German wave

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Infobox radio tower icon
German wave
Station logo
Made for minds.
Radio station ( public service )
reception DAB + , live stream , shortwave, satellite and via DVB-C
Reception area world world
owner Federal Republic of Germany
Broadcaster German wave
Program director Gerda Meuer
Intendant Peter Limbourg
News chief Editor-in-chief
Manuela Kasper-Claridge
Start of transmission May 3, 1953
Program type International broadcasting
List of radio stations
Website
Main broadcasting house of Deutsche Welle in Bonn ( Schürmann building )

The German wave ( DW ) is the international broadcasting of the Federal Republic of Germany and member of the ARD . The German locations are in Bonn and Berlin , with Bonn acting as the seat of the public law institution . It is broadcast in around 30 languages. For a long time, the programs were broadcast exclusively on short and medium waves. Today, the program provider uses shortwave broadcasts , satellite broadcasts , Internet live streams and, in some countries, the local FM band. Today, Deutsche Welle works trimedially : television ( DW-TV ), radio and internet (dw.com). The journalist Peter Limbourg has been director of Deutsche Welle since October 1, 2013 .

Bonn, Deutsche Welle, aerial photo (2017)
DW logos
Deutsche Welle Logo.svg
Current Deutsche Welle logo
Deutsche Welle umbrella brand.svg
Logo until February 5, 2012
DW-Radio.svg
Logo until February 5, 2012
Deutsche Welle Television.svg
Logo until February 5, 2012
TV reporter for Deutsche Welle in Dresden

tasks

According to Section 4 of the Deutsche Welle Act, DW's task is to make Germany understandable as a cultural nation that has grown up in Europe and a democratic constitutional state with a free structure - and to promote overall understanding and exchange between cultures and peoples. This makes it one of the bearers of the foreign cultural policy of the Federal Republic of Germany.

DW itself plans its tasks for a period of four years, updated annually ( Section 4a DWG). It forwards this task planning to the German Bundestag and the Federal Government after the Federal Government has decided on the next federal budget and financial plan . DW then decides on this task planning through the Broadcasting Council, with the approval of the Administrative Council and taking into account the statements of the Bundestag, the Federal Government and the interested public ( Section 4b DWG). The planning is supplemented by an ongoing evaluation, on which a report is drawn up for every four-year planning period ( § 4c DWG). With this regulation, DW as an independent broadcaster is committed to free journalism. The Intendant therefore runs Deutsche Welle independently and is solely responsible for the program design and for the entire operation of the establishment.

Content

As a requirement for its content, DW has formulated that it wants to provide a “profound and reliable information offer”. The content of the programs has an emphasis on news, documentaries and cultural coverage. Content (radio, television and online) is produced in 30 languages ​​(as of 2018).

DW broadcasts 24-hour television programs to a global audience in English, German, Spanish and Arabic.

structure

legal form

The broadcaster of federal law DW is a non-profit organization under public law . As such, it is subject to legal supervision by the federal government. To preserve DW's freedom of the press, however, technical supervision is excluded. The director is only subordinate to the Broadcasting Council and the Board of Directors and is responsible to them.

Supervisory bodies

The Broadcasting Council consists of 17 members: two each elected by the Bundestag and Bundesrat, three nominated by the Federal Government and ten members nominated by a defined group of groups and organizations. The board of directors, which oversees the management of the artistic director outside of programming, consists of 7 members. The members of the councils are neither bound by orders nor by instructions.

The ten social groups that send representatives to the Broadcasting Council are: Evangelical Church , Catholic Church , Central Council of Jews in Germany , Confederation of German Employers' Associations in agreement with the German Industry and Trade Day (DIHT), top trade union organizations , German Sports Confederation , Germans Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) as the legal successor to InWent gGmbH, which has merged into it , German Cultural Council , German Academy for Language and Poetry , University Rectors' Conference .

Members of the Broadcasting Council of Deutsche Welle (from March 2019)

The Broadcasting Council represents the interests of the general public and monitors compliance with the program principles. He elects the artistic director and advises him on program matters.

Resolutions are made with a majority of the votes of those present if at least the majority is present, i.e. at least 5 votes with 9 members present. For important decisions, such as the dismissal of the artistic director, 2/3 of the members must agree, i.e. at least 12.

Members of the Board of Directors of Deutsche Welle (since April 1, 2019)

The board of directors oversees the management of the artistic director outside of programming.

The members who are not elected or nominated by the federal government, Bundestag and Bundesrat are elected by the Broadcasting Council as representatives of social groups and organizations.

financing

Even if DW, like the other public broadcasters, is a public corporation, it does not receive any benefits from the broadcasting fees . DW's financing is largely financed with taxpayers' money from the federal budget. Deutsche Welle receives its subsidy from the Federal Government Commissioner for Culture and the Media , who in turn is assigned to the Federal Chancellor's and Federal Chancellor’s individual plan in the federal budget . In addition, Deutsche Welle is allowed to generate other income, for example from advertising and sponsoring (in the diction of the Deutsche Welle law, "sponsoring"). The 2018 budget was 326 million euros.

Personnel and employee representation

Around 1,500 permanent employees and almost as many freelancers from 60 nations work at DW's Bonn headquarters and at the Berlin site. 350 are organized in the German Association of Journalists , whose list was also elected to the staff representation. The turnout was 64%.

Church reference

The Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches have the following headings on Deutsche Welle: Understand Germany, Discover Germany and Germany Protestant Catholic. As so-called " announcement offers", the Christian sides are solely responsible for the churches.

The general manager Peter Limbourg also works as an advisor to the journalistic commission of the German Bishops' Conference and is a member of the diocesan instructions of the Maltese .

Karl Jüsten has been chairman of the Broadcasting Council and thus the top DW controller since 2014 . The main job of the prelate is the head of the Catholic Office in Berlin, a lobby organization of the Roman Catholic Church .

DW Akademie

The DW Akademie is the international center of Deutsche Welle for media development, media consulting and journalism training. She works with partner broadcasters, organizations and universities around the world. A special focus is on the development and strengthening of free media in over 50 developing, emerging and transition countries. The work is mainly financed by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. Further funding sources are the Federal Foreign Office and the European Union .

The academy conducts professional media training at the Bonn and Berlin locations. Internationally experienced media experts prepare specialists and executives from politics, business and organizations for public appearances at home or abroad and impart skills in areas such as social media or crisis communication.

Deutsche Welle's bilingual volunteer training is based at DW Akademie. The young journalists undergo 18-month training and are trained in the three areas of television, radio and online. In cooperation with the University of Bonn and the Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences , DW Akademie offers the master's degree in “International Media Studies”.

Carsten von Nahmen has been the head of the academy since September 2018. From February 2017, he previously reported as a senior correspondent for DW's Washington studio. In 2014 von Nahmen became deputy editor-in-chief and head of the news department at DW. Christian Gramsch was director of DW Akademie until May 2018, and DW's regional multimedia director until November 1, 2013. He succeeded Gerda Meuer , who among other things worked as a correspondent for the development press agency Inter News Service and as deputy editor-in-chief on the radio program of Deutsche Welle. She has been the station's program director since November 1, 2013.

The DW Akademie goes back to the Deutsche Welle Training Center (DWAZ). This started its work in 1965 and was initially intended as an instrument of media promotion for Africa, Asia and Latin America. In the same year, the first training for three radio technicians from Radio Rwanda took place in Cologne. Since 1970 there has also been training for television employees. The DWAZ television set up for this purpose in Berlin was affiliated with the broadcaster Free Berlin.

The first training outside of Germany took place in Tunis in 1971 to prepare sports journalists for reporting on the Olympic Games in Munich . After German reunification, the DWAZ offered training courses for media workers from Eastern Europe for the first time in 1990. Twelve broadcast journalists from Poland and Hungary took part in a management course in Germany. In 1992 DWAZ reached India with a training session on All India Radio .

In 1996 the two training centers for radio and television were bundled under the roof of Deutsche Welle. The merged institutions were henceforth called the DWFZ training center. As a result of restructuring, DW Akademie was established in 2004, and since then it has also been running regular media training courses for the Foreign Office's diplomatic school. The DWFZ and the areas of journalistic education and training at DW are pooled in DW Akademie.

history

DW first went on air on May 3, 1953.

A predecessor with a similar name was Deutsche Welle GmbH , which was founded by Ernst Ludwig Voss in Berlin in August 1924 and broadcast regularly from January 7, 1926. Its owners were initially 70% the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft and 30% the state of Prussia . From 1931, Deutsche Welle broadcast from the Berlin House of Broadcasting . On January 1, 1933, Deutsche Welle GmbH was officially transferred to Deutschlandsender GmbH .

The station sees itself in the tradition of the first German international broadcaster, the world broadcaster of the Weimar Republic . The world radio station was renamed in 1933 by the Nazi regime in German shortwave station .

The 1950s to 1980s

Former Deutsche Welle building in Cologne (2003)
Demolition of the building (aerial photo from February 2020)

Deutsche Welle went on air for the first time on May 3, 1953 with German-language radio on shortwave . The greeting “to dear fellow countrymen all over the world” was given by the then Federal President Theodor Heuss . On June 11, 1953, the contract for the establishment of the joint shortwave program "Deutsche Welle" was signed between the members of ARD. Responsibility for the program lay initially with what was then Nordwestdeutscher Rundfunk (NWDR), later with Westdeutscher Rundfunk (WDR) in Cologne, so that its respective director was also responsible for “Deutsche Welle”. In October 1954, Deutsche Welle started radio broadcasts in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Polish.

In 1960, the “Deutsche Welle” became an independent public law institution by federal law . The law on the establishment of broadcasters under federal law of November 29, 1960, passed by the German Bundestag on October 26, 1960 stipulated that Deutsche Welle, as a short-wave transmitter, broadcasts broadcasts for foreign countries and that Deutschlandfunk, also founded with this law, broadcasts broadcasts for (all of) Germany and other European countries should produce. When the law came into force on December 16, 1960 , the two new institutions were deemed to have been established under Section 33. The order from ARD to WDR to operate “Deutsche Welle” as a community facility expired. However, DW, based in Cologne, joined ARD on June 7, 1962, so that the original connection between ARD and DW was re-established.

In 1962 the radio program was expanded and since then it has also been broadcast in Persian, Turkish, Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian, Serbian and Croatian. In 1963 Kiswahili and Haussa followed for Africa, Indonesian as well as Bulgarian, Romanian and Slovenian. In the same year, DW also sent out film copies for television for the first time. From 1964, DW also broadcast in Greek, Italian, Hindi and Urdu, and from 1970 in Pashto and Dari.

In 1974, construction work began in Cologne on the new radio house on the Raderberggürtel designed by the Stieldorf planning group for DW and DLF, which was inaugurated in 1980.

1990s

German program (1993)
Frequencies and Languages ​​(1993)
Deutsche Welle headquarters in Berlin (Gesundbrunnen, Voltastraße  6)

RBI setting

With the German reunification in 1990 the broadcasting of Radio Berlin International (RBI), the foreign service of the GDR, was stopped. From then on, some RBI employees found work at Deutsche Welle, and parts of the transmission technology, including the transmission system in Nauen and its frequencies, were also taken over.

New language programs 1992

On April 1, 1992, the station began the active television age with the German and English language television program DW-TV from Berlin. The programs are broadcast via satellite and expanded in the following years. It is now also broadcast in Spanish and Arabic. RIAS-TV , which had been launched a few years earlier, went into DW-TV . In 1992, DW also began broadcasting in Albanian.

Deutschlandfunk resolution

In the run-up to the new federal broadcasting structure, which in 1994 led to the dissolution of Deutschlandfunk as an independent broadcasting company or its transfer to the Deutschlandradio broadcaster , Deutsche Welle took over some foreign language programs from the DLF in 1993. A year later, DW launched its website at “www.dwelle.de”, making it the first public broadcaster in Germany to be represented on the World Wide Web .

Cuts

DW suffers from massive financial and personnel cuts. Within five years, the budget was cut back by around 75 million euros by 2004. The number of jobs has been reduced from 2,200 to 1,200 since 1994. The federal government in office since autumn 2005 has, however, pushed through an increase in the budget in the 2006 budget approved by the Bundestag. At the end of the 1990s, DW hired numerous editorial offices. In 1998 she ended her courses in Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Italian and Sanskrit. Japanese, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Czech and Hungarian followed at the end of 1999. As for the Spanish editorial team, only the radio has been stopped. DW cited the lack of demand in the target countries as the reason for the cuts. The second round of cuts in particular was due to the federal government's cutbacks in funding (see above).

Since 2000

Studio at the headquarters of Deutsche Welle in Bonn

New programs

Programs in Ukrainian began in 2000 , and in 2001 DW began broadcasting the television program “ German TV ”, which was initially only marketed in North America via pay-TV platforms and was broadcast as a full program from 2002 onwards. However, it was precisely for this reason that not enough viewers could be won, so that the station ceased operations in early 2006. Since then, the television program DW-TV has been distributed in North America on the former “German TV” slot . In 2002, Deutsche Welle launched its Arabic-language TV offering. It can be received via Nilesat in more than 20 countries.

On September 11, 2001, the German radio program broadcast a total of 48 hours non-stop live about the attacks on the World Trade Center from 5 p.m. (CET) .

Relocation to the Schürmann building

On the occasion of the station's 50th anniversary in 2003 (the ceremony was on June 27), Deutsche Welle moved from Cologne to Bonn to the Schürmann building in the federal district . One reason was the exposure to asbestos in the rooms of the old broadcasting house. In the 1960s and 1970s, it was common practice - and also recommended by BAM - to encase high-rise buildings in steel construction with spray asbestos as fire protection. The originally planned demolition of the building was refrained from due to the concerns of the neighboring Deutschlandradios that the asbestos-contaminated building is now to be dismantled floor by floor.

The relocation costs were estimated in the 2002 annual report at more than 15 million euros. At the new location in Bonn only the radio broadcasts are produced. Deutsche Welle's television programs come from Berlin . The online supply are Deutsche Welle is produced in Berlin and Bonn, with content in 30 languages.

New DW law 2004

On October 28, 2004, the Bundestag passed a new DW law which, in contrast to other public service programs, defines Deutsche Welle as tri-media and thus makes the online presence DW.com an equal medium alongside DW-TV and DW-Radio. Since 2004, Deutsche Welle has been awarding The BOBs blog awards through an international jury .

On October 6, 2006 the journalist Karen Fischer and the technician Christian Struwe were shot dead in Afghanistan.

DW-TV's transponder on Hotbird was deliberately disrupted several times , most recently from February 10th to 13th, 2010 on the occasion of the 31st anniversary of the Islamic Revolution . According to the satellite operator Eutelsat, the jammer was clearly located in the vicinity of Iran.

In 2006 the station employed 1,444 people. In 2011 there were around 1,500 permanent and freelance employees.

New task planning 2011

On April 7, 2011, the German Bundestag decided on a new task planning for the station.

  • The radio, television and online divisions are to be merged by 2013.
  • The radio program is to be further reduced.
  • The content should primarily be conveyed via television and the Internet.
  • In the run-up, there was talk of a one-hour transmission loop that should remain.
  • Broadcasting on shortwave in Europe will continue to exist until the transmitter rental contracts expire.

In the debate, the Left Party, which was the only one to vote against the draft, criticized in particular that the broadcaster should coordinate programming with the Foreign Office , the Ministry of Defense and the Ministry of Economic Cooperation .

The German Association of Journalists criticizes the fact that, especially in censored media markets, information pages on the Internet are easier to “ completely restrict ” than radio programs .

The German Cultural Council pointed when setting the shortwave broadcasting end of October 2011 indicated that no other frequency range having such a large range as short wave and "so autonomously radiate from Germany in the world" could "Even the Internet is not a safe alternative to short wave , because it can be censored, hindered and even completely switched off by interventions in the recipient countries. Particularly in a time of social upheaval, not only in the Arab region, it is negligent to forego such an autonomous transmission medium as shortwave for broadcasting German-language programs. "

Relaunch 2012

On February 6, 2012, Deutsche Welle underwent a complete relaunch and since then has given the acronym DW more prominence than before. During the relaunch, the Spanish-language broadcasting line DW (Español) for Latin America was expanded from two to 20 hours a day. At the same time, the new online offer was relaunched under the domain www.dw.de.

Struggle for interpretative sovereignty

In November 2013, the new director, Peter Limbourg, asked for more money for a larger range of programs in English. The background to this is increasing global competition from foreign broadcasters, such as Iran. In the course of this geostrategic realignment, DW canceled its offer in Bengali and Portuguese for Africa: Limbourg "would like to focus the program more on decision-makers in large cities in future, i.e. elites who live in countries that are important for Germany and understand English." September Limbourg declared: "Spreading our values ​​in the world is a national task ... Or do we want to give Russia Today , Al-Jazeera and CCTV-News the authority to interpret international politics?" () The trilingual online portal Qantara.de zum Dialogue with the Arab world is to be continued.

Cooperation with CCTV

At the beginning of September 2014, Artistic Director Peter Limbourg announced that Deutsche Welle was working with the Chinese state television channel China Central Television (CCTV). Reporters Without Borders protested. In August, Deutsche Welle gave notice to a Chinese blogger.

The English-language news channel DW News is scheduled to start broadcasting on June 22, 2015.

Directors

Distribution channels

For its content, Deutsche Welle uses shortwave broadcasts , satellite broadcasts , Internet livestreams and, in some countries, the local VHF band for its radio programs . According to its own information, DW worked with 5000 partner stations to distribute the programs locally. For parts of Africa where, according to DW, many people can still be reached via radio, DW can still be received via shortwave. The TV program is broadcast via various satellite channels and fed into cable networks. The DW app makes DW content available online.

Deutsche Welle was heavily involved in technical developments in order to adapt shortwave transmission to today's standards through the use of digital technologies and to continue using this transmission path . The technology of the Digital Radio Mondial consortium was favored by DW . In 2008 she started the BBC & DW project with the British BBC . However, due to lack of success on the part of the listeners, this was soon discontinued.

DW confirms reception reports with a QSL card .

On August 25, 2014, the broadcaster announced that the journalistic content would also be disseminated via the Outernet satellite network .

Africa

In 2016, Deutsche Welle can be received on shortwave in Asia in the languages Pashtun and Dari and in Africa in the languages Amharic , English , Hausa , French and Swahili . Since October 2014, programs in Portuguese for Africa are no longer broadcast on shortwave, but only via satellite and partner stations. The broadcasts on FM in the region around the Rwandan capital Kigali have been set in March 2015 with the closing of this last relay station DW.

In addition, DW's radio programs can be recorded via six satellites whose reception area corresponds to terrestrial reception (western Asia and Africa; same program offer). In addition, there is a broadcast in Greek .

Asia

For the Asian region, DW broadcasts its programs DW Deutsch and DW English via Asiasat-7 (105.5 ° East) . From 2007 Deutsche Welle Radio can be received via shortwave in the languages Dari , Amharic , Hausa , Pashtun and Swahili .

Targeted disruptions

The broadcasts of Deutsche Welle have repeatedly been disrupted for political reasons. During the Cold War, broadcasts for Eastern Europe were hindered by technical means. But even after that, there were repeated attempts to interfere in individual countries.

The DW program for Ethiopia , which had existed since 1965, was repeatedly affected by jamming . In 2007 the German federal government intervened in Addis Ababa after DW programs had been disrupted for months. In 2010, artistic director Erik Bettermann again complained about the targeted disruption of the radio program for Ethiopia. Before the start of and during the parliamentary elections in Ethiopia around May 23, 2010, jammers were used to interfere with the shortwave frequencies of Deutsche Welle's Amharic program. According to Bettermann, the domestic media in Ethiopia are being censored. Other foreign broadcasters were also disrupted in Ethiopia during this time.

In 2011, Bettermann protested in Iran against the targeted interference from DW-TV via its satellite channel there. The Hot Bird 8 satellite , which broadcasts signals for Europe and neighboring regions, was disrupted . a. also Iran. Since Hot Bird 8 is also used as a feeder for the Nilesat satellite and the provider of the live stream via DW-WORLD.DE, there were also failures here. The radio and especially the Internet offerings of Deutsche Welle were also affected by censorship measures by Iran.

On December 7th and 8th, 2009 the transponder on Hotbird 8 , which was also used by DW-TV, was disrupted. According to Deutsche Welle, which refers to the satellite operator Eutelsat , the jammer could be clearly located in Iran . Eutelsat tried to enable interference-free reception by increasing the transmission power. The interference signal was then also amplified. The cause of the disturbances is suspected to be the censorship of reporting on the unrest and protests by opposition members in Iran. From February 10 to 13, 2010, around the 31st anniversary of the Islamic Revolution , there were again disruptions.

In several other countries, too, several foreign broadcasters from the Global North, including DW, complained that broadcasts via satellite and shortwave were disrupted and websites were blocked.

Former transmitter systems, radio

The transmission of the linear German-language radio program via shortwave, as well as all other distribution channels, was stopped on October 29, 2011.

Since the beginning of 2007, DW has been broadcasting its programs in the shortwave range from the Woofferton location in England through the provider VT Communications . Until then, the Wertachtal shortwave transmitter was used in Germany . Until the 1990s and early 2000s, Deutsche Welle also broadcast its radio programs from Germany from the Nauen radio station and the Jülich short wave center .

Transmission system DW Berlin

DW has operated several relay stations in its history, including in Trincomalee - Sri Lanka , Kigali - Rwanda and Sines - Portugal . The shortwave relay in Sines broadcast 3995 kHz programs in DRM mode . LW, MW and VHF transmitters were not used for broadcasting Deutsche Welle programs in Germany. On the other hand, medium-wave transmitters were also used at some foreign DW locations, such as the Cyclops relay station in Malta, which was closed in 1996 . The relay station in Antigua in the Caribbean is also no longer used , as DW has stopped shortwave broadcasts for North and South America.

In Europe there was mostly sufficient to good reception of German-language programs on the shortwave frequency of 6075 kHz (49-meter band). Some African services were broadcast on shortwave until 2013.

parody

In 1997 and 1998, the ProSieben sketch show Switch parodied Deutsche Welle as Deutsche Welle Poland . The greeting was always: “Here is German wave Poland. With transfer in color. And colorful. ”The saying is also the saying on the Switch DVDs.

See also

  • BBC & DW - collaboration with the BBC
  • In Focus - time slot for documentaries and reports from Germany and the world

literature

  • Dieter Dörr, Stephanie Schiedermair : The Deutsche Welle. The function, the mission, the tasks and the financing today. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 2003, ISBN 3-631-51685-1
  • Anke Hagedorn: Deutsche Welle and politics: German foreign broadcasting 1953-2013. UVK, Konstanz 2016, ISBN 978-3-86764-625-3
  • Hristina Krasteva: The makers of “Germany's calling card” Deutsche Welle: A qualitative study on how DW journalists see themselves . Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich 2007 ( full text )
  • Peter Niepalla: Deutsche Welle as a medium and factor in international communication. Institute for Broadcasting Economics at the University of Cologne, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-938933-26-8 ( full text )
  • Fritz Pleitgen: Cooperation between the regional broadcasters of ARD, ZDF and Deutsche Welle. Institute for Broadcasting Economics at the University of Cologne, Cologne 2006, ISBN 3-938933-19-4 ; ( Full text )
  • Dirk Klapperich: 'A thorn in my side': Deutsche Welle's Eastern Europe editorial team from the CSCE Final Act to the cooperation with Radio Moscow (1975 to 1990). m press Martin Meidenbauer, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-89975-651-7
  • Gabriele Rolfes: The Deutsche Welle - a political neuter in the Weimar state? Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1992, ISBN 3-631-44537-7
  • Norbert Nail: News from Cologne, London, Moscow and Prague. Studies on the use of language in German-language international broadcasts. Marburg 1981 (Marburg Studies in German Studies 1). ISBN 3-7708-0709-X
  • Norbert Breuer: "In the German wave valley". In: The whitewashed Sarotti-Mohr. Juwelen-Verlag, Tönisvorst. ISBN 978-3-945822-80-7

Web links

Commons : Deutsche Welle  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

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  2. ^ Deutsche Welle: DW director Peter Limbourg re-elected. September 28, 2020, accessed March 25, 2020 .
  3. Deutsche Welle (www.dw.com): DW pages now accessible via Tor browser - DW - 11/20/2019. In: dw.com. November 19, 2019, accessed November 24, 2019 .
  4. Shortwave: Which stations can you hear? Retrieved December 22, 2018 .
  5. a b Frequency overviews - radio | Reception of Deutsche Welle's TV programs in your region In: dw.com , accessed on January 23, 2019.
  6. Duden | trimedial | Spelling, meaning, definition, origin In: duden.de , accessed on January 23, 2019.
  7. ^ DWG - Law on the Broadcasting Corporation of Federal Law "Deutsche Welle". Retrieved April 7, 2017 .
  8. ^ Draft 2006-09: BT-Drs. 15/5200 ; 2010–13: BT-Drs. 17/1289 ; 2014–17: BT-Drs. 18/2536 ; 2018–21: BT-Drs. 19/372 (PDF)
  9. Evaluation report 2010: BT-Drs. 17/1290 (180 pages); 2013: BT-Drs. 17/14285 (PDF, 432 pages); 2017: BT-Drs. 19/373 (PDF, 304 pp.)
  10. a b subsection 4 DWG director of the Deutsche Welle law. Section 42 Paragraph 1. In: buzer.de Retrieved April 7, 2017 .
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  12. Section 61 of the Deutsche Welle Act
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  14. Organization | DW.COM. In: Deutsche Welle (dw.com). Retrieved April 7, 2017 .
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  21. Gaby Mayr: Influence of the churches on the media. Nobody dares the conflict. In: The daily newspaper . May 19, 2015, accessed May 3, 2016.
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  24. "Deutsche Welle, which has been broadcasting shortwave programs from Germany again since 1953, consciously ties in with the world broadcasting station from the Weimar period. The task has basically remained the same: to reflect a true picture of political, economic and cultural life, to be a bridge to compatriots out there in the world. ”From the foreword by artistic director Walter Steigner, from: With 8 kW around the World. German world radio in the Weimar period. History of shortwave broadcasting in Germany 1929–1932 Deutsche Welle Cologne (ed.). Verlag Haude & Spener 1969, ISBN 3-7759-0116-7 .
  25. a b 1953 - 1960: three hours via shortwave - in German | 65 years of DW In: dw.com, April 19, 2013.
  26. ^ Timetable for the cabinet minutes of the Federal Government 1960 of the Federal Archives
  27. a b Act on the establishment of broadcasters under federal law of November 29, 1960 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 862 )
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  29. Tim Attenberger: The demolition of the asbestos-contaminated high-rise is off the table, Kölner Stadtanzeiger, July 29, 2018
  30. Katja Lenz: Towers are being dismantled: demolition of the Deutsche Welle House no longer planned, Kölnische Rundschau, September 12, 2018
  31. Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) undated (accessed October 24, 2016)
  32. DW-Online: Karen Fischer and Christian Struwe - Reminder with questions from October 6, 2007 (accessed October 24, 2016)
  33. General-Anzeiger Bonn: Death on the Hindu Kush of October 9, 2006 (accessed October 24, 2016)
  34. Iran again disrupts reception of Deutsche Welle TV via Sat. digitalfernsehen.de. February 11, 2010, accessed May 3, 2016.
  35. Deutsche Welle on ARD .de. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
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  37. ^ Deutsche Welle: Changes in the broadcasting of linear radio programs . Press release. May 18, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2011.
  38. ^ Kai Ludwig: German DW program will be drastically shortened (PDF; 241 kB). In: Radio Kurier 3/2011. P. 15. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
  39. ^ German Bundestag: Majority for reform of Deutsche Welle . April 7, 2011. Retrieved April 7, 2011.
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