Supply systems are used
- the energetic supply, e.g. B. with electricity , gas and heat for building heating ,
- the material supply, z. B. with water and gas,
- the disposal of sewage and waste and
- the establishment of communication and data connections.
Which plants are included in this depends on the context.
The term supply technology is not defined in the draft of DIN 4749 or in Part 1 of VDI 4700 . The terms technical building equipment ( TGA ) or building technology or building technology system ( GTA ) are more common, which generally only refer to systems within buildings, but which have a large overlap with supply technology. The terms are sometimes used synonymously.
As an alternative to building the concepts are still technical development and building technology in use, with building services in the strict sense only to installations of plumbing, heating and air conditioning technology applies in the area of residential buildings. In a broader sense, electrical , electromechanical and control systems also belong to building technology.
Areas of supply engineering and abbreviations
In summary, heating , air conditioning and ventilation technology are often referred to as HVAC or HVAC technology , i.e. heating, ventilation and air conditioning technology . In Switzerland in particular, the abbreviation HLKK-Technik is used for heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration technology .
Without refrigeration technology, the collective term WBR is also used as an alternative for heat supply, domestic water heating and ventilation technology . The corresponding international name is HVAC for "Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning ".
If the related area of sanitary engineering is to be explicitly mentioned, the abbreviations SHK -Technik, for sanitary, heating and air conditioning , HLS for heating, ventilation, sanitary or HKLS for heating, air conditioning, ventilation, sanitary are used.
The area of sanitary technology itself is sometimes abbreviated as GWI for gas-water installation or GWA , which stands for gas, water and sewage technology (or gas, water, sewage and fire extinguishing technology ).
RLT stands for air conditioning .
ELT stands for electrical engineering .
FMT is occasionally used for telecommunications technology.
GLT stands for building management technology .
MSR stands for measurement, control and regulation technology .
AFL stands for elevator , conveyor and storage technology .
The supply technology includes:
- Technology for converting energy: e.g. B. power plant or heating ,
- Technology for the transfer of energy and substances: e.g. B. Development of land and buildings , power grid , district heating network , water supply or sewerage ,
- Technology for the provision of energy and materials (e.g. socket , lighting , communication system , air conditioning , radiator or tap )
- Technology for controlling energy and material flows: z. B. Building automation
A classification of the technical supply systems according to cost groups is made in the cost breakdown of DIN 276 "Costs in the building industry" (section cost group 400 building - technical systems and 550 technical systems). The structure of the 2nd level of the 400 KG from DIN 276 is widely used. Thus, the shares HOAI the technical planning of the technical equipment in scope to by asset groups. The Association of German Engineers (VDI) also uses different guidelines structured according to cost groups or refers to them. The structure of the VDI technical building equipment department can also serve as a guideline. However, it is noticeable here that the area of cleanroom technology has its own specialist committee.
In the table below, the individual sub-areas are assigned to the cost groups (KG) of DIN 276 and the system groups (AG) of the HOAI. It should be noted that, according to current comments, the AG of the HOAI also includes the respective associated system parts from KG 550 (until 2018-12: KG 540). This also fits with paragraph 4, §54 of the HOAI, where it says: "The costs for the non-public development and the technical facilities in outdoor facilities are not counted if the contractor does not plan these or does not monitor their execution."
|KG of DIN 276||Ref. DIN 276||AG of the HOAI||Reference of the HOAI||VDI technical committee||comment|
|410||Sewage, water and gas systems||1||Sewage, water and gas systems||Sanitary engineering||-|
|420||Heat supply systems||2||Heat supply systems||Heat engineering / heating technology||s. a .: heating technology|
|430||Air conditioning systems||3||Ventilation systems||Ventilation technology||s. a .: Ventilation technology and air conditioning technology|
|440||Electrical systems||4th||High voltage systems||Electrical engineering and building automation (FA-ELT)||s. a .: VDE|
|450||Communication, security and information technology systems||5||Telecommunication and information technology systems||Electrical engineering and building automation (FA-ELT)||-|
|460||Conveyor systems||6th||Conveyor systems||Elevator technology (FA-AUF)||-|
|470||Usage-specific and process engineering systems||7th||usage-specific systems and process engineering systems||-||-|
|480||Building and plant automation||8th||Building automation and automation of engineering structures||Electrical engineering and building automation (FA-ELT)||-|
|490||Other measures for technical systems||-||-||-||-|
This classification does not take into account technical systems that are functionally directly related to KG 300 systems such as power-operated doors or gates, electromechanical sun protection or RWA systems.
Building technology is not an invention of recent times; the first approaches to technical equipment can be found in the earliest residential buildings / huts. Building technology was already at a high level in antiquity. B. to the water supply in the Roman Empire with the help of aqueducts and pipe systems (lead pipes) or the underfloor heating already operated by the Cretans and Romans by passing flue gases into the chambers below (hypocaust heating) .
Younger contemporary history
The specialist association TGA was founded in the VDI in 1975 . Technical building technology takes up an ever greater share of the effort and cost of buildings. Depending on the type of building, their share in building construction is between 25% and 60% of the total construction costs. In complex construction projects, the building technology is supervised by specialist planners . The object planner (e.g. an architect ) or a project manager only takes on the overall coordination.
In German-speaking countries there are various professions that are related to supply systems. In the academic field, there are a number of professions that develop, manufacture or plan systems. As a rule, due to the complexity of the subject, engineers dealing with supply technology systems only cover technical sub-areas of supply technology during their professional activity.
The situation is similar with the dual vocational training supply engineering: draftsmen , systems mechanics for sanitary, heating and air conditioning systems and plumbing (Switzerland: plumber ). In Austria, installation and building technology is a modular apprenticeship. In the area of elevator technology there is currently (2016) neither a training occupation nor a course of study in Germany.
Through advanced training , people in the field of supply technology can become technicians , for example technicians for heating, ventilation and air conditioning technology .
In Germany, supply engineering is offered as an independent degree program at various universities of applied sciences. The field of study usually covers large parts of supply technology, but without being able to deepen all sub-areas within the framework of the training. In the GDR, the relevant course was usually called Technical Building Equipment . At some (technical) universities, supply engineering is offered as a subject as part of process engineering or mechanical engineering studies.
Before the start of the Bologna Process , the academic degree " Dipl.-Ing. (FH)" was awarded after graduation . In the Bologna process, most of the universities of applied sciences have switched their courses to the internationally widespread system with the degree " Bachelor of Engineering " and the postgraduate degree to the " Master of Engineering ".
At the universities, the departments are often divided into specializations or subject areas. The most widespread subject is likely to be technical building equipment. In addition, there are z. B. Energy and environmental technology, disposal technology and facility management .
Colleges and universities that offer the supply engineering course are z. B .:
- Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin (Building and Energy Technology (Bachelor), Building Technology and Energy Management (Master))
- University of Applied Sciences Berlin (Facility Management (Bachelor), Building Energy and Information Technology (Bachelor / Master))
- Technical University of Berlin (Degree in Energy and Process Technology (Bachelor), Building Energy Systems (Master))
- University of Applied Sciences Bingen (specialization in energy and process technology (Bachelor))
- Biberach University (building climate)
- Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences
- Coburg University (specialization in building technology in the civil engineering course)
- Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences (building system technology: energy-efficient residential and building technology (Bachelor of Engineering))
- University of Applied Sciences Dortmund (specializing in electrical engineering with a specialization in building systems engineering)
- Dresden University of Technology and Economics (mechanical engineering with TGA as a possible main course)
- Technical University of Dresden (advanced module building energy technology in the field of energy technology in the mechanical engineering course)
- University of Applied Sciences Erfurt (Building and Energy Technology (Bachelor / Master))
- University Esslingen
- Westphalian University
- HAWK University of Applied Sciences Hildesheim / Holzminden / Göttingen 
- Technical University of Cologne
- Lausitz University of Applied Sciences
- Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences (major in civil engineering)
- Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Mannheim (field of study supply and energy management  of the mechanical engineering course)
- Technical University of Central Hesse (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Energy and Heat Technology, Energy Systems course with a focus on building systems technology)
- University of Applied Sciences Munich
- Münster University of Applied Sciences ( Department of Energy, Buildings, Environment , Bachelor and Master degree programs)
- Technical University of Nuremberg Georg Simon Ohm
- Offenburg University
- University of Applied Sciences Südwestfalen ( course "Industrial Engineering -Building System Technology" , focus on building system technology , Bachelor of Engineering)
- Trier University of Applied Sciences
- Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences in Wolfenbüttel FH - Energy and Building Technology (Bachelor), Bio and Environmental Technology (Bachelor), Energy and Building Technology in Practice (Bachelor), Energy System Technology (Master), Network Technology and Operation (Master)
- Berufsakademie Sachsen - Staatliche Studienakademie Glauchau (BA Glauchau) ( degree in utility and environmental technology )
- West Saxon University of Applied Sciences Zwickau
- University of Applied Sciences Lübeck (Energy and Building Engineering (Bachelor))
The European Study Academy for Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Ventilation in Frankfurt / Main also offers a Bachelor of Science degree in refrigeration and air conditioning .
There are many technical rules , standards and ordinances that deal with the field of supply technology. The German Institute for Standardization , the VDI and the VdS publish their regulations through Beuth Verlag.
For the area of public administration in Germany, the mechanical and electrical engineering working group of state and municipal administrations (AMEV) issues recommendations on the planning, construction and operation of technical building equipment.
The Bundeswehr makes use of the "Building Guidelines" (BFR), which are created and published by the Federal Building Department.
- Federal Industry Association for Technical Building Equipment
- Federal Association of Energy and Water Management - bdew
- CECED Home Appliances Interoperating Network - CHAIN - A standard for the communication of electrical household appliances of the Convergence Working Group of the European Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers CECED .
- German Gas and Water Association - DVGW
- European Drinking Water - EDW
- Figawa - Federal Association of Companies in the Gas and Water Sector e. V. - Technical-scientific association based in Cologne
- German Water Partnership eV - GWP - Network of around 350 private and public companies from the water sector, as well as professional associations and institutions from business, science and research to improve the framework conditions for the business field abroad, promote innovations and solve water management problems
- Gas and Warmth Institute Essen eV, a research institute founded in 1937
- International Water Association - IWA
- Swiss association for gas and water
- Suissetec - Swiss-Liechtenstein Building Technology Association - industry association for building technology in Switzerland and Liechtenstein
- Central Association for Plumbing, Heating, Air Conditioning / Building and Energy Technology Germany - ZVSHK / GED
- Klaus Daniels: Building Technology, A Guide for Architects and Engineers. vdf, university publisher at the ETH Zurich, 2000, ISBN 3-7281-2727-2 .
- Thomas Laasch, Erhard Laasch: House technology. 13th edition. Springer Vieweg, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-8348-1260-5 .
- Wolfram Pistohl: Handbook of building technology. Volume 1: General, plumbing, electrical, gas. 7th edition. Werner Verlag, Cologne 2009, ISBN 978-3-8041-4684-6 .
- Wolfram Pistohl: Handbook of building technology. Volume 2: heating, ventilation, lighting, energy saving. 7th edition. Werner Verlag, Cologne, ISBN 978-3-8041-4685-3 .
- Edwin Wellpott, Dirk Bohne: Technical extension of buildings. 9., completely redesigned. and updated edition. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-17-018911-5 .
- HLH - "ventilation / air conditioning, heating / sanitation, building technology" (original title heating, ventilation, building technology ), trade journal for technical building equipment, published by the Association of German Engineers
- BTGA - Federal Industry Association for Technical Building Equipment eV
- Baunetz Wissen building technology - online lexicon with specialist knowledge, object examples, dates, addresses, ...
- Knowledge database for building technology - online information service for building technology
- VDI-Gesellschaft Bauen und Gebäudetechnik
- DIN 4749: 2018-05 Terminology
- VDI 4700 Bl. 1: 2015-10 Terms in construction and building technology
- Construction and building technology. VDI, accessed on January 2, 2019 . /
- R. Jochem: HOAI Commentary, Springer, 2016, ISBN 978-3658028312 , pp. 984-995.
- HOAI 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2019 .
- Klaus W. Usemann, Martin Grassnick: Baths and hygienic facilities as evidence of earlier cultures. Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag 1992, ISBN 978-3486262278 .
- VDI 6026 Bl. 1: 2008-05 Documentation in technical building equipment, introduction, p. 2
- Qualification in technical building equipment. VDI, September 2016, accessed on January 2, 2019 .
- Our courses of study - energy systems. Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, accessed on February 12, 2019 .
- All regulations at a glance. Beuth Verlag GmbH, accessed on January 4, 2019 .
- Home. Mechanical and Electrical Engineering Working Group, accessed on January 4, 2019 .
- Guidelines. BMVg and BMI, accessed on January 4, 2019 .