All India Radio
All India Radio
|Radio broadcaster (Corporation ( public service ))|
|reception||terrestrial , satellite , web radio|
|Start of transmission||April 1, 1930|
|List of radio stations|
All India Radio (also All-India Radio , abbreviation AIR ; Hindi आकाशवाणी Ākāśavāṇī , Akashvani , German 'Himmelsstimme') is India's public radio operator . Like the television provider Doordarshan, it is part of the Prasar Bharati radio and television company, which was founded in 1997 and is based in New Delhi .
The Indian Telegraph Act, 1885 gave the central government the telegraph monopoly. The first radio broadcast in India took place in August 1921 when The Times of India hosted a music broadcast in Bombay for the provincial governor Sir George Lloyd in Poona , 175 km away . In 1923 the Bombay Radio Club ( callsign 2FV) and the Radio Club of Bengal in Calcutta (2BZ) began their programs; The Madras Presidency Radio Club (2GR) followed in 1924 , and the Radio Club of Burma (2HZ) in 1926 .
Radio station in India at the end of 1939 with year of establishment and frequency in kHz (red: AIR; yellow: stations in princely states)
The Indian Broadcasting Company (IBC; General Manager: Eric C. Dunstan) was founded in 1927 with transmitters in Bombay (7BY-VUB, 840 kHz) and Calcutta (7CA-VUC, 810 kHz), but the private company went into liquidation as early as 1930 . It was replaced on April 1, 1930 by the Indian State Broadcasting Service (ISBS), known as All India Radio from June 8, 1936 .
There were other pioneering ventures in Lahore (1928–1937; organized by the YMCA ) and Madras (1930–1938; urban) as well as specifically for the rural population in Peshawar (1935–1937), Allahabad (1935–1938) and Dehradun (1936–1938) ).
Radio was also introduced in some of the princely states : Mysore (1935–1950, UN7MC; the name ಆಕಾಶವಾಣಿ Akashvani was first used here), Hyderabad (1935–1950, نشرگاہ لاسلکی حیدرآباد دکن Deccan Radio ), Baroda (1939–1948) and Travancore (1943-1950).
AIR soon had a network of nine stations: VUB Bombay and VUC Calcutta (since 1927), VUD Delhi (1936), VUP Peshawar and VUL Lahore (1937), VUW Lucknow and VUM Madras (1938), VUT Trichinopoly and VUY Dacca ( 1939). From 1937/38 there were also shortwave transmitters (Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras).
Parallel to the stations, program guides based on the model of the British Radio Times were founded : 1927 The Indian Radio Times (Bombay, renamed The Indian Listener in 1935, relocated to New Delhi in 1937), 1929 Betar Jagat ( বেতার জগৎ , Calcutta, in Bengali ), 1936 Avaz ( آواز/ आवाज़ , New Delhi, until 1938 bilingual in Urdu and Hindi, then only Urdu), 1938 Sarang ( सारंग , New Delhi, in Hindi), Vanoli ( வானொலி , Madras, in Tamil ) and Vani ( వాణి , Madras, in Telugu ). In 1958, The Indian Listener and Sarang were renamed Akashvani (until 1987; ).
The number of receiving licenses rose from 3,594 at the end of 1927 to over 10,000 in 1933, over 20,000 in 1935, over 50,000 at the end of 1937 and almost 74,000 at the end of 1939.
With independence in August 1947, three of the nine stations went to Radio Pakistan ; six stations and 18 transmission systems remained, of which 2.5 percent of the country and around 11 percent of the population could be reached. On November 12, 1947, Gandhi gave his only radio address.
The program of the regional primary channels consists of in-house productions and acquisitions from New Delhi. In October 1957, the Vividh Bharati program, which is still popular today, started as a competitor to Radio Ceylon . Since 1957, AIR has also been known as Akashvani . The youth program Yuv-Vani (Voice of Youth) began in July 1969. The National Channel broadcast a night program for all of India over medium and short wave ( Nagpur 1566 kHz) from May 1988 to January 2019 .
The foreign service was separated from the newsroom in 1948; Mehra Masani was the director for 14 years. The Urdu service began in October 1965 / May 1966. There were also new language services in Swahili (1953), Nepali (1960), Tibetan (1964), Sinhala (1966), Sindhi (1971), Russian (1971) and Balochish (1974) ).
In the domestic intelligence service, regional news centers (Regional News Units, RNUs) were established from 1954/55. As a result of the Indo-Chinese border war in 1962, the daily programs Spotlight and Samayiki (under these names since 1967) were created. On June 30, 1974, the domestic news service introduced short messages in Sanskrit (spokesperson: Baldev Anand Sagar).
From 1959 until the organizational separation of Doordarshan in 1976, AIR also hosted television programs. In 1970 the number of radio reception licenses was 11.8 million, that of television reception licenses was just under 250,000, ten years later (1980) 17.8 and 1.5 million respectively. Advertisement was on Vividh Bharati in 1967, on television Introduced in 1976 and on the Primary Channel in 1982. In 1985 the license fee was abolished.
Trial broadcasts on VHF began in 1977. In 1984 the first local VHF station came (in Nagercoil ), in 1993 the music station FM Rainbow (until 2002 FM Metro ), in 2001 the infotainment station FM Gold , and since 2004 Amruthavarshini has been broadcasting classical carnatic music in Bangalore . From 1993 to 1998 AIR sold FM airtime to private providers such as Times FM (predecessor of Radio Mirchi) and Radio Mid-Day .
The monopoly position that the state broadcaster previously had was broken from 2001 onwards by the increasing number of private radio stations (among the first were Radio City Bangalore and Radio Mirchi in Indore in 2001, Red FM in 2002 ). In the big cities, the private FM broadcasters have overtaken All India Radio in terms of audience numbers.
Today All India Radio has a network of 590 stations (145 MW , 397 FM , 48 KW ) at 414 locations (218 of which have their own studios), which covers 92.0 percent of the national territory and reaches 99.2 percent of the population. AIR broadcasts in 24 languages and 146 dialects. The more powerful medium wave transmitters in the Delhi area are also known under the names Indraprastha ('city of Indras', 819 kHz) and Rajdhani ('capital', 666 kHz). The programs can also be received abroad via shortwave.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi has been addressing the population once a month since October 2014 with his Man ki Bat program on All India Radio.
The music channel Raagam ( classical Indian music ) started in January 2016 .
List of Directors General
- 1935–1940 Lionel Fielden (Controller of Broadcasting)
- 1940–1947 Ahmed Shah (Patras) Bokhari
- 1947-1948 PC Chaudhuri
- 1948-1950 NAS Lakshmanan
- 1950-1954, M. Lal
- 1954-1955 CB Rao
- 1955-1960 JC Mathur
- 1960-1965 BP Bhatt
- 1965 YN Verma
- 1965–1968 VK Narayana Menon
- 1968–1972 AK Sen
- 1972–1974 SK Mukerjee
- 1974-1979 PC Chatterji
- 1979 SK Sehgal
- 1979-1981 UL Baruah
- 1981-1982 KC Sharma
- 1982-1983 Suresh Mathur
- 1983–1985 SS Verma
- Prasar Bharati
- All India Radio with 17 live streams
- News on AIR (daily 654 news programs in 91 languages / dialects) - program schedule , podcasts
- airworldservice.org , External Services Division (ESD)
- AIR Bengaluru
- Report on the progress of broadcasting in India . Up to the 31st March 1939. Manager of Publications, 1940 ( online ).
- HR Luthra: Indian broadcasting . Publications Division, 1986 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Report on the progress of broadcasting in India (1939), p. 209 , map
- Radio Hyderabad
- QSL card from 1946
- Title Sheet Edition 18/1943 and 11/1944
- on the language question in radio also Tariq Rahman: Urdu in the radio (PDF) In: Politeja 3 (17) / 2011, pp. 259–270
- Title Page Issue 7/1983
- Alasdair Pinkerton: Radio and the Raj (PDF): broadcasting in British India (1920-1940). In: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 18 (2008), pp. 167-191
- youtube.com , the day is called since 2001 Public Service Broadcasting Day celebrated
- Example: AIR Thiruvananthapuram program plan
- Mass media in India 1992
- Radioeins.de: austerity measures at All India Radio
- Not in news ... In: The Hindu , September 1, 2014
- List of existing stations and transmitters (as of January 1, 2015)
- Program plan Indraprastha Channel (2012) (requires DV_Divyae.ttf ( Memento from October 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ))
- Lok Sabha , Unstarred Question No. 7110 ( Memento from February 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (2005)
- Prime Minister's Radio Program ( Memento from December 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) http://www.narendramodi.in/mannkibaat/