Grünau [ ɡʁyˈnaʊ̯ ] is a large housing estate planned in the 1970s and 80s in the west of Leipzig and, together with the older garden settlements Grünau and Kirschbergsiedlung ( Grünau settlement ) and the localities Lausen and Miltitz, incorporated in 1995 and 1999, respectively, form the city district West. Grünau is described by the city as the youngest and, with around 45,000 inhabitants, the largest district of Leipzig.
The Großwohnsiedlung Grünau ranks next to Berlin-Marzahn and Halle-Neustadt among the largest prefabricated housing estates of the former GDR and represents the largest such housing estate in Saxony . It consists of eight residential complexes with large apartment blocks of the housing series (WBS) 70 . Despite a good infrastructure, the population of Grünau shrank rapidly after 1990. The district lost more than half of its inhabitants by 2010, and thousands of apartments were demolished. At the same time, there is a negative trend in the age and social structure due to increasing aging and the settlement of low-income householdsthis residential area. Since 2010 the population has been slowly increasing again.
|Residential complex||start of building||Apartments||Inhabitants
The city district West, which consists for the most part of the large housing estate Grünau, is divided into the districts Grünau-Ost (residential complexes 1 to 3), Grünau-Mitte (residential complexes 4 and 5.2), Schönau (residential complex 5.1), Grünau-Nord ( Residential complex 7) and Lausen-Grünau (residential complex 8). These districts are characterized by exclusive prefabricated buildings. The district of West also includes the district of Grünau-Siedlung with allotments and the district of Miltitz with village buildings.
Grünau is considered in the residential complexes in which the settlement was planned and built, especially in connection with urban planning aspects and development concepts; this takes into account the different characteristics in terms of population, development and infrastructure. The residential complexes 1 to 4 and 5.1 were planned to be much more spacious and less compact. This means that long-term security as a core area in the development programs is planned for these parts of Grünau and, associated with this, further upgrading of the areas.
The residential complexes 5.2, 7 and 8, which were built from 1981, are intended as urban redevelopment belts. At more than 25 percent, these parts have the highest vacancy rates in all of Leipzig. The dismantling measures should therefore also be concentrated in these areas . At the same time, the stabilization cores , i.e. redeveloped areas within the urban redevelopment belt, are to be preserved and further upgraded by demolishing unrenovated building fabric. The supply by doctors and pharmacies should also be maintained here in order to meet the increasing demand from the aging population.
The name of today's Großwohnsiedlung Grünau does not come from an older village that was at this point, but from a garden settlement belonging to Kleinzschocher on the southern edge of the new development that was laid out in the 1920s . At the beginning of the 20th century was located here, near the former -Pörsten Plagwitz railway line , part of the agricultural land of the Vorwerkes Lausen .
The planning for the construction of a large housing estate in the west of Leipzig began in the early 1970s. With a planned 36,000 apartments, in which a maximum of 100,000 people should live, Grünau was the largest contiguous new housing estate in the German-speaking region at the start of planning (→ prefabricated buildings in Leipzig ). Berlin-Hellersdorf and Berlin-Marzahn followed later, Halle-Neustadt was enlarged from originally 70,000 inhabitants to around 115,000. The overall urban planning, the functional and spatial design idea for the new "Grünau" estate was created by Leipzig architects and engineers under the direction of Horst Siegel . It took into account aspects of urban planning , traffic and urban engineering as well as open spaces and recreational areas .
On June 1, 1976, Lord Mayor Karl-Heinz Müller laid the foundation stone on the northern edge of WK 1. On the occasion of the 10th anniversary a memorial was erected at this point. By the end of the 1980s, eight residential complexes had been built using industrial assembly methods in the districts of Kleinzschocher , Schönau (partly demolished due to overbuilding), Lausen and Großmiltitz . The residential complexes built between 1976 and 1982 were mainly built with 5-storey prefabricated buildings and had a relatively large proportion of green spaces.
The residential complexes that were built in the following years were less expensive. Since the attempt was made to create as much living space as possible in a short period of time, the 6- and 11-storey prefabricated apartment buildings as well as the 16-storey high-rise buildings PH 16 were built . Generous green and open spaces were also dispensed with in these residential complexes and, among other things, savings were made on elevators and intercoms. The construction of new apartments was completed in 1988.
|Development of the population of the Grünau district|
After its completion at the end of the 1980s, Grünau had over 85,000 inhabitants, which was the all-time high. This corresponded to the dimensions of a larger medium-sized town . After 1990 the number of inhabitants decreased continuously and in 2008 was only half. While the population decline was initially mainly due to emigration, demographic development is now mainly responsible for the decline.
Between 2001 and 2010 around 6,800 apartments were demolished as part of the “Urban Redevelopment East” program . The blocks that were preserved were renovated from 2003. Grünau has been a support area of the “ Socially Integrative City ” program since 2005 . Since around 2014, the district has benefited somewhat from increased migration as a result of the overall strong population increase in the city of Leipzig. This trend could continue. The city expects a further increase to over 52,000 residents by 2030.
There was a barracks within Grünau until the Soviet troops withdrew after the fall of the Wall . It was built in the days of the Reichswehr and was then used by the Wehrmacht . On September 24, 1982 there was a chain reaction in the barracks with exploding ammunition, several schools were evacuated. After 1990, a residential, commercial and leisure area was built on the former barracks site, the Schönauer Viertel , on which single-family houses and a shopping center were built.
In 2020 the first residential high-rise in Grünau after the fall of the Wall was completed on behalf of the Lipsia housing association, it has 13 floors.
Grünau is also called the city within the city because, as a satellite city , despite its dependence on the city of Leipzig, it has largely independent infrastructure. There are a total of 21 general education schools , including the Max-Klinger-Schule high school , 17 sports halls, 18 day-care centers, six retirement and nursing homes, 81 resident doctors, 32 dentists and 14 pharmacies.
After 1990, shopping and leisure opportunities also improved. The PEP shopping center opened in 1995, the Allee Center in 1996, and next to it a multiplex cinema with eight halls, today's Cineplex Leipzig. There are also 321 retail stores in Grünau. The Grünauer Welle leisure pool (with lap pool), which also opened in the 1990s, and the Kulkwitzer See lake , which has been approved as a local recreation area since 1973, provide local recreation for the residents. The artificial climbing rock K4 , the largest outdoor climbing facility in Leipzig , has existed in Grünau since 2001 . Regarding the cultural and leisure offer, the district is considered to be infrastructurally undersupplied despite "selective offers". The center of Grünau is formed by the area around Lützner Strasse and Stuttgarter Allee. (Status of all information 2004)
There are also three churches in Grünau , the Evangelical Lutheran Pauluskirche (completed in 1983, with the old Schönau village church from the 15th century as a branch) and the Catholic St. Martin Church (completed in 1985). Both buildings were built at the instigation of the congregations, who previously met in apartments, and with financial support from West German churches.
When planning Grünau, consideration was given to a good connection between Grünau and Leipzig city center as well as serving the “inner-city” transport needs. As a result, Grünau now has a good transport infrastructure. An S- Bahn line runs from Leipzig-Plagwitz station in a westerly direction, with four boarding points within Grünau.
The S1 that runs here runs every 30 minutes from Miltitzer Allee via Plagwitz, Lindenau, Leutzsch, Möckern, Gohlis and the City Tunnel to Stötteritz. Operations here were suspended from May 2011 to December 2013 for financial reasons. Since the new Central German S-Bahn network went into operation, Bombardier Talent 2 railcars have been used instead of the double-decker push-pull trains previously used. As soon as the new construction of the river bridges between Möckern and Leutzsch has been completed, enough lines will be free for the S1 to be compressed to a 15-minute cycle. In the long term, the construction of a new connection line north of Kulkwitzer See to the Leipzig – Großkorbetha line in the direction of Markranstädt is also planned, which would also enable the S-Bahn line to continue via Großkorbetha on the Halle – Bebra line to Weißenfels or Merseburg .
Tram lines 1 (Lausen terminal) and 2 (Grünau-Süd terminal) as well as 8 (Grünau-Nord terminal) and 15 (Miltitz terminal) also end in Grünau. Each of these lines is served every working day at 10-minute intervals (on Sundays 15-minute intervals), so that both Ratzel and Lützner Strasse in the eastern section run every 5 minutes (Sundays 7.5 minutes Clock). Before the new LVB network came into effect in October 2010, lines 2 and 8 also ran to Lausen and Miltitz. With this reduction, the population development should be taken into account. Almost all of the trams have their own track and most of the stops are barrier-free.
With the bus line 65, as the most important line in the west of Leipzig, Grünau is connected every 10 minutes with the cities of Markranstädt and the Großzschocher district as well as with the Cospudener See and Markkleeberg every 20 minutes . In addition, the bus routes 61, 62, 66 and 161 open up the district and connect Grünau with the surrounding districts and suburbs. In March 2011 the district bus line 66 Grünolino was set up, which makes a loop ride through Grünau every hour. It opens up many important facilities, shopping opportunities and residential areas. The start and end point is the Allee-Center, which is one of the sponsors who take over part of the operating costs.
The most important streets are Lützner Straße and Kiewer Straße, which form part of federal highway 87 . Lützner Straße is also the inner city feeder for traffic coming from the west. Ratzelstrasse, which touches Grünau to the south and also leads to the city center via Brünner Strasse, is also of great importance. In the north-south direction, the district continues to be crossed by Schönauer Strasse, which runs towards Großzschocher . Most of the streets in Grünau are in the residential areas and have no traffic significance or they are pedestrian zones.
Grünau has suffered from a serious population decline since the fall of the Wall . Since 1990 the district has shrunk from 85,000 inhabitants to under 41,000 inhabitants in 2010, which corresponds to a decrease of 52 percent. With large-scale renovation measures on the building fabric (around 60 percent (2007) ) and investments in the design of green and open spaces as well as in an infrastructure adapted to the population development, the negative trend has been weakened since 2000. Since about 2010 the population has increased again slightly.
In order to counter the dwindling population, the first demolition measures began in 2002. By 2007 about 5,600 apartments had disappeared; nevertheless, the vacancy rate remained at a high level at around 20 percent. The 16-storey high-rise buildings PH 16 , which were among the most characteristic buildings in Grünau, have visibly disappeared within the last few years as part of the “Stadtumbau Ost” - demolition . They had suffered most from the population decline in Grünau, which was particularly severe between 1994 and 2004. In the last few months before their demolition, the majority of the unrenovated PH 16s were 70 to 80 percent empty.
The shrinking of Grünau is mainly due to demographic change , the proportion of children was comparatively low at times, the proportion of people over 50 is above average. The average age in 2015 was over 48 years and thus around five years above the Leipzig average. The reason for the rapid aging lies on the one hand in the policy of awarding housing to young families after the apartments have been completed, so that there is a relatively homogeneous age structure that ages with the residential area. On the other hand, the young to middle population (30 to 50 years of age) began to emigrate after 1990, which was accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of children. Due to the age structure in this district, the residents are expected to have a strong bond with Grünau and a low fluctuation , especially in the older residential complexes, which also have a higher average age.
The population gains in recent years can be attributed to positive migration balances. The growth is mainly based on the influx of low-income households. In particular, the proportion of migrants in the district is increasing at an above-average rate. The high average age contrasts with a high proportion of people under 18 years of age. This results in a considerable integrative need, which the City of Leipzig is trying to meet with a district development concept.
|Age structure of the Grünau district compared to the city of Leipzig (as of 2004; in percent)|
0-18 year olds
19-30 year olds
31-40 year olds
41-50 year olds
51-60 year olds
61-70 year olds
In contrast to the proportion of under 18-year-olds, whose proportion roughly corresponds to that of the city of Leipzig, residents between the ages of 19 and 40 are strongly underrepresented in Grünau compared to the city of Leipzig. Since this is the age at which the family started, the current child deficit will not be met. Accordingly, the older age groups, especially those in retirement or shortly before retirement age, are overrepresented in Grünau, so that the proportion of senior citizens and the very old will continue to increase in the future. The age structure differs significantly between the Grünau residential complexes: WK 4 with 39.4% and WK 7 with 38.8% have a significantly above average proportion of children and young people and an average age that is only slightly above the Leipzig average. In contrast, residential complexes 2 and 3 in the eastern area of Grünau, with an average age of 54.3 and 58, are among the residential areas with the oldest population in Leipzig; almost half of the residents there are of retirement age.
The proportion of residents with a migration background has risen sharply since the 2010s: while it was below the value for the city as a whole until 2015, it has been higher since then (2016: 16%). The proportion of migrants is particularly high in the residential complexes 4 (23.3%) and 5.2 (24.5%) in Grünau-Mitte.
(As of 2006)
- Area: approx. 8.7 km²
- Population: 45,200 (1989: 85,000)
- Population density: 7,620 inhabitants / km² (without Grünau settlement and Miltitz)
- Average age: 45.6 years
- Old age rate : 26.7%
- Number of children: 4,285 (1992: 13,382)
- Net household income: € 1,572
- To the east of Grünau is the Robert Koch Park , which has been open to the public since 1984, with the Robert Koch Clinic as a branch of the St. Georg municipal clinic .
- The photographer Harald Kirschner, who lives in Grünau, documented the development of the district between 1981 and 1991 in the illustrated book Vom Heimischbaren - Leipzig-Grünau .
- Grünau in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Grünau on the pages of the city of Leipzig
- Information website My district of the city of Leipzig for Grünau and Lausen
-  : LHASA - Large Housing Areas Stabilization Action: Case study Leipzig-Grünau
- District management Grünau
- Sociology of the prefabricated building - film with Sigrun Kabisch, interval study Leipzig-Grünau
- Guidelines of the sub-plan for large estates - conclusion on the website of the City of Leipzig (accessed on April 23, 2010)
- Environmental Research Center Leipzig-Halle (UFZ): Grünau 2004 - Survey of residents as part of the interval study "Living and Living in Leipzig-Grünau". P. 24, accessed on April 19, 2010 (PDF; 3.4 MB).
- City of Leipzig: Development Strategy Grünau 2020. p. 3, accessed on April 19, 2010 (PDF; 0.9 MB).
- City of Leipzig: Development Strategy Grünau 2020. pp. 8–13, accessed on April 19, 2010 (PDF; 0.9 MB).
- Environmental Research Center Leipzig-Halle (UFZ): Grünau 2004 - Survey of residents as part of the interval study "Living and Living in Leipzig-Grünau". P. 12, accessed on April 19, 2010 (PDF; 3.4 MB).
- Grünau on the website of the City of Leipzig (accessed April 19, 2010)
- City of Leipzig: Development Strategy Grünau 2020. p. 4, accessed on April 19, 2010 (PDF; 0.9 MB).
- Urban renewal focus Leipzig-Grünau on the website of the City of Leipzig (accessed December 20, 2017)
- Environmental Research Center Leipzig-Halle (UFZ): Grünau 2004 - Survey of residents as part of the interval study "Living and Living in Leipzig-Grünau". Pp. 10–11, accessed April 19, 2010 (PDF; 3.4 MB).
- The Schönau barracks. Grün-As, edition 2000/03.
- Environmental Research Center Leipzig-Halle (UFZ): Grünau 2004 - Survey of residents as part of the interval study "Living and Living in Leipzig-Grünau". P. 11, accessed on April 19, 2010 (PDF; 3.4 MB).
- Planning Transport Verkehr AG, Intraplan Consult GmbH and Leipziger Institut für Energie GmbH: Local traffic plan for the local traffic area Leipzig (ZVNL). (PDF) Update, short version. Zweckverband für die Nahverkehrsraum Leipzig (ZVNL), December 8, 2008, accessed on February 10, 2017 .
- S-Bahn to Markranstädt - Miltitzer mayor Walther is annoyed. In: LVZ-Online. November 6, 2014, accessed February 10, 2017 .
- Frank Eritt: connecting curve Markranstädt - Grünau (Kulkwitzer curve). In: Frank Eritt's homepage. July 19, 2015, accessed February 10, 2017 .
- Environmental Research Center Leipzig-Halle (UFZ): Grünau 2004 - Survey of residents as part of the interval study "Living and Living in Leipzig-Grünau". Pp. 27–28, accessed on April 19, 2010 (PDF; 3.4 MB).
- City of Leipzig: Integrated district development concept Leipzig-Grünau 2030. Office for Urban Renewal and Housing Promotion, Leipzig 2018.
- Harald Kirschner: On becoming home - Leipzig-Grünau 1981 to 1991. Halle (Saale) 2015, ISBN 978-3-95462-415-7 ( online )