facility manager

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Old caretaker's box in a historic shopping mall in Paris
Caretaker badge over a door frame in Vienna

A janitor or caretaker (in Switzerland caretaker or caretaker in Austria caretaker or caretakers ) and caretaker of schools is generally used by the homeowner or a property management company and takes over as assistant of the principal tasks of property management , care and monitoring. Often he is also entrusted with cleaning and maintenance tasks, with larger or special orders being given to specialist companies, which he in turn supervises. Its tasks are house-specific and are usually regulated in contracts or specifications. He pays attention to compliance with the house rules and tenant obligations. He reports special incidents - but is also usually the contact for tenants in the event of problems.

A caretaker often lives in the building he looks after. In the case of such a caretaker's apartment, in particular in the case of larger or public facilities, it is usually legally a works service apartment . A special form is the temporary use example according to the principle of "security by habitation" in which also caretaker tasks can be fixed, is.

Caretaker in Germany

In Germany there is no direct training course for caretakers and the designation is not legally protected. In the meantime, however, there are a large number of courses, seminars and lectures by private and public sponsors, which serve in particular for training, further education and training and Some even end with state-recognized degrees. It is common for applicants to have learned one or more skilled trades as their duties include minor repairs . In many cases, the apartment and house owners as well as property managers entrust them with further tasks such as the preparation of handover protocols when tenants change, meter readings, the monitoring of tradesmen or the control of measurements . Other typical tasks of a caretaker are property maintenance, green space maintenance, clearing out, winter service and the like.

Caretakers are often asked to intervene in neighborhood disputes , disturbances or other nuisances (e.g. smoke development when barbecuing) and violations of the house rules , although they only have legal authority to do so in a few cases. Often it is a matter of civil law disputes exclusively affecting the disputing parties ; then the caretaker can only inform the homeowner or the apartment owners' meeting about the facts.

Specialized service providers

Today there are often service providers who are not tied to a property and who, as a company or on an independent basis, specialize in the maintenance and technical support of real estate. Common industry terms are caretaker service ( HMS ) or facility services (building services), since these service providers only act on behalf and the decisions about what they do and don't are made by others (such as the property manager ).

Rather, one expects such service providers to offer a wide range of high-quality services, and often also to provide technical training. Major customers or owners of large properties will generally require references to be submitted and availability at all times or appropriate staffing. The scope of activities in such (but - due to modernization and mechanization - increasingly also in smaller) objects or for smaller or independent service providers, in addition to house and garden maintenance, primarily includes the monitoring and operation of all technical systems such as heating, Air conditioning, elevator, garage etc.

This can lead to a problem for small service providers if, when commissioned or in the course of order fulfillment, customers expect the provision of services that exceed their technical and / or legal capabilities. Are touched thereby u. a. Liability issues , craft and trade law . The competent Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK ), of which they are compulsorily a member, provides the service providers with assistance . This applies in particular to the distinction between (permitted) manual activities that are not subject to authorization and activities that require authorization and require a master craftsman's qualification. Sometimes chambers of crafts observe whether caretakers carry out activities for which a master craftsman's certificate is required.

In 2003 the regulations for some craft sectors were relaxed, i. H. Since then, caretakers have been allowed to carry out more activities than before.

The discussion about training up to and including compulsory master craftsmen continues in Germany.

The scientific discipline is called facility management .

Caretaker in Austria

The House Caretaker Act, passed by the Austrian Parliament in 1969, is part of labor law . It goes back to servant orders. Around 1900 the judicature made it clear that the caretaker service relationship could not be a variant of a servant order . The legal character required a special legal regulation. A Lower Austrian provincial law of June 15, 1910 therefore established the first guidelines for caretakers and home owners on the caretaker service contract . A revision took place in 1913. In 1921, the federal state of Vienna created the “Vienna Housekeeping Regulations” through state law. After it was repealed by the Constitutional Court in May 1922, it was the model for the caretaker regulations passed as a federal law on December 13, 1922 . The 1922 HBO was amended a number of times, most notably in 1957 through an amendment to the law. The abolition of the obligation to be present for the caretaker and the anchoring of his direct claim to remuneration from the house owner are considered to be the essential improvement of the caretaker's right . The first major amendment to HBO in 1922 took place after around 35 years.

The probably very long period is to a large extent due to the domestic political and economic structure of Austria at the time. In the Second Republic, the Personal Service Union , especially after 1957, was therefore constantly striving to highlight and improve the unsatisfactory social and labor law position of the caretaker. In the summer of 1967, the ÖGB presented the Federal Ministry for Social Administration with a draft for the new version of the Housekeeper Act (HBO). Based on this, the then Minister of Social Affairs commissioned Grete Rehor to draw up a ministerial draft. The law was passed unanimously by the National Council on December 11, 1969 and has been in effect since July 1, 1970. Since July 2000 the Caretaker Act has only been applicable to employment relationships that already existed at that time. Since then, the “caretaker”, as he is now called to distinguish it from the “caretaker” that is running out, has been a normal job under labor law without special privileges.

In February 2010, a referendum was carried out in Vienna as to whether the City of Vienna should again advocate the introduction of housekeepers at federal level. A majority of voters supported this.

Caretaker in Switzerland

In Switzerland there is training to become a federally certified caretaker. However, in Switzerland it is called “specialist maintenance”. The Federal Office for Professional Education and Technology (OPET) approved the examination regulations for this higher technical examination (HFP) on March 7, 2005.

Caretakers are the superiors of those working in housekeeping, such as caretakers with federal Certificate, business maintenance specialist, former company intern and auxiliary staff. You are responsible for building complexes , superstructures or several connected properties .

Caretaker in France

French concierges d'immeuble ("building concierge"), like German caretakers, are responsible for order, security , cleanliness and maintenance in private, commercial or public properties . This requires manual skills as well as social characteristics. Supervised objects can be office or apartment buildings, schools, student dormitories , companies, etc.


  • Peter Payer: caretaker in Vienna. The rise and fall of a person of respect , Wiener Geschichtsblätter, Supplement 4/1996 ( stadt-forschung.at ; PDF; 147 kB)
  • Andrea Holzmann-Jenkins, Tom Schmid and Ingrid Machold: Employment initiatives in the field of social services: Housekeeping in Vienna . Vienna 1999 ( online ).

Web links

Wiktionary: caretaker  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Caretaker  - Explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Schulwart  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b Training caretaker. In: BERUFEnet - an offer from the Federal Employment Agency. Retrieved April 26, 2016 .
  2. Brief description: Caretaker / house technician. In: Federal Employment Agency. Retrieved April 26, 2016 .
  3. Law of June 5, 1910, effective for the Archduchy of Austria under the Enns, regarding the issuing of a housekeeping regulation for the area of ​​the Imperial and Royal Capital and Residence City of Vienna and the cities of Baden, Krems, Mödling, St. Pölten, Wiener Neustadt , LGBl. Lower Austria 176/1910; Part 25, August 12, 1910, p. 231
  4. Law of February 1, 1913, effective for the Archduchy of Austria under the Enns, regarding a caretaker order for the area of ​​the imperial capital and residence city of Vienna and the cities of Baden, Krems, Mödling, St. Pölten, Wiener Neustadt , LGBl. Lower Austria 33 / 1913; Part 8 of February 26, 1913, p. 53
  5. Law of May 19, 1921 on the enactment of caretaker regulations for the city of Vienna , LGBl. Vienna 78/1921; Piece 45, August 29, 1921, p. 143
  6. ^ Announcement of the mayor as governor of March 29, 1922 regarding the repeal of the law of May 19, 1921, recognized by the Constitutional Court as unconstitutional, LG Bl. Für Wien No. 78 ; LGBl. Vienna 55/1922; 23rd piece of March 31, 1922, p. 72
  7. Federal law of December 13, 1922 on the contract of the caretaker (housekeeper order) , BGBl. 878/1922; Part 181, December 18, 1922, p. 1864
  8. https://www.ris.bka.gv.at/Dokumente/BgblPdf/2000_36_1/2000_36_1.pdf
  9. ^ Vienna wants to know: Referendum 2010. In: Stadt Wien. Retrieved April 26, 2016 .
  10. Klaus Stöger and Duygu Özkan: Survey: How to proceed. In: The press . February 15, 2010, accessed April 26, 2016 .
  11. a b Profession: Caretaker (HFP). In: Swiss Service Center for Vocational Training, Vocational, Study and Career Advice SDBB. Retrieved April 26, 2016 .