Facility management

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Facilities Management [ fəsɪlɪtɪ ˌmænidʒmənt ] (common abbreviation: FM; alternative spelling facility management or facility management , and property management and facility management ) means the administration and management of buildings and their technical equipment and facilities ( English facilities ). In Great Britain, Australia and Canada the term facility management is common, in the USA originally facilities management . In Germany, this Anglicism was standardized in DIN EN ISO 41011 in April 2019.

Facility management is a separate academic discipline and is offered as a degree program at 22 universities. Buildings, properties and operational processes are viewed holistically in FM. The aim of the coordinated handling of processes is the legally compliant operation of systems and buildings, permanently reducing operating and management costs, making fixed costs more flexible, ensuring the technical availability of systems and maintaining or even increasing the value of buildings and systems in the long term .


In the now withdrawn Part 1 of DIN EN 15221 "Facility Management", central terms on the subject were defined. This is what this standard said on facility management, quote: "Integration of processes within an organization for the provision and development of the agreed services, which serve to support and improve the effectiveness of the main activities of the organization". It also said on facility, quote : "Material asset that supports an organization" DIN EN ISO 41011 defines facility (facility) similarly as, quote: "Collection of assets (3.2.1) that were built, installed or erected to meet the requirements (3.1 .4) To serve a unit (3.7.11) "In this standard, the term facility management is equated with facilities management , FM and building management . It is defined as, quote: "organizational function that integrates people, place and process (3.5.1) within the built environment (3.2.3) for the purpose of enhancing the quality (3.7.1) of people's lives and productivity of the core business (3.1.7). a. the specification has been incorporated by within the built environment .

In summary, it should be noted that in the current German standardization, facility management is understood as a structured service relationship between the core business (organization) and the support processes (provider). So it's not just about the management costs of buildings and facilities, but about the way in which secondary services are provided for the actual core business. In contrast to this, the service providers operating in the facility management market are both real estate-related and non-real estate-related services such as catering , the provision of driving services or vehicle fleets, etc. active. These activities are described in their entirety by DIN EN ISO 41011 as facility services.

Colloquially sometimes the term is Objektbetreuung equated with facility management. This is wrong with regard to the processes described by the HOAI as a scope of services for planners in service phase 9: property management. There is also no indication in the relevant German-language standards and guidelines (see section below) that these two terms are to be equated.

The delimitation of the terms corporate real estate management (CREM) or corporate real estate asset management (CREAM) or operational real estate management from facility management , which are common in English, is controversial in the literature. From the point of view of CREM experts, CREM is understood to mean all real estate-related activities of a company whose core business is not real estate. CREM deals with the economic procurement, management and utilization of the properties of manufacturing, trading and service companies as part of the corporate strategy. The properties serve to carry out and support the core activities. According to this definition, FM is part of CREM, but CREM also includes property management, asset management and real estate strategy. From the point of view of the FM specialists, at least parts of the business management, asset-oriented area of ​​the CREM are also part of the strategic facility management and a separation of the terms is not necessary. The fact is that CREM as a concept was coined later than FM. In 1983, a study by Zeckhauser and Silverman found that an estimated 25 to 40 percent of corporate assets are made up of real estate. Since then, a great deal of literature has developed on the strategic importance of these corporate assets and the term corporate real estate management has been introduced. One theory for developing the separation of the strategic part of workplace management from the operational part is the relatively poor image that FM faced.


In the literature it is often described that the term facility management was first coined in the 1950s by the US airline Pan-American World Services (PAWS). At that time, the goal of FM was to increase productivity in operations management and maintenance. PAWS was a facility management service provider for the US Air Force and is considered the first external facility management company.

The next milestones in FM development are around 30 years younger and speak for corporate facility management as it has established itself today. In 1978, one of the world's largest furniture manufacturers held a conference at a conference that looked at the impact and influence of building-specific factors on a company's productivity. The company hoped to improve the stagnation in sales of its furniture by creating jobs from an ergonomic and work psychological perspective. At that time, such a way of thinking in order to achieve the central corporate goals was completely new. As a result of a decision taken at this conference to found a working group, the Facility Management Institute (FMI) was founded in 1979 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. As a result, science also deals with the topic. A short time later, in 1980, during a seminar at the Facility Management Institute in Ann Arbor, around 40 facility management employees from various companies and public institutions founded the National Facility Management Association NFMA, which later became the International Facility Management Association after other countries were admitted IFMA became.

Facility management was introduced in Europe in the mid-1980s, initially in Great Britain. For this reason, the Association of Facility Managers (AFM) was founded in 1985. Another milestone in the history of facility management was the establishment of a European network in Glasgow in 1990. Outside the USA, Canada and Europe, facility management has also established itself in Australia and Japan.

The goals of the German Facility Management Association (GEFMA), founded in 1989, are to promote facility management activities in Germany, to balance the different views of all those involved in the market and to bundle them in a uniform statement for facility management. The IFMA Germany e. V. as the German national group of IFMA founded in 1996 is similar. After initial difficulties, the two regional associations are now promoting the establishment of facility management in Germany through targeted cooperation. The publication of DIN EN 15221-1 and 15221-2 in 2007 was of decisive importance for the uniform understanding of the term facility management in Germany.

Scope of services

As a secondary process, facility management ensures the long-term preservation or increase of the company's assets in the form of buildings, systems and facilities. In German usage, FM is mainly related to buildings and properties. The term is defined by the scope of services (tasks). The tasks are divided into technical, infrastructural and commercial areas. Examples include the monitoring of technical building services, the organization and commissioning of building services, the preparation of tender documents for renovation and maintenance, and procurement management for all consumer goods from energy to advertising material.

Facility management is a holistic, strategic and life cycle-related management approach to continuously provide facilities, their systems, processes and content, to keep them functional and to adapt them to the changing organizational and market needs. In this way, it optimizes the operation, profitability, use, marketing and maintenance of the value of the entire property and facilities, including all the processes required for this, and thereby achieves a holistic and comprehensive creation, provision and management of real estate, facilities and infrastructure the aim of increasing the yield in the long term, ensuring quality and maintaining value.

Operational facility management

It identifies measures from all the core management tasks of a property and contains the main parts of classic building management. However, it sees the building from a holistic point of view over its entire service life and intended use in coordination with the strategic company orientation.

A distinction must be made between the individual perspectives: the owner's view, who has to guarantee the building's operation, and the user view - all businesses from single households to administration, production to old people's homes. The owner view ES is characterized by all services of property and building management and the user view NS by the organization of all requirements within the framework of facility management around the added value that is carried out in the respective property. If the owner = user, facility management integrates property and building management.

A distinction is made between different areas, tasks and programs.

  • Commercial management ensures the profitability of building operations (ES) and workplace operations (NS) and includes all commercial services taking into account the property economy (ES) and business economy of a company (NS).
  • Technical management includes services that are required to operate and manage the structural, technical systems and facilities of a building (ES) and the provision of the workplace (NS) and their processes.
  • Infrastructural management provides and monitors the needs-based building-related (ES) and value-added support (NS) services.
  • Cross-sectional tasks make their activities available to all core areas such as B. Space management, which organizes the management and use of space and constantly optimizes space in the event of changes in workforce, use, or new construction or renovation measures.

Operator responsibility is an important aspect. It applies to users, the environment, third parties and authorities. The facility manager is responsible for the organization and implementation. The operator's responsibility includes taking protective measures for the operation, environmental protection, the duty to maintain safety and the obligation to provide information to authorities.

Strategic facility management

The orientation of the strategic facility management is derived directly from the respective corporate strategy.

The strategy determines in which business areas a company should be active, how the competition in these business areas is to be contested and what constitutes the long-term basis for success or core competence of the company. While strategy implementation measures have been taken in almost all corporate areas for many years, this is inadequate in facility management. This shows that facility management is only recognized to a limited extent as a strategic resource by most companies, even though it is a latent competitive factor that is increasingly critical to success. Also, in Porter's value chain analysis instrument, the importance of property activities for achieving competitive advantages is insufficiently taken into account. This neglect of a value-oriented view of real estate assets, especially in non-property companies, is based on the underestimation of its relevance to the overall success of the company by top management.

However, the following figures illustrate the importance of real estate for corporate success, which results from the capital commitment:

  • The fixed assets of industrial companies consist of 30 to 40 percent ownership of land and real estate.
  • The real estate-related costs, based on the balance sheet total as a key figure, make up around 10 percent.
  • After personnel costs, real estate costs take second place in expenditure in the income statement.
  • For industrial companies, real estate costs amount to around 5 percent of sales, and for service companies as much as 7 to 9 percent.

The top management, which understands and treats real estate as part of the corporate strategy, can make a positive contribution to the company's results through an active and result-oriented approach and thus increase competitiveness. This gives companies a decisive competitive advantage. That is why the importance of facility management is so important, especially for non-property companies. Even so, most companies do not even have an information system that provides up-to-date property and building-related data.

Economical meaning

According to a study by Roland Berger Strategy Consultants from 2012, the facility management market for energy and resource efficiency in building management should grow by 6.5 percent annually until 2020. In 2017, the market volume for facility services grew much more slowly. After growth rates of 5 percent in 2015 and 4.2 percent in 2016, growth in 2017 was only 1.5 percent. According to GEFMA, the facility management industry contributed over 134 billion euros to German gross value added in 2016 . In 2014, the management volume of facility management in Germany with over 4.5 million employees comprised almost 206 billion euros and gross value added of 130 billion euros. This corresponded to a share of 5.42 percent of the gross domestic product.

In 2016 and 2017, the following companies largely determined the German facility services market:

Sales in Germany in million euros Employees in Germany
rank Companies in 2016 in 2017 in 2016 in 2017
1 Spie GmbH 1,400 1,500 9,700 10,800
2 Apleona GmbH 1,433.9 1,477.9 13,090 13,540
3 Wisag Facility Service Holding 1,016.3 1,067.4 31,141 32.102
4th Strabag Property and Facility Services 993 994 11,700 11,704
5 Dussmann Service Germany 890 870 22,400 23,500
6th Gegenbauer Holding 657 667 16,993 17,212
7th Compass Group Germany 666 646 15,000 15,000
8th Engie Germany 557 628 2,302 2,524
9 Piepenbrock Facility Management 503 564 26.006 26,600
10 Kötter group of companies 545 549 18,900 18,600

In 2013, the providers listed in the following ranking largely determined the German market for facility services. Inclusion in the following ranking is subject to precisely defined criteria. At least 66 percent of sales result from external orders, at least 66 percent of facility service sales consist of infrastructural and technical building management. The information has been adjusted for sales with service companies and tax groups.

rank Companies Sales in Germany in million euros Employees in Germany
1 Bilfinger Facility Services (since 2016: Apleona ) 1,187.0 11,840
2 Strabag Property and Facility Services 871.0 9,300
3 Wisag Facility Service 1) 819.0 30,256
4th Dussmann Service Germany 2) *) 785.0 23,350
5 Spie GmbH 3) *) 650.0 4,300
6th Compass Group Germany 645.0 16,000
7th Sodexo Beteiligungs BV 4) 490.0 9,296
8th Cofely Germany Group 5) 463.0 1,905
9 Piepenbrock Facility Management 6) 435.4 25,337
10 Counter builder 429.8 15,020
  • *) Sales and / or employee numbers are partially estimated
  • 1) Increase in sales partly due to the full consolidation of Schubert Holding AG & Co. KG in 2013. Foreign sales since 2013 generated by sister company
  • 2) Exclusive Kursana and Kulturkaufhaus. Total turnover of the Dussmann Group in 2013: 1,843 million euros
  • 3) Formerly Hochtief Solutions AG
  • 4) Domestic sales including service companies and tax groups: 670.0 million euros
  • 5) Including sales of Cofely Deutschland GmbH and Cofely Refrigeration GmbH
  • 6) Sales with industrial services are shown in the separate 2014 industrial service list.


As computer-aided facility management (CAFM), support of administrative facility management is through information technology referred. The facility management workplaces themselves are supported by building automation , fire alarm systems , video technology and electro-acoustic systems , among other things . The aim of building automation is to carry out functional processes independently and across disciplines, to simplify their operation or to monitor them. Sensors , actuators , control elements, consumers and other technical units in the building are networked with one another. Processes can be summarized in scenarios . The distinguishing feature is the decentralized arrangement of the control units and the continuous networking by means of a bus system . Also includes technical equipment for safety, safety in terms of overall industrial safety regulations to which, inter alia, under the umbrella of building control systems are used as auxiliaries and control systems from facility management within the building management. Facility management also includes the technical devices that serve security, see security , technology for electrical and electronic security systems, see security system , technical building systems that serve the building security , as well as the methods of information security in information technology .

Specialist components

The GEFMA has published job descriptions in facility management in guidelines 600ff.

The technical components have the following structure:

Areas of competence

From the perspective of IFMA, facility management deals with the competence areas of operation and maintenance , real estate and properties, employee and environmental factors, planning and project management, facility function, financing, quality assessment and innovation, communication and technology.

Initial and continuing education

Facility management can be studied in Germany at universities as well as at technical colleges as well as distance learning in special courses. In addition, there are other subjects, such as civil engineering or architecture , in which facility management is offered as a specialization.

Furthermore, the contents of facility management are also taught in various advanced training measures. This includes the series of seminars on the specialist in building management (HWK), which is offered by regional chambers of crafts. It should be noted that building management is not to be equated with facility management, since facility management is an instrument, or rather an objective, whereas building management is understood to mean operational business. It can therefore be equated with facility services, as the implementation of facility management is called today.

Organizations, associations, clubs

  • Corenet Global Inc. International trade association for corporate real estate management
  • EuroFM : European facility management association
  • fma : Facility Management Association of Australia
  • fmpro : Swiss Association for Facility Management and Maintenance, according to its own statements, is committed to the needs of its members across the board . Through its activities, it promotes the status and understanding of the FM industry in business and the public.
  • GEFMA (German Facility Management Association): One focus of activities is the creation of guidelines. Another focus is the certification of qualified educational institutions for facility management.
  • IFMA International Facility Management Association. Particular attention is paid to the topic of qualified training (competence development).
  • RealFM eV (Associacion for Real Estate and Facility Managers): European professional association for real estate and facility managers. The focus of the activities is on linking the tasks of real estate and facility management as well as designing the interfaces between all those involved in these processes.
  • VBI (Association of Consulting Engineers, Berlin): Development of AHO No. 16 "Facility Management Consulting", in the current 3rd edition (Bundesanzeiger-Verlag).

Standards and guidelines

  • DIN EN ISO 41001: Facility Management Management Systems - Requirements with systems for the application.
  • DIN EN ISO 41011: Facility Management - Terms.
  • DIN EN ISO 41012: Facility Management - guidelines for strategic procurement and the development of agreements.
  • DIN EN 15221: Facility Management (Part 2 to 7).
  • DIN 32736: Building management - terms and services (plus an additional sheet to compare services).
  • DIN 32835: Technical product documentation - Documentation for facility management (parts 1 and 2).
  • GEFMA 100: Facility Management (Part 1 and 2).
  • GEFMA 110: Introduction of Facility Management - Procedure for the introduction of FM in companies and public administrations.
  • GEFMA 160: Sustainability in Facility Management - Basics and Concept.
  • GEFMA 200: Costs in facility management - cost breakdown structure for GEFMA 100.
  • VDI 3810: Operation and maintenance of technical building systems (eight sheets).
  • VDI 4703: Facility Management - lifecycle cost-oriented tender.
  • VDI 6009: Facility Management (three sheets).
  • VDI 6026, sheet 1.1: Documentation in the TGA - facility management-specific requirements.
  • VDI 6039: Facility Management - Commissioning management for buildings.
  • VDI 6041: Facility Management - Technical Monitoring of Buildings and TGA.
  • CRB / IFMA Switzerland guideline: ProLeMo - process / performance model in facility management , 2009, ISBN 978-3-7281-3214-7 .
  • IFMA Switzerland: Life cycle cost determination of real estate: model including application tool . 2010, ISBN 978-3-7281-3364-9 .


  • Hanspeter Gondring, Thomas Wagner: Facility Management: Handbook for Study and Practice . 3. Edition. Vahlen, 2018, ISBN 978-3-8006-5590-8 .
  • Michaela Hellerforth: Facility Management Manual for Real Estate Companies . 1st edition. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg 2006, ISBN 978-3-540-32196-5 .
  • Jörn Krimmling: Facility Management: Structures and methodical instruments . 5th edition. Fraunhofer IRB, 2017, ISBN 978-3-8167-9812-5 .
  • Michael May: CAFM manual: Successfully using IT in facility management . 3. Edition. Springer Vieweg, 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-30501-6 .
  • Jens Nävy , Wolfgang Löwen: Facility Management. Basics, computer support, system introduction, application examples. 4th edition. Springer, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-642-32568-7 .
  • Joachim Oelschlegel: CAFM - Computer Support in Facility Management , 1st edition. expert verlag 2010, ISBN 978-3-8169-3002-0 .
  • Markus Thomzik, Frank Striewe, Alexander Knickmeier: FM industry report 2010: The economic importance of facility management , 1st edition. Institute for applied innovation research, Bochum 2010, ISBN 978-3-9288-5427-6 .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Facility management  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Property and facility management  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. DIN EN 15221-1 - 2007-01 - Beuth.de. Retrieved December 19, 2019 .
  2. DIN EN15221-1. ( Memento of the original from December 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Retrieved March 4, 2015. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.gefma.de
  3. DIN EN 15221-1 . Beuth, Berlin January 2007, p. 5 .
  4. a b DIN EN ISO 41011 . Beuth, Berlin April 2019, p. 6 .
  5. DIN EN ISO 41011 . Beuth, Berlin April 2019, p. 8 .
  6. Annex 15 HOAI single standard. Retrieved December 19, 2019 .
  7. ^ Barry P. Haynes, Nick Nunnington, Timothy Eccles: Corporate Real Estate Asset Management . 2nd Edition. Routledge, 2017, ISBN 978-1-138-91507-7 , pp. 5-6 .
  8. ^ Pfnür, Andreas: Economic significance of corporate real estate in Germany. 2014, p. 14 , accessed December 19, 2019 .
  9. Agenda for the further development of corporate real estate management. Central Real Estate Committee eV, 2015, p. 10 , accessed on December 19, 2019 .
  10. a b Rick Best, Gerard de Valence, Craig Langston: Workplace Strategies and Facilities Management . 1st edition. Routledge, 2007, ISBN 978-0-08-052129-9 , pp. 402 .
  11. S. Zeckhauser, R. Silverman: Rediscover your company's estate real . In: Harvard Business Review 61 . tape 1 , 1983, p. 111 ff .
  12. Jens Nävy , Wolfgang Löwen: Facility Management. Basics, computer support, system introduction, application examples. 4th edition. Springer, Heidelberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-642-32568-7 , pp. 40 .
  13. ^ Jörn Krimmling: Facility Management, Structures and Methodical Instruments . 5th edition. Fraunhofer IRB, 2017, ISBN 978-3-8167-9812-5 , p. 13 .
  14. Hanspeter Gondring, Thomas Wagner: Facility Management: Handbook for Study and Practice . 3. Edition. Vahlen, 2018, ISBN 978-3-8006-5590-8 , pp. 3 f .
  15. ^ Dieter Lochmann: Facility Management: Strategic Real Estate Management in Practice . 1st edition. Gabler, 1998, ISBN 978-3-409-18860-9 , pp. 44 f .
  16. Hanspeter Gondring, Thomas Wagner: Facility Management: Handbook for Study and Practice . 3. Edition. Vahlen, 2018, ISBN 978-3-8006-5590-8 , pp. 3 f .
  17. Jens Nävy, Matthias Schroeter: Facility Services: The operative level of facility management . 1st edition. Springer, Heidelberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-39544-4 , p. 27 .
  18. GEFMA and IFMA agree on cooperation. In: facility-management.de. Bauverlag BV GmbH, accessed on December 20, 2019 .
  19. Paul barn Barren: Uniform FM understanding. In: facility-manager.de. January 2012, accessed December 20, 2019 .
  20. Martin Mohrmann: Rethinking facility management with the help of the balanced scorecard . 2nd Edition. BoD - Books on Demand GmbH, 2011, ISBN 978-3-8334-7112-4 , p. 2 .
  21. a b See Martin Mohrmann: Rethinking facility management with the help of the balanced scorecard , Books on Demand GmbH, August 2007
  22. Facility Management can distinguish itself through energy efficiency European Facility Management Conference (EFMC) 23. until May 25, 2012, Copenhagen. Retrieved March 20, 2019 .
  23. a b Lünendonk List 2018: Leading facility service companies in Germany. Retrieved December 19, 2019 .
  24. ^ Julia Hubert: Statistics on Facility Services. August 6, 2019, accessed December 18, 2019 .
  25. GEFMA: Press release FM industry report 2014. Facility management: 130 billion euros gross value added - industry proves to be a stable economic factor (PDF; 1.1 MB)
  26. List of the leading facility service companies in Germany 2014 (PDF; 245 kB) according to Lünendonk, accessed on November 8, 2015
  27. GEFMA guidelines. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .
  28. CoreNet Global. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .
  29. EuroFM. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .
  30. ^ Facility Management Association of Australia. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .
  31. fmpro. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .
  32. GEFMA. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .
  33. IFMA. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .
  34. RealFM eV Accessed December 18, 2019 .
  35. ^ Association of Consulting Engineers - VBI. Retrieved December 18, 2019 .