|State :||Saudi Arabia|
|Coordinates :||21 ° 32 ' N , 39 ° 10' E|
|Height :||0 m|
|Area :||1,320 km²|
|Population density :||2,637 inhabitants / km²|
|Telephone code :||+966 (0) 12|
|City structure:||5 districts|
Jeddah (also Djeddah , Djidda ; Arabic جدّة Jeddah , DMG Jiddah ; engl. Transcription : Jeddah , Jiddah , Jedda , Jidda ) is the most important port city of Saudi Arabia on the Red Sea and is located in the province of Mecca .
facts and figures
In the 2004 census, Jeddah had 2,801,481 inhabitants, in 2007 it was already around 3 million and in 2014 around 4 million. Jeddah is located on the Red Sea and forms the gateway to Mecca , the religious center of Islam , which is about 72 km east of the Inland lies. Every year a very large flow of Mecca pilgrims arrives in Jeddah, mainly by sea until the middle of the 20th century, today mainly by air. To enable the growing number of pilgrims to enter, the King Abd al-Aziz International Airport was opened 16 kilometers north of the city in 1980 . Unlike in Mecca, visitors of all religions are welcomed in Jeddah. Due to the high demand for foreign workers, the local population is very international. Frequently encountered are North and East Africans, Yemenis , Egyptians, Lebanese, Jordanians, Palestinians and other Arabs, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Indians , Persians and Turks .
Population development of the agglomeration according to the UN
Jeddah is said to have been founded by a Yemeni tribe around 2500 years ago. The natural bay behind a coral reef provided a convenient base for fishermen. In 647 Caliph ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān chose Jeddah as the location for the port of Mecca. For building projects in the Holy City, the building material was usually imported from outside via Jeddah, for example during the expansion of the Holy Mosque in 777, when the Abbasid caliph al-Mahdi had marble blocks brought to Jeddah from Syria on ships, which were then transported on wagons were transported on to Mecca. The city also became a meeting point for Muslim pilgrims from all over the world. In the 15th century, Circassian Mamluks fortified the city with a stone wall. The wall, equipped with three main gates, was supposed to protect Jeddah from attacks by the Portuguese.
From 1517 until the beginning of the 20th century, Jeddah was administered by the Ottoman Empire and was part of the independent Hejaz . During this time it was nicknamed "Bilad al Kanasil" (City of Consulates) because numerous official representations were maintained there. In the great cholera epidemic of 1865, 30,000 people died, many of them pilgrims. Quarantine stations have been set up in the Red Sea off Jeddah.
In 1916 the city was captured by British troops who supported the Arab Revolt . They had the city wall equipped with a fourth gate (also for automobile traffic). In 1925 the Hejaz came under the rule of Abdulaziz Ibn Saud . In addition to Mecca and Medina , Jeddah also fell under his sphere of influence. Ibn Saud founded the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on September 23, 1932 .
The oil wealth brought with it an expansion of the city and its seaport. The city wall built in the 16th century was therefore torn down in 1947.
Since the city does not have sufficient fresh water resources, the first desalination plant for seawater was built under the rule of the Ottomans in 1907 . To date, around 97% of the drinking water in Jeddah comes from seawater desalination plants - in 2010 the consumption was around 1 million cubic meters per day.
There are two explanations for the name "Jeddah": According to the first, Jeddah means "sea coast", since the city is located on the coast. Some, however, pronounce the name “Jadda”, which means “grandmother”, because in Islamic tradition the tomb of Eve is in the city . The alleged tomb was concreted over in 1975 because Muslim pilgrims prayed to Eve there, which was seen as a violation of the strict Wahhabi interpretation of the monotheistic beliefs of Islam .
The city also gained fame through two agreements . The 1927 Jeddah Accords ended British rule in Arabia, and the second established Saudi Arabia's southern borders in 2000. In November 2009 and January 2011 there were severe floods in the city (see here ). Since 2015, women have been able to vote and stand as candidates for city assemblies for the first time .
The tallest television tower in the country, the 250-meter-high Jeddah television tower , and the Haj Terminal Roof , with a total area of 40.5 hectares, the largest roof structure in the world, are located at Jeddah Airport in Jeddah. The King Fahd's Fountain is currently (2017) the highest fountain in the world with a height of up to 312 m.
The first hospital in the SGD chain (see English Saudi German Hospitals) with a construction cost of 120 million US dollars and 217 beds was completed in 1988 based on a design by the architect Nikolaus Rosiny .
Prince al-Walid ibn Talal announced on August 2, 2011 that a billion-dollar contract for the construction of the more than 1,000-meter-high Jeddah Tower (formerly Kingdom Tower ) near Jeddah had been signed with the Bin Laden Group. The contract is worth over $ 1.2 billion. With a height of 1007 meters, the Jeddah Tower will be the tallest building in the world and thus tower 179 meters above the 828-meter-high Burj Khalifa in Dubai . The foundation work for the structure began in 2013 and completion is scheduled for 2021.
A 171-meter-high flagpole has stood in the city since 2014 and has been the tallest free-standing flagpole in the world ever since. Also in 2014, the old town of Jeddah was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage .
The station on the Haramain railway line Medina – Mecca was designed by Norman Foster's office.
In accordance with the large population of Jeddah, several companies of national and international importance, including several airlines, have their headquarters in the city. These include:
- Saudi Arabian Airlines
- Mid East Jet
- National Air Services
- National Commercial Bank
- Saudi binladin
- EA Juffali and Brothers
- Cristal Global
The supranational Islamic Development Bank , which is not operated as a for-profit company, also operates from Jeddah.
- Almaty , Kazakhstan
- Amman , Jordan
- Baku , Azerbaijan
- Alexandria , Egypt
- Cairo , Egypt
- Dubai , United Arab Emirates
- Jakarta , Indonesia
- Istanbul , Turkey
- Adana , Turkey
- Taipei , Taiwan
- Johor Bahru , Malaysia
- Kazan , Russia
- Karachi , Pakistan
- Mary , Turkmenistan
- Odessa , Ukraine
- Osh , Kyrgyzstan
- Plovdiv , Bulgaria
- Casablanca , Morocco
- Tunis , Tunisia
- Rio de Janeiro , Brazil
- Shimonoseki , Japan
- St. Petersburg , Russia
- Strasbourg , France
- Xi'an , People's Republic of China
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Jeddah
sons and daughters of the town
- Abbas I (1813–1854), Viceroy of Egypt
- Faisal Al-Hegelan (* 1929), Saudi Arabian politician and diplomat
- Saleh Abdullah Kamel (1941–2020), Saudi Arabian entrepreneur
- Osamah Ahmed Al Sanosi Ahmad (* 1944), Saudi Arabian diplomat
- Chalid bin Mahfuz (1949–2009), wealthy Saudi Arabian
- Waleed Taher Radwan (* 1954), Saudi Arabian diplomat
- Nasser bin Ahmed Al-Bireik (* 1955), Saudi Arabian diplomat
- Majid Mohammed Abdullah (* 1959), Saudi Arabian football player
- Mohamed Bin Issa Al Jaber (* 1959), Saudi-Austrian entrepreneur
- Mohammed ibn Naif (* 1959), Interior Minister of Saudi Arabia
- Mohammed Al-Khilaiwi (1971–2013), Saudi Arabian soccer player
- Habib Ali al-Jifri (* 1971), Saudi Arabian founder and head of the Tabah Foundation
- Mazin (* 1985), Saudi Arabian soccer player
- Mohammed bin Salman (* 1985), Crown Prince, Defense Minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia
- Mashael Al Jaber (* 1986), Saudi manager
- Mohammed Shaween (* 1986), athlete
- Loujain al-Hathloul (* 1989), women's rights activist
- Rafael Czichos (* 1990), German soccer player
- City of Jeddah Official website of the city (in Arabic)
- German School Jeddah
- ↑ a b Population Distribution (Saudi and Non Saudi) in Governorates of Makkah Al-Mokarramah Region 2014 estimates based on Preliminary Results of General Population & Housing Census 2010 ( Memento of February 21, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Statistical Yearbook 2014, arab. / engl. Accessed February 21, 2016
- ↑ World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
- ↑ See Ferdinand Wüstenfeld : History of the City of Mecca, edited from the Arabic chronicles. Leipzig 1861. § 165. Digitized online
- ↑ CGI, Jeddah - Jeddah City. In: tripod.com. Retrieved December 29, 2014 .
- ↑ Historic Cities of the Islamic . In: Clifford Edmund Bosworth (Ed.): World Brill eBook titles 2007 . 1 from EI Reference Guides. BRILL, 2007, ISBN 978-90-04-15388-2 ( Google Books ).
- ↑ Jeddah Islamic Port. In: worldportsource.com. Retrieved December 29, 2014 .
- ^ Rainer Hermann (FAZ.net May 20, 2020): City of Dealers
- ↑ Maneval, Stefan. 2019. New Islamic Urbanism . London: UCL Press, p. 26.
- ↑ Saudi German Hospital on the website of the International Hospitals Construction Cooperation ( Memento of the original from March 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Chamber of Architects
- ↑ Tallest building in the world: Saudis build kilometer tower. In: Spiegel Online . August 3, 2011, accessed December 29, 2014 .
- ^ Jeddah Tower: Future world's tallest building delayed after contractor problems. thenational.ae, May 16, 2016, accessed October 5, 2018.
- ↑ site of the Guinness Book of Records , accessed on February 23, 2015.
- ^ Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Makkah. UNESCO World Heritage Center, accessed June 11, 2017 .
- ↑ https://www.dezeen.com/2019/06/14/foster-partners-haramain-high-speed-stations-saudi-arabia/