|Province :||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa|
2 257 km²
|Residents :||1,970,042 (2017)|
|Population density :||873 inhabitants per km²|
|Time zone :||PST ( UTC + 5 )|
|Telephone code :||(+92) 092|
|Postal code :||25,000
|Nazim ( Mayor ) :||Haji Ghulam Ali|
Peshawar ( Urdu پشاور Pēšāwar , Pashtun پېښور; from Persian پیشاور, DMG Pīšāwar ; English Peshawar ; German historical Pastewka ) [ peˈʃaːwɐɾ ] is the capital of the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with around 1,970,000 inhabitants (as of 2017). Before the division of British India , the city was called Puruschapura or Puschpapura , derived from Sanskrit, puruṣaḥ '= man ,, pūḥ' (tribe, pur- ') = city, d. H. "City of Men"; or Puschpapura , which means something like "city of flowers", from Sanskrit, puṣpa (m) '= blossom. Peshawar is located at the eastern exit of the Chaiber Pass .
Peshawar has several universities.
Peshawar was founded by the kings of Gandhara over 2,000 years ago and has been a trading center between the Indian subcontinent , Afghanistan and Central Asia for centuries . The city was the eastern capital of the Kushan Empire under Kanishka . This king had the largest stupa at that time, about 120 m high, built by the builder Agischala. Marco Polo visited the city in 1275.
In 1530 Babur , the founder of the Mughal Empire , built a fortress. Later, the construction of the Delhi-Kabul Road and the creation of gardens under Sher Khan Suri initiated a real boom in Peshawar.
In 1834 the Sikhs under Maharajah Ranjit Singh invaded Peshawar and set large parts of the city on fire. The Sikhs ruled Peshawar for over 30 years. After the collapse of the Sikh empire over disputes in the Maharaja's family, the British took control of the city. At that time the city was the capital of the North West Frontier and one of the largest garrisons of the British Indian Army .
Before September 2001 , Osama bin Laden had a guest house here which, among other things, housed his terrorist fighters. According to the Saudi Arabian dissident Saad Al-Faqih , this house's guest list is the origin of the term Al-Qaeda .
The majority of the inhabitants of Peshawar are Pashtuns . Pashtuns make up an important population group in the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the majority of the population in the tribal areas under the administration of the Pakistani central government. However, Pashtuns also live in Afghanistan , where they in turn form the largest ethnic group.
On April 19, 2010, two bomb attacks were carried out in Peshawar; the first killed an eight-year-old boy outside a school and injured at least ten people; Several hours later, a suicide bombing took place in Qissa Khwani market, where a demonstration by Jamaat-e-Islami supporters took place, killing at least 25 people.
On June 8, 2012, a bomb attack on a bus carrying government employees on Charsadda Street in Peshawar killed 19 people and injured 20 people.
On September 22, 2013, at least 61 people were killed and over 120 injured in a suicide attack on the All Saints Protestant church in the city. In response to the attack, protests erupted in Peshawar, Karachi , Lahore , Faisalabad and Multan ; the protests in Karachi were partly violent.
On September 27, 2013, 19 people were killed and 44 injured in a bomb attack on a bus carrying government employees on Charsadda Street in Peshawar.
On September 29, 2013, 33 people were killed and 75 injured in a bomb attack in Peshawar's Qissa Khwani near a police station.
On September 2, 2016, several suicide bombers tried to break into a Christian neighborhood in Peshawar but were stopped by security forces. Four attackers and one civilian were killed in the exchange of fire; three security guards and two civilian guards were injured.
Peshawar is an ancient Indian trading and cultural center, whose political and economic importance was recognized very early by the English. Long before England became a now former world empire, the city was an important trading center. This importance was increased by the activity of London trade and economic agents. Until well into the first half of the 20th century, Peshawar therefore represented a veritable dominion over Afghanistan from an economic point of view. The vast majority of Afghan imported goods were distributed from here and the vast majority of products from Afghanistan went to those then Indian Frontier trading place.
An unimportant, hardly known trade item in Peshawar was Bukhara - Persian , the skin of the Russian Karakul sheep . In 1919 the Russian military occupied Bukhari. To avoid expropriation by the communists, the most important karakul sheep farmers left the country and drove their herds to Persia and Afghanistan. The Peshawar fur merchants recognized the importance of this trade article and supported the immigrants financially, as it was said, with the help of English donors. In 1919, the city became a Persian stacking place, literally overnight. New York and London purchasing agencies maintained their permanent representations here. In the very short period of time from 1919 to 1925, the annual turnover increased from 1,000 to 600,000 karakul skins and continued to grow from then on. In 1925 two English bank branches opened there, solely to finance the Persian trade. For 1934 annual sales were estimated at 750,000 to 800,000 Persian and broadtail skins .
- The Peshawar Museum is near the train station. It contains an important collection of Gandhara art works, including the Kanishka reliquary with dotted Kharoshthi inscriptions , a valuable relief ornate pediment part of slate , the torso of a "fasting Buddha" and the head of a Greco-Roman "Buddha with mustache".
- The 17th century Mahabat Khan Mosque , named after a former governor of Peshawar, is the only mosque from the time of the Mughal emperors to survive the devastation of the Sikhs. General Aritabile, military adviser to Ranjit Singh , used her minaret as a gallows.
- Fort Balahisar was built by the Sikhs in 1834 and later rebuilt by the British. It is used today by the Pakistani army.
- On the Chowk Yagdar, the “Square of Remembrance”, in the middle of which there is a memorial for those who died in the Indian wars, political speeches are held according to old tradition.
- Of the Gor Khatri caravanserai , which was built by Shah Jahan's daughter, only the Mughal Gate remains. The Sikhs had destroyed the caravanserai and replaced it with the Gorakhnath and Nandi temples.
- Khyber University, founded in 1950, is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan and is particularly known for its medical, social and natural science research departments.
Because of the Afghan civil war and the Soviet invasion , many refugees have been accepted in Peshawar since the 1980s. On the grounds of the former refugee camp Nasir Bagh and Katcha Garhi ( ) creates the new community since regi Lalma of 2002. In 2007 Shamshatoo and Jalozai are still large refugee camps in the Peshawar area. Many Afghans have settled in the Hayatabad district. One of the two UNHCR centers in Pakistan for Voluntary Repatriation Center (PRC) is also located in Hayatabad. The other UNHCR center is in Baleli ( ) northwest of Quetta .
At the end of 2007 there were around two million registered Afghans in exile in Pakistan.
- Asanga (* 4th century), representative of the Yogacara school of Buddhist philosophy
- Khushal Khan Khattak (1613–1689), Pashtun poet
- Mulk Raj Anand (1905-2004), Indian novelist and short story writer and art critic
- Dilip Kumar (* 1922), Indian actor
- Raj Kapoor (1924–1988), Indian actor and director
- Roshan Khan (1929-2006), squash player and coach
- Vinod Khanna (1946–2017), Indian actor, film producer and politician
- Maqsood Ahmed (* 1957), squash player
- Umar Hayat Khan (* 1964), squash player
- Jansher Khan (* 1969), squash player
- Amjad Khan (* 1980), squash player
- Mansoor Zaman (* 1980), squash player
- Safeer Ullah Khan (* 1985), squash player
- Farhan Mehboob (* 1988), squash player
- Aamir Atlas Khan (* 1990), squash player
- Danish Atlas Khan (* 1994), squash player
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Peshawar
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- University of Peshawar
- English-language daily newspaper from Peshawar and Quetta
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