Under repair (from latin reparare "restore") or repair the process is meant in which a defective object is restored to a functional condition. In the military, the repair force is often a separate branch of the armed forces, in the Bundeswehr as part of the logistics force . In road construction, repair is a structural measure in the area of road maintenance .
Repair, for example, through the exchange of defective parts, by adding parts or by a rearrangement of parts (for example, gluing or welding done). In modern technical devices and machines as well as in car repair shops , electronics or electrical controls are increasingly being used for repairs or preventive service .
A special variant of the repair is called debaring . This is the term used to describe the repair of color deviations on finished textile goods by hand.
The term emplastrification is also used when repairing electrical insulation .
The term repair is also the subject of certifiable quality management . It was already defined in DIN EN ISO 8402: 1995-08, Clause 4.18 and includes every measure to be carried out on a defective product to ensure that it will meet the requirements of the intended use, although initially it may not meet the originally specified requirements Fulfills.
Repair is therefore a way of treating a defective product or a damaged item. In the definition of the now valid DIN EN ISO 9000: 2000 , section 3.6.9, a repair can influence or change parts of a product. According to DIN 31051 , repairs are part of maintenance .
Increasingly, is teleservice , d. H. the remote maintenance , used in the maintenance frame. Teleservice can shorten the response time of the service technicians and increase the quality of the service work, e.g. B. in that the technician already knows through remote diagnosis which spare parts he has to take with him to the job site.
The problem (and viewed by some authors as planned obsolescence ) is the fact that some modern products are no longer repairable due to their design, for example because the housing cannot be opened or components with a relatively short service life (e.g. batteries) cannot be replaced. A lack of spare parts supply by the manufacturer or necessary special tools can prevent repairability or make it uneconomical.
Repairs as preservation of value in monument preservation
Within the preservation of monuments, an elementary task of monument protection is fulfilled with the repair of historical building fabric. The repair of components enables the substantial and cultural value retention of architectural monuments. The culture of repair has z. For example, the window craftsman occupation originated in Sweden in the early 1980s and its introduction in Germany around 1999. The method of window repair by the window trade preserves historical, repairable windows in the sense of monument preservation. Criticism of the so-called throwaway society also played a decisive role in the development of this occupational profile . When repairing the high-quality historical windows, window craftsmen use historical materials and techniques, as these are responsible for the long life of historical buildings.
In the military the repair is often a branch of service . Repair is responsible for the maintenance, repair and operational readiness of all military equipment, especially vehicles, weapons and devices. Repairing units can be found in all branches of the armed forces and military organizational areas as well as an organic part of other branches of the armed forces. In the German army and in the German armed forces base , repair is a type of service within the logistics force.
Types of repairs
There are two types of repairs to technical systems, machines and devices:
- In exchange repairs , worn or defective parts are exchanged for new parts. Spare parts supply contracts and a guarantee are common. There are economic advantages above all if high personnel costs for qualified personnel can be reduced or if they receive diagnostic tools and product-specific training. The disadvantage is the high administrative effort for logistics and transport of the spare parts that are stored and thus tie up capital. The parts are only available for a limited period. Some of them are reproduced in poor quality ( counterfeit products ). Excessive replacement repairs or their inappropriately high price can lead to a throwaway society . If parts are not in stock, repairs will take longer.
- With regenerative repairs , defective parts or components are repaired and reused, examples are the re-turning of brake discs or cylinder liners. This type of repair is mainly used when there is a shortage of materials and spare parts. The low material costs are advantageous. The equipment can often be repaired quickly. Disadvantages are that this requires relatively highly qualified personnel and often special tools.
During repairs, different dangers arise than in normal operation. Often protective covers have to be removed, which normally cover dangerous machine parts. This also includes a maintenance safeguard for the system for repairs. The five safety rules describe the procedure for electrical repairs.
Security after repairs
Repairs on construction, on vehicles and aircraft or on technical devices, tools and systems can be dangerous or even cost lives if they are not carried out correctly. The manufacturer therefore stipulates which parts are replaced or repaired, how and by how qualified personnel. Often, however, the repairs are also legally monitored by using state-appointed experts. Repairs by laypeople often do not ensure that the execution meets the same safety requirements as the original condition. Even professional qualifications are often not enough to recognize and restore safety-relevant construction and assembly details. Examples are the use of insulating materials that ignite in the event of a fault or fail earlier in the event of partial discharges , conductor cross-sections that can carry the operating current but not the short-circuit current, concrete mixes that are statically sufficient but promote corrosion due to their porosity.
An amendment to the Ecodesign Directive , which is to come into force from September 2021, is to contain EU-wide uniform requirements for the reparability of durable consumer goods . Among other things, there are provisions for manufacturers to design household appliances in such a way that they can easily be repaired by consumers themselves if they have broken. This also includes an obligation to keep the corresponding spare parts available for several years. A period of seven years is planned for this after the device has been removed from the market. The spare parts must be available within a maximum of 15 working days.
A right to repair is also part of the European Commission's action plan on waste prevention presented on March 11, 2020. This in turn is part of the green deal .
The repair contract as a civil law agreement for the repair of an object is not regulated as a separate type of contract under German law in the German Civil Code . It is a work contract because the contractor owes the restoration of a certain condition with the repair and thus a certain success as a "work". The repair has only been successful when this condition has been brought about. In return, the client is obliged to pay the wages ( BGB). In the event of a defective repair, the customer can claim rights under the contract for work and services in accordance with German Civil Code (BGB).
The manufacturer of a product is generally not obliged to provide spare parts or tools to repair the product. However, the parties to a sales contract can, within the scope of the freedom of contract, conclude agreements on maintenance, spare parts stocks and post-series availability of components and products.
If a purchased item is defective , the buyer is entitled to a subsequent performance claim against the seller ( BGB). Conversely, the seller has a "right to repair", which the seller often reserves in his general terms and conditions (GTC). Then the buyer is only entitled to restore the contractual condition through his own repair after sufficient efforts on the part of the seller or if the seller is unable to do so. This is where sales law differs from the law on contracts for work and services, which in German Civil Code (BGB) includes a right of self-implementation.
Right to repair
Triggered by the sustainability discourse and debate about the planned obsolescence of products the right political demands are increasing in several countries after the introduction of a "right to repair" (English: right to repair ). This was discussed above all for durable consumer and capital goods such as motor vehicles and machines, which are often very difficult to repair yourself due to digitization, but also for electronic devices, especially for mobile computers such as tablets or smartphones .
However, manufacturers of machines sometimes rely on copyright law to prohibit buyers from changing the computer programs with which a machine is operated. In this respect, the US manufacturer of agricultural machinery John Deere has caused a stir . Japanese courts have ruled that products protected by patents and trademarks may be repaired and, for example, printer cartridges may be refilled, as long as this is done in a comprehensible manner for the customer, so that there can be no deception about the origin of the recycling cartridges. Nonetheless, some computer manufacturers such as Apple insist that spare parts and special tools that are needed for repairs are only supplied to selected workshops, which consequently have a monopoly on the repair of these products. This monopoly is supported by Google and their ban on advertising on smartphone repairs. With the advertising ban, Google officially wants to protect consumers from "black sheep", but large companies such as B. MediaMarkt Saturn will continue to advertise the repair. The independent workshop culture is thus severely restricted when it comes to smartphones and electronic devices. Platforms such as kaputt.de or ifixit.com are thus gaining in importance in Germany in order to provide end users with fast, inexpensive alternatives.
In the USA a movement against this monopoly has formed, which speaks out in favor of corresponding claims by buyers against the manufacturer to be allowed to repair consumer goods themselves and to be supplied with the necessary materials and information. The states of Massachusetts, Nebraska, New York, Tennessee, Wyoming, Minnesota, Kansas, and Illinois have initiated legislative processes that are heavily lobbyed. There is a small partial success, because Apple is considering selling spare parts to independent workshops, if these repairers have been certified by Apple itself (only in the USA).
In Germany, the repairability of computer hardware was one of the political demands of the participants for more digital sustainability in November 2018 at the “Bits & Trees” conference at the TU Berlin . Shortly thereafter, a petition to the German Bundestag that demanded the introduction of a right to repair electrical appliances failed . Manufacturers should be obliged to keep spare parts available for ten years. Only the Left and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen had spoken out in favor of referring the proposal to the German Bundestag, the other parliamentary groups were against it. The petitions committee justified the rejection by stating that the Federal Environment Agency had come to the conclusion that there was no “planned obsolescence”; therefore this assumption could not be made the starting point for legislative action.
- Repair Café
- Renovation (construction)
- City repair
- Engine repairs
- DNA repair
- Mean time between failures
- Obsolescence and Planned Obsolescence
- Throwaway society
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