from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
State : PakistanPakistan Pakistan
Province : Are
Coordinates : 24 ° 52 '  N , 67 ° 1'  E Coordinates: 24 ° 51 '36 "  N , 67 ° 0' 36"  E

Height : m
Area : 3 527  km²

Residents : 14,910,352 (2017)
- Metropolitan area : 15,700,000 (2017)
Population density : 4,227 inhabitants per km²
Time zone : PST ( UTC + 5 )
Telephone code : (+92) 021
Postal code : 74000-75900
License plate : KA and KC

Structure : 18 boroughs
Website :
Karachi (Pakistan)

Karachi ( Urdu كراچى Karācī , Sindhi ڪراچي, English Karachi ) is the largest city in Pakistan and the capital of Sindh Province ; until 1959 it was the Pakistani capital.

With a population of 14.9 million (2017), Karachi is one of the largest cities in the world . 16.9 million people live in the agglomeration (2018). There is no residence registration authority in Pakistan; the specified population figures are therefore extrapolations based on the census results.

The administrative area of ​​Karachi is not a contiguous urban area, but rather - with its rural settlement structure that dominates outside the core city - rather comparable to a small province.

The city is an economic, trade and production center, transport hub, cultural center with numerous universities, colleges, research institutes, museums, galleries and monuments as well as the largest port in the country. One of the most important sights is Mazar-e-Quaid, the mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876-1948), who was born in the city and is buried there.


Geographical location

Satellite image of Karachi

Karachi is located on the western edge of the delta of the mouth of the Indus into the Arabian Sea on a plain surrounded by hills on the western and northern borders of the urban agglomeration, an average of 22 meters above sea level.

Two rivers flow through the city, the Malir from the northeast to the center and the Liari from the north to the south. Many other smaller rivers and sewage flow south from the western and northern parts of the city. The port of Karachi is located in a sheltered bay in the southwest of the city.

The entire Karachi administrative region covers an area of ​​3527 square kilometers. This corresponds to one and a half times the floor area of ​​the Saarland . Of these, 591 square kilometers (17 percent) belong to the core city (high density of buildings and closed local form). 2936 square kilometers (83 percent) consist of suburbs and areas with rural settlement structure.


The broad Indus-Ganges lowland separates the mountain wall from the clod of the Deccan and forms a fore-depth of the folds of the mountain range, piled up by powerful young sediments . The city of Karachi is located in the arid lower Indus region, the last link of the lowland zone. The only watercourses here are the short rivers of the western peripheral areas, the water of which is completely consumed by small, separate irrigation oases, and the Indus itself, in whose valley a river oasis up to 40 kilometers wide extends.

While on the coast of the Indian Ocean east of the Indus delta a large, temporarily flooded salt marsh, the Rann von Kachchh , cannot be used for agriculture, the Indus delta itself is well built up to the mangrove-rich , swampy coast. The Indus region has become one of the most important cotton-growing areas in South Asia. The main port of export is Karachi to the west of the mouth of the Indus, a major hub for international airlines.

City structure

Karachi is divided into the following 18 districts (1998 census):

district Residents percent
Baldia 406.165 4.50
Am Qasim 316.684 3.37
Gadap 289,564 3.08
Gulberg 453,490 4.82
Gulshan 625.230 6.65
Jamshed 733.821 7.81
Kiamari 383.778 4.08
Korangi 546.504 5.81
Landhi 666.748 7.09
district Residents percent
Liaquatabad 649.091 6.90
Lyari 607.992 6.47
Malir 398.289 4.24
New Karachi 684.183 7.28
North Nazimabad 496.194 5.28
Orangi 723.694 7.70
Saddar 616.151 6.55
Shah Faisal 335.823 3.57
SITE 467.560 4.97

SITE is short for Sindh Industrial Trading Estate.


The city is located on the edge of the tropical climate zone . The maximum temperatures are 35 to 38 degrees Celsius with steady wind in summer from the southwest and in winter from the northeast and little rain.

The monthly average temperatures fluctuate between 19.1 degrees Celsius in January and 30.7 degrees Celsius in June; the annual average temperature is 26 degrees Celsius.

Only the month of July is humid , with a total of only 167.6 millimeters of precipitation per year, as the south of Pakistan is only touched by the foothills of the summer monsoon . Most precipitation falls in July with an average of 66.4 millimeters, no precipitation falls in May.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: WMO , wetter.com ; wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Karachi
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 25.6 26.4 28.8 30.6 32.3 33.3 32.2 30.8 30.7 31.6 30.5 27.3 O 30th
Min. Temperature (° C) 14.1 15.9 20.3 23.7 26.1 27.9 27.4 26.2 25.3 23.5 20.0 15.7 O 22.2
Precipitation ( mm ) 3.6 6.4 8.3 4.9 0.0 3.9 66.4 44.8 22.8 0.3 1.7 4.5 Σ 167.6
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 8.7 8.8 8.8 9.2 9.6 7.7 5.0 4.8 7.3 9.1 9.1 8.8 O 8.1
Humidity ( % ) 49 52 55 59 65 67 74 75 69 56 50 49 O 60
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec



Originally a group of small villages including the village of Eekalachi-jo-kun and the Manora Fortress stood in the area of ​​the present city. Nearchus , Admiral of Alexander the Great , sailed in 326 BC. At the end of his campaign to conquer India to a place called Krokola, presumably on the site of Karachi . When Muhammad ibn al-Qasim came to the Sindh in 712, he conquered the village of Debul, which was probably also in what is now the urban area of ​​Karachi.

In 1729 the settlement Kolachi-jo-goth ("Kolachis pond") was founded, named after a fisherman from the area. A trading post for the exchange of goods with Muscat and Bahrain soon developed from the fishing village . The fortification consisted of earth walls that workers from Arabia had built. The cannons were delivered from Muscat. The settlement had two entrances, one with a view of the sea, called kharadar ("brackish gate"), and one with a view of the Lyari River, called mithadar ("sweet gate"). The first written mention comes from an envoy of Nadir Shah who reported on his stay in the city in 1742. In 1795 the city was transferred from the Khan of Kalat to the Talpur ruler of Sindh. Karachi gained a position as the main port and as a result it became an important city.

British colonial times

Karachi 1889
British family on Elphinstone Street 1914

The importance of the Indus and Sindh moved the British to conquer the city on February 3, 1839. This marked the beginning of an era of foreign rule and colonial subordination that did not end until 1947. A famous quote about Karachi, attributed to General Charles Napier (1782-1853), reads: "would that I could come again to see you in your grandeur!". Napier's quote prophesied that Karachi would grow under British rule after the expansion of its port, which began in 1854.

On September 10, 1857, the 21st Infantry Division, which consisted of locals and was stationed in Karachi, swore allegiance to Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar (1775–1862) and took part in the Indian uprising of 1857 . She was defeated by the British, who regained control within days. During the North American Civil War , Karachi was also the main export port for cotton . The cholera came here repeatedly (1866, 1868 and 1870) with great vehemence. In 1858–1861 the railway line from Karachi to Kotri was built, which crosses the Indus. In the 19th century, the city gained commercial importance due to the rapid increase in wheat cultivation in the northwestern provinces and rivaled Bombay in this regard .

Karachi developed into a city of cobbled streets, courts and commercial centers as a result of the activities of the British East India Company . The port, located at the northern end of the Indus delta, developed rapidly as a result of the silting up of the port of Shah Bandar.

In 1881 Karachi had 73,560 inhabitants, of which 5,228 were in Cantonment. Many of the buildings were built in the classic British style and contrasted with the "Mughal Gothic" in Lahore . Some of these old buildings are still standing and are interesting destinations for visitors. The founder of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah , was born in the city in 1876 and was also buried after his death in 1948.

The railroad connected Karachi with other parts of British India since the 1880s. In 1899 Karachi was the largest wheat exporting port in the east. In 1911, when the capital was relocated to Delhi , Karachi became a gateway to India. Karachi was declared the capital of the newly formed Sindh Province in 1936 and was preferred to the traditional capital Hyderabad .


Tin Talwar Chowrangi (Three Swords Roundabout), Clifton

On August 14, 1947, the state of Pakistan emerged from the predominantly Muslim parts of British India and Karachi, which at that time had 425,000 inhabitants, and became the capital of the state. In the course of the partition and after the outbreak of the First Indo-Pakistani War on October 22, 1947, numerous Muslims left what is now India. The capital's population exploded due to the large number of refugee camps. In 1959, Islamabad replaced Karachi as the country's capital.

In 1965, during the Second Indo-Pakistani War, Indian planes dropped bombs on Karachi. Air battles took place over the city, in which the Pakistani air defense shot down several Indian planes and crashed into residential areas. Numerous people were killed and many buildings were destroyed. In the Third Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 there were renewed attacks by the Indian Air Force on Karachi. The main goals were military installations and strategically important civil infrastructures . The Indian Navy attacked the port with missiles. Port facilities and several ships were destroyed.

Karachi has continued to grow since the 1970s and had a population of around 9.3 million at the 1998 census . It's a city with very diverse neighborhoods, ranging from the high-end Clifton and Defense areas to numerous slums ( bastis ) that are home to the large numbers of migrants who have flocked to Karachi looking for future opportunities.

Current problems in Karachi are the rising crime rate and numerous ethnic conflicts that are rocking Pakistan. Karachi has been the epicenter of numerous civil unrest since the 1980s and continues to be the site of religious violence between Sunnis and Shiites . The first major ethnic conflict in April 1985 between slum dwellers of the Mohajirs and Biharis on the one hand and armed Pathans on the other for dominance in certain residential areas ( mohallas ) claimed at least 100 lives. The size of Karachi also led many terrorists to base their bases here, and as a result, attacks have been carried out against foreigners by militant groups affiliated with al-Qaeda . In 2003, an al-Qaeda member named Tawfiq bin Attash was arrested in Karachi.

On July 27, 2003, the 40,000-tonne oil tanker “Tasman Spirit” ran aground off the coast of Karachi. After the ship broke up on August 14, 2003, about 12,000 tons of oil spilled into the sea. Several stretches of coast were contaminated and the ecosystem of the nearby mangrove forests was damaged. Thousands of birds, fish and sea turtles died.

According to the Pakistani Interior Ministry, 57 people died in a bomb attack on 11 April 2006 on a church service by Sunni Muslims in Nishtar Park. Among the dead was the entire leadership of the party, Sunni Tehrik, and two other prominent religious leaders. The result was strikes and riots that lasted for several days. Information Minister Sheikh Rashid described the attack as an attempt to destabilize "anti-state and anti-Islamic elements".

On October 18, 2007, the former Prime Minister of Pakistan , Benazir Bhutto , returned to her hometown Karachi after eight years of exile, against the opposition of President Pervez Musharraf . Bhutto's return from exile was highly acclaimed, but the celebrations came to an abrupt end in one of the bloodiest attacks in Pakistani history. Shortly after midnight on October 19, 2007, two explosive devices exploded in the immediate vicinity of Bhutto's convoy. At that time, their motorcade was halfway from the airport to the mausoleum of the founder of the state, Jinnah, in downtown Karachi. 135 people were killed in the suicide attack, Bhutto himself was uninjured. Bhutto blamed supporters of the former military ruler and President Mohammed Zia ul-Haq for the attack. She was killed a few weeks later, on December 27, 2007, in an assassination attempt in Rawalpindi .

On November 11, 2010, 15 people died in a bomb attack on the headquarters of the criminal police. The Taliban claimed responsibility for the attack.

Ethnic unrest 2011

In July 2011, more than 300 people were killed in political clashes, 44 of them in the last three days of the month. Hand grenades and rocket launchers were used. The exact reason for the conflict has not been fully clarified, but ethnic reasons and the hostility between the Muttahida Qaumi movement (MQM) and the Awami National Party (ANP) are suspected to be the driving forces. From July 30th to August 2nd, 30 people died in the unrest, despite massive efforts by the security forces. At least two buses and a street restaurant were also set on fire. Violence escalated again following the murder of Ahmed Karimdad , a former PPP MP, on August 17. At least 42 people were killed within 24 hours in battles that also included hand grenades and bazookas.

On September 19, a suicide attack was carried out on Karachi chief detective Chaudhry Aslam . Eight people died in the process. Aslam was unharmed. The Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan claimed responsibility for the attack. Aslam was killed in a car bomb attack on January 10, 2014.

Aviation accident 2020

On May 22, 2020, an aircraft accident occurred near Karachi in which around 100 passengers were killed. The passenger plane operated by Pakistan International Airlines crashed a few minutes before landing in a residential area.


Population development

Business district
Kemari boat harbor

The city's population has grown at an enormous rate. It has increased tenfold since the mid-1950s. Karachi is currently one of the largest cities in the world. As a result, Karachi is facing problems that are central to many developing metropolises : rural exodus, overpopulation, traffic, terrorism, crime. The entire administrative area of ​​Karachi has 12.8 million inhabitants (2009). The population density is 3,533 inhabitants per square kilometer. In comparison, there are 3,800 in Berlin . In the metropolitan area , 15.7 million people (2009) live. For 2050 a population of over 31 to 37 million people is expected in the metropolitan area.

The population distribution according to the 1998 census: men make up 53.7 percent of the population of Karachi. 37.6 percent of the population are under 15 years of age. 4.4 percent are older than 50 years. 22.1 percent are immigrants . The literacy rate in the years 2014/15 for the population over 10 years of age was 82% (women: 78%, men: 85%) and thus well above the national average of 60%.

The following overview shows the population of the city (excluding the suburbs). Up to 1998 these are census results, 2005 and 2009 are projections.

year Residents
1856 56,875
1872 56,753
1881 73,560
1891 105.199
1901 136.297
1911 186,771
1921 244.162
1931 300,799
1941 435,887
Year / date Residents
February 28, 1951 1,068,459
February 1, 1961 1,912,598
October 16, 1972 3,426,310
March 1, 1981 5,208,132
March 2, 1998 9,269,265
January 1, 2005 11,624,219
January 1, 2009 12,827,927
15th March 2017 14,916,456

Ethnic composition

A significant part of the population growth has been caused by immigration since the beginning of colonial development. The immigrants came, in accordance with the international and supraregional importance of the city, not only from the neighboring hinterland, but from all over Pakistan and neighboring countries. The result is a conglomerate of people from different ethnic and linguistic backgrounds.

Before 1947, Karachi owned communities of Sindhis, Baluch , Parsees, Hindus, Christians, Jews, Goans, Armenians, Chinese, British, Lebanese, and Gujaratis. After Pakistan gained independence, large numbers of Sindhi Hindus and Sindhi Sikhs fled the city to India and were replaced by Muslim refugees, also known as muhajirs . The Muhajirs migrated from different parts of India, but the majority of them spoke Urdu.

After the Pakistani civil war in 1971, thousands of Biharis and Bengalis from Bangladesh came to the city, followed by refugees from Myanmar and Uganda . Since 1979, due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and other changes in the country, a steady stream of Afghan refugees has flowed into the city, who also have permanent residents in and around Karachi. These refugees of more than 1.5 million people comprise a range of ethnic groups, most notably Pashtuns and Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Nuristani and Turkmens. Many other refugees from Iran , Tajikistan , Bangladesh, Myanmar and African countries live permanently in the city. With 3.5 million ethnic Pashtuns, Karachi has one of the largest populations of Pashtuns in the world.


Textile merchant

According to the 1998 census, languages ​​are distributed as follows: Urdu 48.52 percent; Punjabi 13.94 percent; Pashto 11.42 percent; Sindhi 7.22 percent; Baluchish 4.34 percent; Seraiki 2.11 percent; Another 12.4 percent. The other languages ​​include Gujarati , Brahui, and Bengali .

Urdu and English are official languages. English is mainly used as the language of business and education in Karachi universities, while Urdu is the lingua franca of most of the population. Standard Urdu is used as the language of instruction in the vast majority of schools (primary and secondary levels).

Three other important languages ​​are also Indo-Aryan languages ​​that are related to Urdu: Punjabi, Sindhi and Siraiki - sometimes considered the Punjabi dialect. Only Sindhi is widely used as a written language. In Karachi there are people from the Mumbai (formerly Bombay) area who still speak Gujarati.

Population by language affiliation
1981 in% 1998 in%
Urdu 54.34 48.52
Punjabi 13.64 13.94
Pashto 8.71 11.42
Sindhi 6.29 7.22
Baluchish 4.39 4.34
Seraiki 0.35 2.11
Other 12.27 12.44


St. Patrick's Cathedral

According to the 1998 census, the religions in Karachi are represented as follows: Muslims 96.45 percent (1941 it was 42.0 percent); Christians 2.42 percent; Hindus 0.83 percent (1941 it was 51.0 percent); Ahmadiyya 0.17 percent, untouchable castes 0.03 percent, others 0.13 percent. The other religions include Parsees and Buddhists . The majority of the residents traditionally practice an orthodox form of Islam.

Religious minorities, such as Hindus, are strongly oppressed and are not allowed to show their beliefs in public. The majority of the Muslims are Sunnis . However, Sunni Islam does not present itself as a unit. Rather, it is divided into several schools of thought. The Deobandis are strongly represented in Karachi. They are Hanafis , represent a strict interpretation of Islamic law and, in contrast to the Barelwis, reject the worship of graves and saints.

The Christians of Karachi are mostly descendants of untouchables who converted to Christianity during the British colonial era. Others, however, descend from Goans , who at that time were often employed as servants of the colonial rulers. The Roman Catholic Church and the Church of Pakistan , which emerged from several British Protestant denominations, are roughly equally strong, plus some churches founded by US missions. Karachi is the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Karachi .

Karachi District population by religion, 1998
Male Female total Percentage ownership %
Muslims 5,123,126 4,382,909 9.506.035 96.45
Christians 113,667 124.905 238,572 2.42
Hindus 42,384 39.214 81,598 0.83
Ahmadiyya 8,945 8,044 16,989 0.17
Untouchable boxes 1,575 1,595 3,170 0.03
Other 5,170 4,784 9,954 0.10
total 5,306,105 4,550,213 9,856,318 100.00


City government

Building of the Karachi Municipal Corporation

The city is administered by the Karachi District Government (CDGK). The CDGK has an elected city council that oversees the CDGK. Syed Mustafa Kamal has been mayor (Nazim) of Karachi since October 17, 2005. He replaced Naimatullah Khan in his office, who ruled the city between August 14, 2001 and May 2005.

Each municipality has its own district council and mayor. The current city government system was established in 2000. This has created some tension between the city government and existing authorities and city authorities, as a result of some confusion over the distribution of power.

Town twinning

Karachi has partnerships with the following cities:

United StatesUnited States Chicago ( USA )
IndiaIndia Delhi ( India )
Saudi ArabiaSaudi Arabia Jeddah ( Saudi Arabia )
United Arab EmiratesUnited Arab Emirates Dubai ( United Arab Emirates )
TurkeyTurkey Izmir ( Turkey )
IndiaIndia Calcutta ( India )
LebanonLebanon Beirut ( Lebanon )
United KingdomUnited Kingdom London ( Great Britain )
IndiaIndia Mumbai ( India )
MauritiusMauritius Port Louis ( Mauritius )
China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China Shanghai ( PR China )
UzbekistanUzbekistan Tashkent ( Uzbekistan )
Hong KongHong Kong Hong Kong
TurkeyTurkey Istanbul ( Turkey )
BangladeshBangladesh Dhaka ( Bangladesh )
United StatesUnited States Houston ( USA )
BahrainBahrain Manama ( Bahrain )
KosovoKosovo Pristina ( Kosovo )
MalaysiaMalaysia Kuala Lumpur ( Malaysia )

Culture and sights


Mohatta Palace Museum

The National Museum , Mohatta Palace Museum, Pakistani Air Force Museum, and Pakistani Naval Museum catalog the history of what is now Pakistan and South Asia.

The national museum houses numerous exhibits of the Indus culture as well as everyday objects and art objects about the Buddhist and Islamic culture. Outstanding are sculptures from the Buddhist Gandhara culture (around 500 BC) , for example . The history of the country since 1947 can be experienced in picture and text documents.

Other important museums in Karachi are the Mazar-e-Quaid Museum, the Aga Khan Museum and the Karachi Expo Center .


Frere Hall
Mazare Quaid

One of the main tourist attractions in the city is Mazar-e-Quaid , the mausoleum of the founder of Pakistan, Mohammed Ali Jinnah (1876-1948). The building was constructed from white marble in the 1960s . At night, the mausoleum is illuminated with powerful spotlights from the surrounding park. Ceremonies are held there on special occasions. Numerous state guests from abroad also visit this place. There is a changing of the guard three times a day.

The Masjid-e-Tooba is another attraction. Built in 1969 from white marble, the mosque has a diameter of 72 meters and a minaret with a height of 70 meters. The roof rests on a low outer wall with no central support pillars. The central prayer hall has a capacity of 5,000 people.

Ancient buildings like the Wazir Villa and Hindu Gymkhana are also tourist attractions. Well-known churches are St. Patrick's Cathedral , St. Joseph's Convent , St. Anthony's Church and Trinity Church. The Frere Hall, Denso Hall and Khaliqdina Hall are a group of old buildings with interesting architecture and history.

The Frere Hall was built in 1865 in honor of Henry Bartle Edward Frere (1815-1884) in the British colonial style. Frere was a promoter of the economic development of Karachi and had the port expanded. The building is in the center of the city near the US Embassy and the Marriott Hotel.

The Merewether Memorial Tower was built between 1884 and 1892. The memorial is located near II Chundrigar Road and MA Jinnah Road and bears the name of General William L. Merewether, "Commissioner-in-Sindh" between 1868 and 1877.

The Jehangir Kothari Parade is located on the beach in Clifton. The colonial-style, terraced building bears the name of Jehangir H. Kothari, a promoter of the development of leisure facilities in Karachi. The foundation stone was laid by the Governor of Bombay, George Lloyd, on February 10, 1919 and the opening of Lady Lloyd on January 5, 1920. The Lady Lloyd Pier , named after her, was opened on March 21, 1921. In 1923, the building ensemble was completed with the opening of the Jehangir Kothari Pavilion .

The countless tombs of the Chaukhandi burial ground east of Karachi are unique. Although they were built between the 16th and 18th centuries, they show no resemblance to Mughal architecture. Rather, the stone carvings show typical Sindhi motifs, probably dating back to pre-Islamic times, such as flowers.


Flamingos in the zoo

Karachi is home to numerous gardens and parks. One of the most famous parks is the Gandhi Garden . In 1843 the government bought a piece of land that was then used for agriculture. In 1869 a garden was started there and the zoo was opened in 1893. In 1960/1961, buildings with shops and offices were built on the edge of the park. Other parks include Burns Garden on Court Road, Hill Park in Jamshed Town, and Aziz Bhatti Park in Gulshan-e-Iqbal.

Aladdin Park , an entertainment park for the whole family, opened in 1996 . It has a water park with an Olympic pool, a children's pool and a wave pool, a shopping center and several restaurants. In the fishing village you can have a barbecue , go by boat or mini-train. Other amusement parks include Dream World Resort on Super Highway, Safari Park on University Road, and Jibes Playland, Finland and Bowling Allay in New Clifton.


Cricket is the national sport in Pakistan, so there is almost always a game in Karachi. Football and hockey are becoming increasingly popular with the public. Games can be seen in the stadium and many other sports fields in the city; and Polo is played a lot. Horse races are held in Karachi in winter. Boxing matches and squash are also attracting increasing public interest.

There are several golf clubs in the city. Many sports clubs have tennis courts. As with golf, tennis requires a member to be introduced to the club or a temporary membership through the Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation. The biggest clubs in Karachi are: Karachi Gymkhana, Sindh Club, Karachi Club, Muslim Gymkhana, Creek Club and DHA Club.

Water sports can be practiced on the beaches and in the swimming pools of clubs and larger hotels. It is possible to rent a Keamari sailing or motor boat. Night fishing on the sea is also an option.

The following sports stadiums are located in Karachi: For cricket (National Stadium, UBL Sports Complex, AO Cricket Stadium, KCCI Cricket Ground, Karachi Gymkhana Field and DHA Cricket Stadium), for hockey (Hockey Stadium of Pakistan and UBL Hockey Ground), for boxing ( KPT Sports Complex), for squash (Jehangir Khan Squash Complex) and for soccer (Peoples Football Stadium and Polo Grounds).

freetime and recreation

Riding camel on Clifton Beach

Clifton Beach in Karachi is located on the Arabian Sea and offers numerous entertainment options for families and tourists. These include horse and camel riding, visits to amusement parks and restaurants. Green turtles can be seen in Hawkesbay Beach when they lay their eggs in the sun-warmed sand.

Other beaches that serve the recreation of Karachi people are Sandspit Beach, French Beach, Russian Beach and Paradise Point (a sandstone rock with a natural arch). In the bays it is possible to swim, take boat tours and ride a camel. A lot has been invested near the beaches in recent years, including a number of new office buildings and hotels.

Economy and Infrastructure


View of IIChundrigar Road, the center of the financial district

Karachi has a diverse industry. The city's economy is centered on iron making, cement works, flour mills, and shipbuilding, but steel, textiles, chemicals, refined oil, shoes, machinery, and food are also produced in the city. The city generates 60 percent of the country's tax revenue and 70 percent of the taxes of Sindh Province . Karachi is the richest city in Pakistan and its economic center. The per capita income there is around four to five times higher than the national average.

The largest Pakistani oil company Pakistan Petroleum is headquartered in Karachi. The city is the location of a nuclear power plant , many large banks and has the largest exchange in the country, the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE). Since Afghanistan has no coastal port, its trade, like much of Pakistan's sea trade, including cotton and wheat, is carried out via the modern seaport of Karachi on the island of Kiamari.

Karachi is the seat of all major television stations in Pakistan (KTN, Sindh TV, CNBC Pakistan, Kashish TV, Geo television, Ary Digital and Aaj TV). The national and international airline Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is also based in the city. The economic boom in Pakistan since the beginning of the 21st century has created a sudden surge in growth in Karachi, so that the number of jobs has also increased and the infrastructure has improved over time.

In addition to air pollution in industrial plants and car traffic, the pollution of some coastal areas is also causing problems. One of the world's largest ship scrap yards is located in Karachi. Numerous large ships (freighters, oil tankers and passenger ships) from all over the world are broken down into their components there. Many materials contain asbestos , dioxins , heavy metals , polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other toxic ingredients in high concentrations. Together with waste oil and other toxic waste, this material is thrown into the sea or burned on the beach. Without protective clothing and goggles, workers are exposed to the toxic substances. There are no safety precautions. Illnesses, injuries and fatal accidents occur almost every day.

In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Karachi was ranked 205 out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.


Long-distance transport

Terminal, Karachi Airport

The city has been connected to the international transport system through a well-developed road and rail network and, with Jinnah International Airport, it has a large, modern airport to which international airlines fly to refuel. The airport, which opened in 1929, is an aviation hub for the flag carrier Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) and other smaller companies. The airport operator is the Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority. Six million passengers are handled annually.

The first railway line in what is now Pakistan began operating on May 13, 1861, between Karachi and Kotri near Hyderabad . Today the port city has rail connections to all major cities in the country. Approximate travel times from Karachi: Lahore 16 hours; to Rawalpindi 28 hours and to Peshawar 32 hours. On February 17, 2006, the railway line between Karachi and Jodhpur in India , which had been closed since the Second Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, was reopened.

Cargo handling in overseas shipping takes place almost exclusively in Karachi. Karachi is thus the linchpin of Pakistani foreign trade. To relieve the Karachi Port , the country's only natural harbor, a second port, the Port Muhammad Bin Qasim , was built just outside of Karachi in the 1970s .

In the Karachi railway accident in 2016, 22 people died.

Local transport

Karachi Ring Railway

The first steam tram opened on April 20, 1885. It was replaced a year later by a horse-drawn tram and in 1909 replaced by gasoline trams . These were in operation until April 30, 1975.

In 1964 the Karachi Circular Railway opened its operations. Traffic had to be temporarily suspended in 1999 due to corruption and the political influence of the so-called "transport mafia". On March 8, 2005, a 29-kilometer section was reopened on the Karachi City Station line to Malir Cantonment. A complete revitalization of the 58-kilometer circular railway line is planned. The entire route network will have a length of 86.6 kilometers when it is completed.

There is no high-performance, high-capacity public transport system in the city today, such as a subway , light rail or tram , that would relieve the road. The main load of local public transport (ÖPNV) is handled by diesel-powered buses. The bus and minibus network is well developed, but the vehicles are usually overcrowded. Another means of transport are the numerous taxis, which usually only run during the day during Ramadan . There are also auto rickshaws .

Karachi is facing a severe traffic collapse. The number of cars is too big for the streets. This makes driving in the city dangerous and causes significant time losses due to traffic jams. Many inner-city roads are in poor condition, which only increases the traffic problem. Air pollution from car and industrial emissions is very high.

The Karachi Metrobus rapid transit network is under construction .


National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences

Karachi is home to the country's most important libraries: the Liakat Memorial Library, the Central Secretariat Library and the University Library. The city is home to numerous universities and colleges such as the NED University of Engineering and Technology (opened in 1922) and Karachi University (opened in 1951).

Other excellent universities are: Aga Khan University, Baqai Medical University, National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Bahria University, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Dow University of Health Sciences, Sir Syed University of Engineering and Technology, Hamdard University and Jinnah University for Women.

Other important educational and research institutions are: Institute of Business Administration (IBA), Indus Valley Institute of Art and Architecture, Textile Institute of Pakistan, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST), HEJ Research Institute of Chemistry, Applied Economics Research Center (AERC), Institute of Business and Management (IBM), Dawood College of Engineering and Technology and the [PAF-KIET] Pakistan Air Force-Karachi Institute of Economics and Technology.


sons and daughters of the town

Personalities who have worked on site

See also


  • Alexander F. Baillie, Yasmeen Lari: Kurrachee: Past, Present and Future (Oxford in Asia Historical Reprints) , Oxford University Press Pakistan, 1998, ISBN 0-19-577586-4
  • E. van Donzel: Karāčī. In: CE Bosworth et al. a. (Ed.): The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Vol. 4, EJ Brill, Leiden 1997, pp. 597f
  • Herbert Feldman: Karachi Through a Hundred Years: The Centenary History of the Karachi Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 1860-1960 , Oxford University Press, 1971, ISBN 0-19-636056-0
  • Ann Frotscher: Gang and civil war in Karachi , Nomos-Verlag, Baden-Baden, 2005, ISBN 3-8329-1100-6
  • Yasmeen Lari, Mihail S. Lari: The Dual City: Karachi During the Raj , Oxford University Press Pakistan, 1998, ISBN 0-19-577735-2
  • Inis Schönfelder: Angels about Karachi. How people make the impossible possible , Quell-Verlag, Stuttgart, 1996, ISBN 3-7918-1991-7
  • Klaus P. Strohmeier (Hrsg.), Götz Köhler (Hrsg.), Ulrich Laaser (Hrsg.): Pilot Research Project on Urban Violence and Health. Determinants and Management. A Study in Jakarta, Karachi and Conurbation Ruhrgebiet , Hans-Jacobs-Verlag, Lage (Westf.), 2002, ISBN 3-932136-82-9

Web links

Commons : Karachi  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Pakistan: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved November 24, 2017 .
  2. UN - World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database ( Memento from December 23, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (left selection: City population , right selection: Pakistan ), accessed on July 19, 2011
  3. The largest agglomerations in the world. City population
  4. Karachi. In: Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved April 8, 2019 .
  5. Facts & Figures. ( Memento of December 30, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Urban Resource Center
  6. ^ Laurent Gayer: Guns, Slums, and "Yellow Devils": A Genealogy of Urban Conflicts in Karachi, Pakistan. In: Modern Asian Studies , Volume 41, No. 3, May 2007, pp. 515-544, here p. 522
  7. The coast of Pakistan is threatened by an oil disaster . News.ch, August 14, 2003
  8. Bomb attack during evening prayers. Spiegel Online , April 11, 2006
  9. Bhutto convoy bombs kill dozens . BBC , October 19, 2007
  10. Bhutto blames supporters of the former military ruler Zia for the attack . ( Memento from March 16, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Dradio.de, October 19, 2007
  11. Bhutto: “I know exactly who wanted to kill me” In: Der Tagesspiegel , 19. October 2007
  12. 15 dead in attack on police barracks in Karachi . Reuters, November 12, 2010
  13. ^ Christine Möllhoff: Riots in Karachi. In: Frankfurter Rundschau . July 25, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2011 .
  14. ^ Ethnic violence in Karachi. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . August 2, 2011, accessed August 2, 2011 .
  15. ^ Riots in Karachi: Over 40 dead. ORF , August 18, 2011, accessed on August 18, 2011 .
  16. ^ Attack in Karachi. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . September 19, 2011, accessed September 19, 2011 .
  17. Taliban kill Pakistan's counterterrorism warriors. In: spiegel.de. January 10, 2014.
  18. n-tv NEWS: Passenger jet crashes in residential area. Retrieved May 22, 2020 .
  19. World 101 largest Cities. (PDF) Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
  20. ^ Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2016). Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey 2014-15. Government of Pakistan, accessed June 29, 2019 .
  21. Case Study: Afghans in Pakistan. (PDF) UNHCR (English).
  22. ^ A b Arif Hasan and Masooma Mohib: The Case of Karachi, Pakistan. 2003. Development Planning Unit, University College London. (PDF; 8.3 MB) London's Global University
  23. Karachi. ( Memento of the original from June 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Siemens @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / w1.siemens.com
  24. Karachi - Step-motherly treatment. ( Memento of the original from August 25, 2011 on WebCite ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Pakistan and Gulf Economist @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.pakistaneconomist.com
  25. Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved July 30, 2018 .
  26. Jinnah International Airport: Official website ( memento of the original dated November 24, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.karachiairport.com.pk
  27. Traffic in Pakistan  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Erdkunde-wissen.de@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.erdkunde-wissen.de  
  28. "Train of Hope" in motion - Railway line between India and Pakistan reopened after 41 years . University of Kassel
  29. Karachi. Tram Views of Asia
  30. ^ Karachi Circular Railway. Karachirail.tripod.com