in eleven pilot projects since 2002.

The urban redevelopment west , like the urban redevelopment east described above, is to be continued by a general program in the west, whereby the regional differences (north / south) represent a difficulty in the distribution of funds (state egoism). A larger population decrease due to the natural population development from 2015 to 2020 will exacerbate the situation of large housing estates, especially in structurally weak cities.


Since the mid-1970s, the French state has been running various programs such as “Housing and social life”, “From residential area to urban development” and “Social-urban development program”. In order to get the state subsidies, the cities have to conclude contracts with the state which oblige them to take measures for vocational training, job creation and support of the local economy over their five-year term.

Although these problems are not directly transferrable to possible future problem escalations in Germany, they are definitely interesting because they

  • go beyond structural and urban planning issues from the start,
  • always take up social and economic problems in an integrated manner and
  • each deal with the specific situations in the regions and municipalities concerned.

Environmental aspects

From the point of view of environmental and climate protection , the large housing estates are superior to other types of construction in some aspects. Their space consumption per resident is lower than that of other types of construction. Due to the loosened, green construction and a high number of floors, the soil sealing is also rather low. In addition, large housing estates can be refurbished energetically with comparatively little effort , as they have only a few outer walls and roof areas and the same building plans or parts can be used multiple times thanks to standardized construction forms. With district heating systems, they can be supplied with heat easily and inexpensively, and low storey heights reduce the energy consumption for heating a room. As a result, given the corresponding renovation status, a good energy balance and low costs for the tenants are achieved.

To develop a large housing estate, less infrastructure is required per resident (cables for electricity, telephone, water or road land) than for a residential estate. As a rule, such settlements are well integrated into the public transport network, so that it is easier not to use a car. Owing to the high population density, the distances to basic services (supermarkets, doctors, services close to home) are usually short and older people can also walk. The presence of elevators and ramps means that barrier-free living can be achieved earlier than in most other designs.


  • Arno Balzer (Ed.): Be smart, stay in the prefabricated building (August 28, 2004, 3:10 pm)
  • Gesine Bär et al. (Ed.): In search of the big city - models and counterparts from Berlin and Stockholm . Berlin-Verlag, Berlin 2002.
  • Franziska Bollerey, Gerhard Fehl, Kristiana Hartmann (eds.): Living in the green - planning in the blue. Hans-Christians-Verlag, Hamburg 1990.
  • Jascha Philipp Braun: Large housing estate in divided Berlin. The Märkisches Viertel and Marzahn as examples of late modern urban planning . Koethen 2019.
  • Federal Minister for Building, Regional Planning and Urban Development (Ed.): The housing stock in large housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany . Bonn-Bad Godesberg 1986.
  • Federal Ministry for Regional Planning, Building and Urban Development: Large Settlement Report 1994 . Bonn.
  • Federal Ministry for Spatial Planning, Building and Urban Development: Urban development of large new building areas in the five new federal states and Berlin East . Bonn 1994, 1996 and 1996 (goals and results) .
  • Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing: Urban Redevelopment East , Bonn 2002; Urban redevelopment west , Bonn 2003.
  • Robert Burmeister: 25 years of Mettenhof . Town hall printing, Kiel 1990.
  • Forum Building Land Management NRW (Ed.): Land value issues in urban redevelopment . Dortmund 2007.
  • Hartmut Häußermann and Walter Siebel: Sociology of living. Juventa-Verlag, Weilheim / Munich 1996.
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  • IRS Berlin and Institute for Sociology at the University of Rostock (Kirchhoff, Kirk, Beer, Gerdes, Knorr-Siedow): prefabricated housing estates in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Perspectives and Problems of Social Development , Ed .: Ministry for Building, State Development and Environment Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Schwerin 1998.
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  • Peter Lau: The pride of the loser. In: brand eins brand eins Verlag, Hamburg 2004.
  • Heike Liebmann, Werner Rietdorf: Large housing estates in East Central Europe between yesterday and tomorrow . In: Europa Regional Nr. 2, Institute for Regional Geography, Leipzig 2001.
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Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Federal Minister for Building, Regional Planning and Urban Development (Ed.): The housing stock in large housing estates in the Federal Republic of Germany. Bonn / Bad Godesberg, 1986, p. 10 ff.
  2. Bollerey, Fehl, Hartmann, 1990, p. 33.
  3. ^ Hoffman, 2004
  4. a b Rietdorf / Liebmann, 1998, p. 178.
  5. Alexander Mitscherlich : The inhospitableness of our cities. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt a. M. 1965.
  6. Gibbins 1988 BMBau 1990
  7. Akira Sebastian Proske, prospective graduate geographer on a remarkable homework
  8. Institute for Regional Development and Structural Planning –IRS; Karl-Dieter Keim: Urban development development of the new building areas in the new federal states, more precise location overview ; 1993
  9. ^ Müller / Rietdorf, 2000, p. 57.
  10. Rietdorf / Liebmann, 1998, p. 177.
  11. ^ Report of the Federal Ministry for Regional Planning, Building and Urban Development, 1994.
  12. 2009; WE = households; Source: Online statistics of the city of Freiburg ( Memento from July 8, 2012 in the web archive )
  13. Living with foresight - large housing estates as an opportunity. (PDF) In: Retrieved June 22, 2016 .
  14. Social model put to the test - In: Retrieved June 22, 2016 .
  15. million program expires. In: Retrieved June 22, 2016 .
  16. Malmö stad: Rosengård. Facta om stadsdelen Rosengård ( Memento from January 4, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  17. Comune di Napoli: Bollettino di Statistica - 2009 (Italian), p. 57.
  18. Lau, 2004, p. 130.
  19. a b cf. Rietdorf / Liebmann, 1998, p. 183.
  20. Häußermann / Siebel, 1996, p. 155.
  21. IRS and Institute for Sociology at the University of Rostock: prefabricated housing estates in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; Perspectives and problems of social development. Schwerin 1998, p. 148.
  22. ^ Rietdorf / Liebmann, 1998, p. 180.
  23. IRS and Uni Rostock, 1998, p. 69.
  24. IRS and Uni Rostock, 1998, p. 119.
  25. a b cf. Rietdorf / Liebmann, 1998
  26. ^ Christine Hannemann: New building areas in GDR cities and their change. 1997, p. 244.
  27. ^ Rietdorf / Liebmann, 1998, p. 184.