|Одеса / Одесса|
|Oblast :||Odessa Oblast|
|Rajon :||District-free city|
|Height :||40 m|
|Area :||163.0 km²|
|Residents :||1,013,159 (2019)|
|Population density :||6,216 inhabitants per km²|
|Area code :||+380 48|
|Geographic location :|
|Administrative structure :||4 city racks|
|Mayor :||Hennadij Trukhanov|
|Address:||Думська Площа 1
65004 м. Одеса
Odessa ([ oˈdɛsa ], Ukrainian Одеса [ ɔˈdɛsɐ ]; Russian Одесса [ ɐˈdʲesə ]) is a metropolis on the Black Sea and the administrative center of Odessa Oblast in Ukraine . The city with just over a million inhabitants (as of 2019) is the country's most important port city .
The origin of the name Odessa is not clear. A popular legend says that it was derived from the ancient Greek city of Odessos (now Varna ) - possibly due to confusion, since Varna is also on the Black Sea, but in Bulgaria. According to another explanation, the name comes from the Turkish name Jedisan for the region, which means "seven flags" or "seven titles" and goes back to the Jedisan clan of the Nogaier horde , which in turn consisted of seven subgroups.
In ancient times , various steppe peoples lived in the area such as the Scythians and Sarmatians as well as the Thracian tribe of the Tyra Getes . In the first century BC, it came under Dacian rule. In the early Middle Ages, the area was inhabited by East Slavic tribes ( Tiwerzen and Dulebs ), who over time were displaced by Turkish nomadic peoples such as the Pechenegs and Cumans .
The settlement of Hacıbey ( Hadschi Bai, Khadzhibei ) founded by the Crimean Khan Hacı was first mentioned in 1415, when the port of the settlement, from which grain was exported, was already relatively large. There was a large castle on the settlement area, the remains of which were preserved until the middle of the 18th century. Khan Hacı ceded the area to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and in 1562 it went to the Ottoman Empire .
Around 1764 the fortress "Yeni Dünya" ("Jeni-Dunia", in German "New World") was built near Hacıbey. On September 14, 1789, this was captured by Russian troops under the command of the Neapolitan Major General Joseph de Ribas in the Russo-Turkish War from 1787 to 1792 .
Founding of Odessa
In 1792 the area east of the Dniester went to the Russian Empire with the Peace of Jassy . In 1794, on the instructions of Catherine the Great, the city of Odessa was founded near the Jeni Dünja fortress. An efficient military port for the Black Sea and Mediterranean area should be created.
The new city was a great success. The first governor was Josep de Ribas (1794–1797). In 1803 Duke Armand du Plessis took over the management of the city. The city owes a lot to him, the facilities and the infrastructure, and the long underground corridors, the catacombs , go back to him.
Between 1803 and 1818 the New Russia Welfare Office existed as a law firm for the New Russia settlers in the Odessa area. In 1818 it was responsible for around 15,500 non-Russian settlers. These included the northwestern settlements of the Black Sea Germans with the four districts: Liebenthal , Beresan, Kutschurgan and Glücksthal and various individual German villages, as well as the Bulgarian and Greek districts: Ternowka, Bujalik and Parkani. In addition, four Swedish, nine Jewish and the Serbian village of Zetin were administered. After 1818 the office became a regional branch of the welfare committee for foreign settlers in Kherson . It was closed in 1833.
Many Jews left Poland for Odessa after the partitions of 1793 and 1795, so that at the beginning of the 20th century the population consisted of about 30% Jews. In 1821, at the funeral of the Patriarch of Constantinople Gregory V, the first pogrom against the Jews took place in Odessa , in which 14 Jews were killed. This was followed by further pogroms in 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905.
The Moldavanka district was also famous at the beginning of the 20th century, at that time a center of Jewish life, but also notorious for its crime. Isaac Babel created a literary monument to life there with his stories from Odessa .
Development of Odessa
Odessa grew as a modern port city after 1823 under the Governor General of New Russia and Bessarabia , Count Mikhail Semjonowitsch Vorontsov . He made the city his administrative center, hired Western European engineers and doctors and organized many urban development projects. He founded a theater, a public library, a lyceum , an institute for oriental languages , various scientific societies and sponsored English and French local newspapers. Between 1823 and 1849 the population of Odessa doubled.
In 1856, the city became the headquarters of the Russian Steamship and Trade Company (Russian: Русское Oбщество Пароходства и Торговли), a listed shipping company whose shares were traded on the St. Petersburg Stock Exchange.
From 1878 to 1895 Grigori Marasli was the head of the city. He was the son of a prosperous Greek grain trader in Odessa and a sponsor of the Greek secret society Filiki Eteria, founded in Odessa in 1814 . Marasli financed a large number of public buildings in Odessa with parts of his inherited fortune.
Russian Revolution 1905
On June 27, 1905, a mutiny broke out on the Russian ship of the line, Prince Potjomkin von Tauris ( Russian Knjas Potjomkin Tawritscheski) of the Black Sea Fleet . The ship taken over by the mutineers entered the port of Odessa, but the sailors did not support a general strike taking place in the city at the time, which was part of the Russian Revolution of 1905 . The event was the basis for the film Battleship Potemkin .
Ukrainian People's Republic
The Ukrainian People's Republic was founded in the course of the Russian Civil War , but it was not up to the attack of the Red Army . Odessa was ruled by the Soviet Rumcherod from January to March 1918 . With the peace treaty of Brest-Litovsk , the People's Republic, including the city of Odessa, became officially independent, but in fact it was dependent on the German Empire and its allies.
Russian Civil War 1918–1919
From March to December 1918, troops of the Central Powers stayed in the Ukrainian People's Republic. The southern part of the country and with it Odessa was controlled by the Austrians until the end of Austria-Hungary . Those responsible were first Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli and then Alfred Krauss .
After their withdrawal, the Entente conquered Odessa. The aim was, among other things, to support Anton Ivanovich Denikin , General of the White Army . French, Greek and a few Polish, Romanian and Russian volunteer troops landed in Odessa and stayed there from December 18, 1918 to April 8, 1919. General Borius was military governor of Odessa. After a severe Allied defeat in Kherson , the French withdrew. The reason was an impending hunger riot in the city. In the spring of 1919 there was an uprising in the French Black Sea Fleet on the French warships France and Jean Bart in the Black Sea under the leadership of André Marty .
Then Denikin took over the city and the Greek population of Odessa was evacuated by ships. General Lucjan Żeligowski led his Polish division, which operated in the area around the Kuban River , also out of Russia via Odessa.
The famine of 1932/34, the Holodomor , also killed many people in Odessa. In the first half of 1933, for example, only 830 kcal per person per day were available in Odessa Oblast , which is about half of the basal metabolic rate that is considered necessary today .
In 1941, when the German-Soviet War began, Odessa was in the area of attack by the Romanian 4th Army, which quickly achieved success against the defending Soviet 9th Army . When the Romanians reached the city on August 5, 1941, the battle for Odessa began . The Soviet leadership declared Odessa to be a defensive zone, in which the remnants of the retreating troops with about 35,000 defenders (navy and volunteers) encircled. The "lower town" (cave-like quarries) was used for cover. Reinforced by sea, the garrison was able to repel all Romanian attacks until October. Since the Romanians hardly made any progress despite their strong superiority, the commander-in-chief of the Romanian besiegers, Corps General Nicolae Ciupercă , was replaced on September 9, 1941 and replaced by the previous Minister of War General Iosif Iacobici . The situation for the defenders became hopeless because of the German advance towards Crimea , so that Odessa was evacuated from October 1st. The Soviet Black Sea Fleet brought 70,000 soldiers and 15,000 civilians to Sevastopol by October 16, 1941 .
As a result, Odessa was occupied by Romanian and German troops from 1941 to 1944. From December 1941 the city was the seat of the Romanian headquarters of Transnistria . During the occupation, around 60,000 residents were murdered or deported, most of them Jews. The massacre of October 23-25, 1941 was particularly remembered. A total of 61 people, including Romanian General Glogojeanu, died in an explosion at the Romanian headquarters in Odessa. Prime Minister Ion Antonescu then gave the order in retaliation to kill 200 Jews or Communists for every officer killed and 100 for every soldier. This developed into a massacre in which around 30,000 Jews were killed. The first of several war crimes trials against 38 perpetrators began immediately after the end of the war on May 14, 1945 in Bucharest, with prison terms of up to 25 years.
In March 1944, the 3rd Ukrainian Front under General Malinovsky , which was already stopping at the Southern Bug , received the order to advance to the Dniester and capture Odessa. At the end of March 1944, three Soviet armies advanced from several bridgeheads on the right bank of the Bug against the German 6th Army . Under General de Angelis, this could only defend itself hesitantly, especially since it was threatened by heavy partisan activity behind it . On April 10, 1944, she had to evacuate Odessa and go back behind the Dniester. With the loss of this port, the end of the German warfare in the Black Sea was in sight.
POW camp 159
Due to the order of the NKVD of July 3, 1944 No. 00756, eight camp departments for a total of up to 12,000 prisoners of war were set up in Odessa during the summer and autumn of 1944 under camp administration 159. The number of warehouse departments changed in the period that followed, depending on the possibilities and needs - especially those of work. By the end of 1946, 14 camp departments with an occupancy of 10,800 men were planned. In January 1947 there were in fact 12,102 prisoners in camp 159, distributed over 16 departments and mainly employed in the reconstruction of the war port of Odessa, the shipyards, agricultural machinery and other industries.
At the end of 1948, the previously independent POW camp 126 Nikolayev was incorporated into camp 159 Odessa as camp department 7. Only fragmentary information is available about mortality in the camp. In the report section of the medical service for the (presumably last) quarter of 1944, 654 deaths were recorded, which were attributed to physical and psychological exhaustion, unheated accommodation and poor nutrition. Given the occupancy mentioned elsewhere with 11,687 men, this would result in a death rate of 5.6% or 22% over the year. For 1946, 66 deaths - 81 elsewhere - are listed, which is supposed to correspond to 0.08% of the camp occupancy.
A total of 68,256 prisoners of war passed through camp 159, including 26,331 German and 2584 Austrian as well as 13,496 Romanian and 12,563 Hungarian. This number, which is much higher than the number, is due, among other things, to the fact that repatriation was concentrated in Odessa .
Odessa as part of independent Ukraine
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Odessa has been part of the independent Ukraine.
Odessa is one of the cities to which the OSCE sent observers on March 21, 2014. In the days and weeks before that, there had been pro-Russian protests in Odessa , during which demonstrators had called for a referendum modeled on the Crimea . On May 2, 2014, serious riots broke out in the city with 48 fatalities and over 200 injured.
The history of the city is traditionally shaped by many peoples and denominations . Historically, Russians and Jews formed the largest population groups in the city for a long time. However, since the middle of the 20th century, the Ukrainians have been the largest group in Odessa.
The Ukrainians presented in 2001 with 61.6% the majority of residents. The second largest population group was the Russians with 29% . There are significant minorities of Bulgarians (1.3%), Jews (1.2%), Romanians (Moldovans) (0.7%) and Belarusians (0.6%). In addition, numerous Greeks , Albanians , Germans , Armenians , Georgians , Tatars , Gagauz , Arabs and Turks live in the city . In total there should be more than 130 nationalities.
Russian and Ukrainian are spoken in Odessa . Due to the cultural and historical settlement history of the region, Russian is still the most widely spoken language in the city. In the official 2001 census, 65% of the population stated Russian as their mother tongue. A survey by the International Republican Institute found that 93% of Odessa residents speak Russian at home.
Russian was the official language of the entire country in Ukraine until 1991, but lost this position in favor of Ukrainian after independence. In 2012, Russian was reintroduced as the regional official language in Odessa Oblast, as in numerous other Russian-speaking regions of the country, and thus regained official status twenty years after the end of the Soviet Union.
The Yiddish played a major role in the recent history of the city. Up to the Holocaust it was spoken by more than a third of the Odessites and was thus at times more widespread in Odessa than Ukrainian. Even after the Second World War there was still a significant Jewish minority in the city who kept the language alive. However, due to emigration after 1991, Yiddish in Odessa has largely disappeared for good.
The Russian spoken in Odessa is characterized by a number of specific features, including a number of Ukrainisms and especially many loan words from Yiddish. The specific Odessite Russian plays an important role in the city's identity. It was made known to a wider audience , especially through Isaak Babel's stories from Odessa , and has since been featured in numerous films and books. Due to the emigration of large parts of the historical city population, the spread of this regiolect is now declining.
Odessa has one of the highest HIV infection rates in Europe. About 11,000 people are officially registered with HIV, but the actual number is estimated to be much higher. Between 2008 and 2011, Ukraine had the highest number of new infections in Europe and is also one of the countries in the world where AIDS is spreading the fastest.
The majority of the population is Christian Orthodox. Odessa is the seat of the bishopric of the German Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ukraine and since 2002 also the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop ( Diocese of Odessa-Simferopol ). There is also a significant Jewish community.
The city is located on hills from which one can see the harbor in the Black Sea as if from terraces. It is located about 30 km north of the mouth of the Dniester River and about 440 km south of the Ukrainian capital Kiev .
In Odessa there is a maritime climate (according to Köppen's climate classification Cfb ) close to the border to the continental ( Dfb ) and semi-arid (semi-arid) climate ( BSk ). The water temperature averages between 13 and 14 ° C, between January and March at 6 ° C and in August at 23 ° C.
Source: pogoda.ru, weather2travel.com; wetterkontor.de
Economy, trade fairs, education
Shipbuilding , oil refineries, chemicals, metal processing plants, food production, fishing and tourism are the foundations of Odessa's economy.
The market “Promrynke 7 km” is known, often only as “7. km ”. It is currently made up of numerous containers lined up on an area of currently 70 hectares and thus houses more than 15,000 different dealers and shops. It got its name from the fact that it is located at kilometer 7 on the Odessa – Owidiopol road .
The port of Odessa , along with the nearby Chornomorsk , Mykolaiv , Cherson and Sevastopol , is one of the most important ports in Ukraine. In Container Terminal Odessa were in 2012 more than 329,000 TEU ISO containers handled.
The main international highways are:
- M 05 to Kiev
- M 14 to Mariupol
- M 15 to Ismajil
- M 16 to Kuchurhan
- M 27 to Tschornomorske
- M 28 to Juschne
The history of the Odessa railways is connected with Sergei Juljewitsch Witte , the first line of the Odessa railroad was opened as early as 1865, the central starting point was and is the central station of Odessa . The following railway lines currently exist:
The city's airport is located in the southwest and has national and international flight connections.
Local public transport began in 1880 with the Odessa tram, which opened as a horse-drawn tram . Today all public transport is handled by trolley buses , buses , trams and Marschroutki taxis. The construction of an underground line is not possible due to the catacombs below large parts of the city.
It is also worth mentioning a funicular , which overcomes the height difference between the harbor and the city center next to the Potemkin Stairs. All means of transport mentioned belong to Odesgorelektrotrans , the city transport company .
The New Russian University was opened on May 13, 1865 1945 she was named after the Russian-Ukrainian winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Ilya Mechnikov in State II Mechnikov University Odessa renamed. Today it is called the National Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov University of Odessa . Among other things, she runs the Odessa Astronomical Observatory .
Other universities in Odessa are the Odessa State Polytechnic University, founded on September 18, 1918, the Odessa State Marine University, the Odessa State Medical University founded around 1900 , the South Ukrainian State Pedagogical K.-D.-Ushinsky University of Odessa (after the Russian educator Konstantin Dmitrijewitsch Uschinski (1824–1871)) and the Odessa State Economic University . There are also some academies in Odessa.
Exhibitions, festivals, fairs
- InterAgroBusiness : - International trade fair for agriculture , agricultural engineering , livestock , organic farming and bioenergy
- Wine & Winemaking: International trade fair for wine , winemaking and viticulture
- The Odessa International Literature Festival ( Міжнародний літературний фестиваль в Одесі, МЛО) has been taking place since 2015 at the end of September / beginning of October .
In July 1994 Eduard Hurwiz was elected mayor. He was re-elected in March 1998, but instead his rival Rouslan Bodelan became mayor with the help of the judiciary and Hurwiz fled to Israel . In the 2002 election, both ran again and Bodelan won. In 2005, a court declared the election invalid and instead appointed Hurwiz as mayor. Bodelan went to Russia. In the following election in 2006, Hurwiz was elected mayor. In the mayoral elections in 2010, Hurviz ran for the "Front Smin" of Arseniy Yatsenyuk, but lost to the candidate of the Party of Regions , Oleksiy Kostusev, who had previously headed the Antimonopoly Committee. However, this resigned from his office after only one legislative period. Hennadij Trukhanov, who, like his predecessor, stood for election for the Party of Regions, has been the city's acting mayor since May 25, 2014.
Odessa divided into the following four Stadtrajone: Rajon Kiev , Rajon Malynowskyj , Rajon Prymorske , Rajon Suvorov , four originally existing Stadtrajone ( zhovtnevyi raion , Rajon Illitsch , Rajon Lenin , Rajon Central ) were dissolved with the 20th March 2009 and remained on the divided into four Rajons. Each Rajon has its own administration, which is subordinate to the Odessa City Council. The seaside resort of Ljustdorf ( Tschornomorka ), founded by German settlers in 1805, is located in the Kiev Rajon .
- Odessa's landmark is the Potemkin Stairs from the old town to the port. There is also the cannon of the English ship Tigris, which sank during the Crimean War .
- Odessa Opera House (Teatr operi ta baletu)
- Kinsky Palace, this is where Winston Churchill and his followers stayed before the Yalta meeting .
- House of Scientists (formerly Tolstoy Palace)
- Vorontsov Palace
- town hall
- National Scientific Library Odessa
- Protestant St. Paul Church
- Haus Falz-Fein , mansion of the Falz-Fein family of German descent
- Main Post Office Odessa
- Kotzebue Bridge
- Greek place
- Ivan Franko
- Bohdan Khmelnytskyi
- Antin Holowaty
- Wira Cholodna
- Catherine II
- Adam Mickiewicz
- Alexander Pushkin (on the high bank above the harbor bay, in front of the Duma ; another in front of the Pushkin Museum)
- Richelieu (at the top of the Potemkin Stairs)
- Taras Shevchenko
- Mikhail Vorontsov (Governor General of New Russia and Bessarabia , on the Cathedral Square)
- Golden Child by Ernst Neiswestny
- Sailors memorial in Shevchenko Park
- Darth Vader (former Lenin monument )
Churches and monasteries
- Transfiguration Cathedral on Cathedral Square (Soborka)
- Uspensky Cathedral
- Armenian Church on the Gagarin Plateau
- German Evangelical Lutheran Church of St. Paul
- Greek Orthodox Church
- Church of St. Elias
- Church of the Holy Panthelemon
- Church of the Holy Mother of God
- Polish Church / Church of Saint Peter
- Convent Archangel Michael
- Uspensky monastery
- several synagogues
Museums and art galleries
- Archaeological Museum
- Local History Museum (Novikov Palace)
- Picture gallery in Sofiejewska vul.
- Literature Museum (Gagarin Palace)
- Museum of Western European and Oriental Art
- Pushkin Museum.
Parks and gardens
- City Park (Міський сад)
- Botanical Garden (Ботанічний сад)
- Shevchenko Park (Парк Шевченка)
- Victory Park (Парк Перемоги)
- Zoological garden (Зоопарк)
Brochures and catacombs
- Derybasiwska promenade , named after the city's founder, Admiral José de Ribas.
- The " Odessa Catacombs " consist of a network of underground passages and labyrinths and are open to visitors today. Partisans hid here during the Second World War.
The city's most famous football club is Chornomorets Odessa . The club plays in the Premjer-Liha , the first Ukrainian league. The “ Chornomorets Central Stadium ” (also known as the Black Sea Stadium ) served as an alternative stadium for the 2012 European Football Championship .
Odessa maintains relationships with around 40 cities from numerous countries around the world, which, according to our own account, are divided into brother cities and partner cities . The cities of both categories are listed alphabetically below.
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