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coat of arms
coat of arms
Split (Croatia)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Coordinates: 43 ° 30 ′ 0 ″  N , 16 ° 26 ′ 0 ″  E
Basic data
State : Croatian flag Croatia
County : Split-Dalmatia County flag Split-Dalmatia
Height : m. i. J.
Area : 79.33  km²
Residents : 167,121 (2011)
Population density : 2,107 inhabitants per km²
Telephone code : (+385) 021
Postal code : 21,000
License plate : ST
Boat registration : ST
Structure and administration
(status: 2013, cf. )
Community type : city
Structure : 11 boroughs
Mayor : Andro Krstulović Opara ( HDZ )
Coalition partner : HGS
Postal address : Obala kneza Branimira 17
21 000 Split
Website :
Patron saint : St. Domnius (Sv. Duje)
City Festival : May 7th
View of Split
Center and old town with the city promenade Riva Obala Hrvatskog narodnog preporoda (city view from Trg Franje Tuđmana square to the cathedral tower)

Split [ split ] (Italian Spalato , originated from Greek ἀσπάλαθος , aspálathos ) is the second largest city in Croatia . It is the largest city in southern Croatia and is therefore popularly known as the “capital of Dalmatia ” without this status ever having been officially granted. The city is the administrative seat of the Split-Dalmatia County (Croatian Splitsko-dalmatinska županija ), which includes the central part of Dalmatia. Split had around 167,000 inhabitants in 2011.

Split is an important port city and seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Split-Makarska . There is also a university in Split . The origins of the city can be traced back to Diocletian's Palace . The city center of Split including the Diocletian's Palace was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1979 .

origin of the name

The city has seen a name change several times throughout history. So you come across Aspalathos / Spalatos (gr.), Spalatum, Spalato (Italian), Spljet, Split. There are different etymologies to the word. One assumes that the name of the city comes from the plant prickly thorn gorse (Greek = Aspalathos, Croatian = Brnistra). Others say that the name is derived from the Latin word for “palace”, Latin = palatium, or from the Italian word Spalato (= palace ). Another theory is based on the word Spalatum (from Latin Salonae Palatium, in German: The Palace of Salona, ​​Croatian Solin), the former cultural hub of the inhabitants of Dalmatia. However, the city of Solin , probably the hometown of Emperor Diocletian, was destroyed in the Avar storm and lost its importance to the neighboring city of Split.


Geographical location

Split is located on the Croatian Adriatic coast on a peninsula.

In the northern hinterland is the Mosor Mountains , in the northwest the Kozjak massif and in the east the Perun mountain range .

The old city center is located at the eastern end of the Marjan peninsula. In front of Split are the islands of Brač , Hvar , Šolta and Čiovo .


Places of the community

The population figures in brackets are from 2011.


Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Split
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 10.0 11.0 13.4 17.4 22.4 26.5 29.8 29.2 25.1 20.0 14.9 11.2 O 19.3
Min. Temperature (° C) 5.1 5.6 7.6 10.8 15.1 18.6 21.4 21.1 18.0 14.1 9.7 6.4 O 12.8
Precipitation ( mm ) 83 68 75 66 56 51 28 50 61 79 108 100 Σ 825
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 4.1 5.0 5.7 7.1 8.7 10.0 11.1 10.2 8.3 6.5 4.4 3.0 O 7th
Rainy days ( d ) 9 8th 8th 8th 6th 6th 3 4th 5 7th 10 10 Σ 84
Water temperature (° C) 12 12 12 14th 17th 21st 23 24 22nd 20th 17th 14th O 17.4
Humidity ( % ) 63 64 61 57 59 57 51 52 57 68 64 63 O 59.6
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: wetterkontor.de



Salona Archaeological Park
The port of Split
View from the Campanile over the western part of the old town to the Marjanberg

Finds of stone objects from the middle Paleolithic (around 50,000 BC ) from the Mujina cave above the Polje of Kaštela already bear witness to the presence of people in this area. First castle-like settlements on the hills are from the Copper Age proven and in the Bronze and Iron Age inhabited Illyrian Dalmatians the space around the current split, after which the entire region of Dalmatia was named.

Greek colony (from 4th century BC), Diocletian's Palace

Split was founded in the 4th or 3rd century BC. Founded as a Greek colony Aspalathos or Spálathos . The settlement took place from Issa, today's Vis , which has existed since 367 BC. BC had gained autonomy from the mother city of Syracuse , and now founded its own colonies.

In the north of the city is the Roman settlement of Salona . The most important building there is the now destroyed arena.

Diocletian's Palace is mistakenly considered to be the nucleus of today's city of Split . Emperor Diocletian had it built around 300. After his death around 312 and that of his wife Prisca (probably 315), the Roman Empire used the palace as an administrative center, barracks and as a production facility (textile production in a gynaeceum ) for the military apparatus, which was increasingly self-sufficient in view of the crisis in the economy.

The actual residential wing was still used on various occasions for emperors to stay or for those who had fallen out of favor as a place of exile. Galla Placidia stayed here in 424 with her son Valentinian III. before he went to Italy to overthrow the usurper John . In 461 the general Marcellinus used the palace while he was officiating as magister militum Dalmatiae . The overthrown Emperor Glycerius lived in the palace from 474 until his death in 480, in the same year his successor Julius Nepos died of a poison attack in the palace. With the fall of the Roman Empire, the palace also fell into disrepair, serving only as a military post.

Re-establishment (7th century), between Croats, Byzantium, Venice and Hungarians

In the early 7th century, the Avars and Slavs raided and destroyed the city of Salona. The escaped and surviving Salonitans found refuge in the well-fortified palace of Spalatums and made their homes there. They converted the palace complex into a city. Today the former palace still forms the eastern part of the old town of Split and is full of shops, markets, squares and the Cathedral of St. Domnius, which in ancient times was the mausoleum of the imperial couple Diocletian and Prisca and formed the center of the palace. The palace could never be taken by the invading barbarians, so Spalatum - like many other Dalmatian cities - was preserved as a refuge of the late Roman world, while the oncoming peoples took over the hinterland.

The statue of Bishop Gregory of Nin (900–929) by Ivan Meštrović on the square in front of Porta Aurea

At the latest from the Peace of Aachen (812) , Spalatum was part of the Byzantine theme of Dalmatia . Slavic principalities emerged in the hinterland. The Archdiocese of Spalatum extended over the held area of ​​the city as well as the Slavic principalities of the hinterland. Tomislav , who had united several principalities as King of the Croats, took part in synods in Spalatum between 925 and 928 as a representative of the hinterland; It was he who approved the claims of the Diocese of Split against those of the Bishop of Nin and thus helped to enforce them. The diocese included both the Byzantine theme of Dalmatia and the Slavic hinterland.

In 986, Emperor Basil II of the weakened Eastern Roman Empire left Spalatum and other Byzantine possessions in Dalmatia to the Croatian King Stjepan Držislav for his successful help in repelling the Bulgarian invasions. The city has also served as the Croatian capital several times. When the Republic of Venice under Doge Pietro II Orseolo began to expand its power to the Romanesque remaining areas from which Byzantium had withdrawn, Spalatum - like other Dalmatian cities and islands - accepted the Venetian sovereignty, which enforced the city by deploying a strong navy . This earned the Doge the additional title Dux Dalmatiae (Doge / Duke of Dalmatia), but the Venetian sovereignty remained uncertain.

In 1015, King Krešimir III. Spalatum and other cities for Croatia, supported by Emperor Basil II , but Doge Ottone Orseolo succeeded again around 1016/18 in enforcing a temporary supremacy, the recognition of which the Dalmatian cities swore as they did two decades earlier. From 1024 to 1068, however, Spalatum was again subject to Byzantium. The government of the almost autonomous commune opposite was taken over by the prior of the archbishop, who until the 12th century always came from the city.

Once again Croatia, which had freed itself from Byzantine dominance, succeeded in enforcing indirect rule over the city. After the Normans invaded Spalatum in 1074, they drove out the Republic of Venice, but they could not hold the city, so that from 1076 King Demetrius (Dmitar Zvonimir) of Croatia took Spalatum and other Dalmatian cities for his kingdom. With his death in 1089, Byzantium took over again, before Venice prevailed in 1097. During this time, the municipality becomes tangible as a comune .

Commune (from the middle of the 12th century)

In 1105 Spalato - like Traù (Trogir) and Zara (Zadar) - shook off Venetian supremacy when King Koloman of Hungary, Dalmatia and Croatia guaranteed the cities far-reaching autonomy, protection from foreign powers and trade privileges in his kingdom. The successors confirmed and expanded the freedoms of the Dalmatian cities, so that although they recognized the king as head, they were otherwise not part of the kingdom, but autonomous. The influence took place indirectly, through the occupation of the archbishopric. The comune, traceable in the middle of the 12th century, was no longer headed by a prior, but by a comes. The commune formed its own organs, the residents with civil rights, the cives , elected a consilium (city council) and a comes , later called podestà . Judges and currency (Bagatino and Spalatino) were subject to city laws. From 1165 to 1180, Emperor Manuel I succeeded one last time in regaining Spalato for his empire. The importance of trade increased during this time, at the same time contracts led to legalization. This applied, for example, to contracts with Pisa, Piran and Fermo. From the beginning of the 13th century, Croatian greats ruled the city. In order to solve internal conflicts, a Podestà from Ancona was appointed by the municipality for the first time in 1239. Now a council constitution was drawn up, of which a version from 1312 has survived.

In 1242 the Tatars invaded the city, but Spalato held out and gave the defeated King Béla IV of Hungary as well as Croatia, Dalmatia and Rama refuge within its walls. The city competed with Traù (Trogir). Feudal princes of the hinterland were naturalized in Spalato, but also carried their feuds into the city. Prince Domald at the fortress Klis above the city attacked Spalatiner while traveling in the hinterland and tried to blackmail the city by cutting off supplies from the land. In 1334 the circle of eligible families was closed. The district to the west of the old palace was included in the city wall after 1312.

Podestà Gargano de Arscindis, who was elected for three terms from 1239, consolidated the institutions of the Comune again. The piazza in the medieval city expansion was first mentioned by name in 1255 as Platea sancti Laurentii (today Narodni trg). In the diadoch battles after the Árpádendynasty died out (1301), Venice was able to win Spalato again (1327). The city submitted to Venice, which now determined and dispatched the Comes. He was both the city's chief official and representative of the Doge.

The town charter was codified in 1312 by Perceval of Fermo in the Libro d'oro (Golden Book), which remained in force until 1797. Scarcely had a new dynasty prevailed with Ludwig I and this king defeated Venice in 1357, when Spalato and the other cities ceded it to Croatia again in the Peace of Zadar in 1358 (at that time in personal union with Hungary).

The oldest remaining stone fragment with the name of the city: "Comune Spalati" dates from 1373, the time of Hungarian sovereignty. On the mainland, the city was able to claim the Marjan peninsula and parts of the Kaštela field and the Poljica as a separate area . Croatian feudal lords were already sitting in Klis and Omiš , trying to subdue the rich Spalato. Spalatins were ambushed while working in the fields in the rural area of ​​the city, kidnapped to extort ransom, or even sold into slavery. So threatened and disturbed in traffic with the hinterland, Spalato geared its economy even more towards sea connections. Wood came from the islands, not from the nearby but dangerous mainland, fish was common, but meat was rare on the menu because there was a lack of pasture in the city's rural area.

The death of Louis I in 1382 weakened Hungary, so that in 1390 King Tvrtko I seized the city for his kingdom of Bosnia . But already his successor Stjepan Dabiša had to recognize the sovereignty of Sigismund of Luxembourg , King of Hungary-Croatia (later also Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) in 1394 and cede Spalato to him. Two years later, after the lost battle of Nicopolis , Sigismund sought refuge in Spalato and got in touch with citizens who instigated an uprising against the incumbent councilors in 1398. The new council then made peace with Traù.

In 1402 Spalato had to recognize King Ladislaus of Naples , who claimed Dalmatia for himself, as lord, enforced by his viceroy Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić of Dalmatia and Croatia, who from then on also called himself Duke of Spalato. But when Sigismund struck Ladislaus, Hrvoje fell away from him and submitted to Sigismund, who in 1403 awarded him the side of Ladislaus. Duke Hrvoje swung himself into arrogant tyranny, which is why the commune expelled him in 1413 and no longer recognized him as a duke, whereby a rebellion of his partisans in the city was put down.

Venetian loggia, now the Ethnographic Museum.

Venetian rule (from 1420), attempts at conquest by the Ottomans in the 16th century

Spalato prevented Hrvoje from returning by voluntarily submitting itself to Venice in 1420. On the Platea sancti Laurentii , a Venetian loggia , a rector's palace (after the rectors, the Venetian governors) and a Palazzo del Comune (town hall) were built in the 15th century . The latter two were demolished in 1821 because they were in disrepair.

After the Ottoman Empire conquered Bosnia (1463) and finally Herzegovina (1482), attacks on Spalatins in the city's rural area increased. Although Venice was able to force the Ottomans to make peace agreements in various wars (especially the Third Ottoman-Venetian War 1499–1503), the raids on Spalato and other Venetian protected areas continued. Economically, all of this led to an economic stagnation as early as the 15th century.

In 1522 the Ottomans tried to take the fortress of Klis above Spalatos, which they could ward off with the support of Archbishop Tommaso de Nigris (Toma Nigris) . The Spalatine humanists Marcus Marulus Spalatensis (Marko Marulić / Marco Marulo) and Franciscus Natalis (Franjo Božičević Natalis) underpinned the anti-Ottoman mood in the city. Petar Kružić (Peter Krusitsch) , captain of the fortress Klis, had defended himself against Ottoman attacks for more than 20 years when he fell in 1537 in the course of the Fourth Ottoman-Venetian War (1537–1540) and with him the fortress, which from then on as Ottoman Outpost served for attacks on Spalato. In the course of the Fifth Ottoman-Venetian War (around Cyprus) in 1571, with Solin and Kamen (Sasso di Spalato), parts of the city's land area fell to the Turks. An attempt to retake it failed.

At the beginning of the 1570s, Jews founded a Sephardic community in the north-western part of the palace district, and the cemetery on Marjan, which was laid out in 1573, still exists today. Daniel Rodrigo, originally from Portugal, founded the city's first banking house in 1572, to which Venice granted duty-free exports of goods from the Balkans in 1579. The old harbor hospital in front of the south facade of the Diocletian's Palace, originally built for those suffering from the plague , became the end and starting point of the caravans from and to the Balkans as a warehouse. The hospital was also a quarantine area in order - following the Venetian model - to prevent caravan drivers from carrying diseases into the actual city.

The culture took off and the painters Biagio di Giorgio da Traù (Blaž Jurjev Trogiranin) and Dujam Vušković as well as the sculptors Bonino da Milano , Giorgio di Matteo Dalmatico (Juraj Dalmatinac) (including Palazzo Papalić, now City Museum), a little later also the master builders Andrea Alessi (Andrija Aleši) and Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino (Nikola Firentinac) worked in the city. Marco Antonio de Dominis (Marko Gospodnetić) , who became archbishop from 1602, influenced the thinking of the humanists in the city as a philosopher. From 1615 the Franciscan and composer Ivan Lukačić worked as Kapellmeister at the cathedral.

Plague waves and collapse of the population, Croatian immigration

The plague killed 7,000 of the 10,000 inhabitants at the end of the 16th century, after another epidemic in 1607 only 1,400 Spalatins remained. Further wars ( Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War (for Crete) , 1645–1669, and Seventh Ottoman-Venetian War (Great Turkish War) , 1684–1699) impaired Spalato's development and contributed to the decline of Venice and its possessions. At least in 1645 General Leonardo Foscolo succeeded in wresting the fortress Klis from the Ottomans, which from then on was able to prevent Ottoman incursions into the rural area of ​​the city. But in 1657 Hersekli Ahmed Paşa once again penetrated the rural area up to the city walls. Then the fortress builder Alessandra Maglio built mighty bastions and ramparts around the city, as mapped by Giuseppe Santini in 1666.

With the successive push back of the Ottomans in the early 18th century, the threat also moved territorially far from Spalato's land area. The city population grew, and those who came from the hinterland spread Croatian as a colloquial language, also supported by the Illyrian Academy . Citizens of the city founded a business association in 1767 to promote trade, fishing and agriculture. French scholars developed an increased interest in the city's ancient monuments, and so Charles-Louis Clérisseau wrote the first modern monograph on the palace in 1764, before Louis-François Cassas produced a series of watercolors in 1782, which were reproduced and found enthusiasts all over Europe.

France, Austria-Hungary (from 1797)

With the end of the Republic of Venice, which Napoleon brought about in 1797, Austria took over their Dalmatian possessions, including Spalato. But this did not last long, because in 1806 General Lauriston conquered Spalato for the French Illyrian provinces (1807-1813). In 1806 and 1807, on the orders of Auguste Viesse de Marmont, the demolition of the ramparts and bastions began, which was completed in the following Austrian period.

Prokurative, built in 1858/1859 by Giovanni Battista Meduna

In 1813 the Austrian Empire conquered Illyria and transformed it into the Kingdom of Dalmatia (later Crown Land) within the Habsburg Monarchy. Italian was the official and school language. The classical grammar school opened in 1817, after the visit of the imperial couple Franz I and Karoline Auguste the following year, the imperial governor decreed monument protection for the city's monuments, and archaeological excavations began in Salona, ​​the finds of which from 1821 in the new archaeological museum , one of the oldest of its kind, were shown. Nevertheless, Governor Rehe ordered the demolition of the late Gothic buildings in Piazza San Lorenzo (Narodni trg) in the same year.

During the reform of the empire for the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy in 1867, Spalato and Dalmatia remained in the cisleithan half of the empire. The railway connection followed in 1877, which was extended to Knin in 1888 , thus providing a connection to the European railway network. Spalato was a garrison town of the Austro-Hungarian Army - in 1914 the III. Battalion of the Hungarian Infantry Regiment No. 31 .

The Croatian language municipal theater, built between 1891 and 1893 (today: National Theater)

Between 1860 and 1880, Italian-speaking autonomists dominated urban politics under Podestà Antonio Baiamonti (Antun Bajamonti), they promoted the expansion of the urban infrastructure (water supply, port expansion, gas lighting), but otherwise refused to create educational and cultural offers for the growing Croatian population .

In 1882 the Croatian Nationalist People's Party won the local elections. Croatian became the official and school language in Split. The offer of Italian-speaking schools was severely limited. In official use across the Reich, however, the Italian names, including Spalato as the name of the city, remained binding until 1918.

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes from 1918

After the end of the First World War , Split became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes , later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . During the term of office (1918–1928) of Mayor Ivo Tartaglia, Split went through a considerable change. After Zara (Zadar) and the offshore islands (together the Italian province of Zara ) had been awarded to Italy in the Rapallo border treaty in 1920 , Split developed into the center of Croatian Dalmatia.

Many Croatian Dalmatians from the province of Zara settled in Split, which exacerbated the housing shortage there, also due to the interruption of construction activity during the First World War. So Tartaglia pushed ahead with the expansion of Split. In the international competition for the development plan of the city of Split in June 1923, the German architect Werner Schürmann , who was then based in The Hague , won one of the two second prizes; the first was not awarded. Schürmann was awarded the contract and came to Split for eight months from September 1924 to work out the regulatory plan in detail, which was implemented from 1925.

The historic center, the palace district and the medieval old town extension were to be surrounded by a green belt with a bypass road from the eastern Bačvice Bay to the western mountain Marjan . Beyond the old built-up area, the Marjan peninsula was opened up for development and building in accordance with the plan in the following years. In the course of this, the actual mountain Marjan itself was reforested and turned into a local recreation area in the city. A new trading port was built on the Kaštela Bay in the north of the peninsula, near the ancient Salona ( Solin ).

The new train station was built near the new port, with new main roads connecting both to the old port in the south of the peninsula. The architect Alfred Keller won the tender for the renovation of the south facade of Diocletian's Palace. The existing porches were reduced, and the Riva promenade in front was expanded as a promenade and planted with palm trees. The old train station, near the Porta Argenta, was demolished and its rail connection was dismantled in order to gain the area for the city expansion. Split County did not approve the plan until 1928.

During these years the sculptor Ivan Meštrović acquired the former castle of Capogrosso (Croatian: Kaštelet), converted it to display his sculptures and built a villa in Meje, which he bequeathed to the state when he emigrated to the USA in 1947 (today the Gallery Meštrović ). In 1931 a new Yugoslav building law was issued, which required adjustments to Schürmann's plan, which dragged on until 1940.

World War II, Yugoslavia

German troops march into Split, armored car (Sd.Kfz. 233) on the corner of Corso Guglielmo Marconi / Riva A Hitler

During the Second World War , Italian troops attacked Yugoslavia with, among other things, the attack on Split on April 6, 1941. This secession from Yugoslavia was formally recognized with the Roman Treaty of May 18, 1941, in which the Independent State of Croatia renounced Split. The Italian Governatorato di Dalmazia was founded there . Split remained Italian until 1943, followed by German occupation from September 1943. This lasted until June 1944. With Italy's surrender in September 1943, Tito's partisans succeeded in occupying the city, and many of the Italian soldiers switched to their side. Allied air strikes in September destroyed, among other things, the north facade of Diocletian's Palace, the historic hospital at the old port and the Benedictine monastery of St. Euphemia. But the Reichswehr occupied the city and formally handed it over to the Ustascha , the fascist government of Croatia. In the Trelj massacre, many Italians were massacred by the SS. At times the city was bombed by both the Allies and the Axis powers. On October 26, 1944, partisans finally captured the city. On February 12, 1945, the German navy attacked the city's port, where six German explosive devices severely damaged the cruiser HMS Delhi .

After the war, Split belonged to the Croatian republic within Yugoslavia. The detailed planning for Schürmann's regulatory plan was taken over by Milorad Družeić (1911–1997) in 1936–1937, who in 1950 developed the spatial plan for Split.

Split has been part of the independent Republic of Croatia since 1991.

Croatian War 1991

Battle in the Split Canal on Nov. 15, 1991

At the time when Croatia declared its independence, Split was an important garrison town of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) with soldiers from all over Yugoslavia and the headquarters of the Yugoslav Navy (JRM). The political situation led to tensions between the Serb-dominated JNA and the Croatian National Guard for months, especially from the summer of 1991 (the beginning of the war in Slovenia and Bosnia) . The Croatian Navy (HRM) was not yet operational at sea at this time and began building coastal artillery batteries (OTB) on the mainland and on the islands of Šolta and Brač . As a countermeasure, the JRM imposed several sea blockades in which targets on land were shot at. On November 14th, the tactical group "Kastela" of the JRM formed with several ships in the Splitski Canal between the islands of Šolta and Čiovo and with fewer ships in the southeast of Split and south of Šolta. The most serious incident occurred at dawn on November 15, 1991, when the JRM frigate Split fired shells at the city and its surroundings. The property damage was not very great, but six people died. It was not military targets that were shot at, but the old town, the airport and an uninhabited area above the city. Many of the JRM sailors were Croatians. Some refused to attack Croatian civilians and were arrested. In addition to Split, targets were also fired on Brač and Šolta, where Gornje Selo was damaged . The much stronger JRM could not prevail against the Croatian forces. The fight is considered to point the way for the further course of the war on the coast. The JNA and JRM evacuated all of their troops from Split in January 1992. A total of 692 soldiers from Split disappeared or died in the Dalmatian War, 58 of them members of the Navy.

At the end of July 1995, the "Franco-German field hospital" was built nearby, which was supposed to ensure the supply of 12,500 soldiers of a multinational rapid response unit of the United Nations for the protection of UNPROFOR on Mount Igman near Sarajevo .

In 2004 the city celebrated its 1700th anniversary.

The city's cartridge is:


96.23% of the population are Croatians , while the other 3.77% belong to the national minorities. These include Albanians , Bosniaks , Slovenes , Serbs and Montenegrins .

86.15% of Split belong to the Roman Catholic Church , while 1.18% belong to the Orthodox Church . 6.56% of the population describe themselves as atheists or non-religious, while 2.86% made no statement about their faith.

Economy and Transport


Split lives from shipbuilding (most importantly the “Brodosplit” shipyard ), tourism, fishing, viticulture and the paper, cement and chemical industries.


Split is also an important transport hub. Its port is the only permanent connection for most of the central Dalmatian islands (Brač, Hvar, Šolta, further outside Vis or Lastovo ). From the port of Split there are numerous ferries to the surrounding islands every day . There are also regular ferries to Dubrovnik , Rijeka , Pescara and Ancona .

One of the exhibition halls at the GAST 2012 exhibition (Žnjan Exhibition Center)


About 20 kilometers west of Split, near Trogir, is the Split international airport , which is also served by low-cost carriers such as Eurowings .

Rail transport

The Knin – Split railway ends in Split and connects Split with Zagreb and Central Europe via the Knin railway junction . Tilting trains have been running on this route since 2004, reducing travel times.

The central platform at Split Central Station, spring 2014

Road traffic

In July 2005 the A1 motorway to Split was completed, since then Dalmatia can be reached quickly and easily by car from Central Europe.


Split has a number of private local TV channels ( TV Jadran , TV Dalmacija , Splitska televizija and Kanal 5 ) and radio stations ( Radio Dalmacija , Totalni FM , Radio KL-Eurodom , Radio Sunce , Megamix Radio Hvar and Nautic Radio Vis ) . The public service broadcaster for Croatia ( Hrvatska radiotelevizija ) maintains a regional radio and television studio in the second largest city in Croatia. HR Split is broadcast 24 hours from the Split location. The television broadcasts a regional program on weekdays in the second program of the public service broadcaster for Croatia ( HRT 2 ), which is produced in the Split studio. In addition, live reports from the Split studio will be shown on Wednesdays on breakfast television of the first program of the public service broadcaster for Croatia ( HRT 1 ). The most popular station in Dalmatia is Radio Dalmacija , which also broadcasts live from the city all day. The nationwide regional broadcaster plays mainly Croatian-language music mixed with current international hits and delivers regional and world news every hour. For tourists, the public service broadcaster HR 2 also broadcasts information in English, German, Italian, Czech and Russian. Totalni FM broadcasts several hours and several times at halfway live from Split. Radio KL-Eurodom is the city's oldest private local broadcaster and has achieved cult status. In addition, the radio station on the islands of Hvar Megamix Radio Hvar and Vis Nautic Radio Vis have additional studios in Split. Other local radio stations, such as Nautic Radio Kaštela , Radio Trogir and Zabavni Radio (Radio Salona) from Solin, inform the population of Split about what is happening in the city and metropolitan area. The radio and television signals of the digital terrestrial television DVB-T come for public television ( HRT 1 , HRT 2 , HRT 3 and HRT 4 ) and private television ( Nova TV , Doma TV , RTL Televizija , RTL II , sptv , 24 sata , TV Jadran and TV Dalmacija ) as well as for public broadcasting ( HR 1 , HR 2 , HR 3 and HR Split ) and the above-mentioned private radio stations from the broadcasting locations Labinštica , Vidova Gora on the island of Brač and Biokovo , for the local ones TV stations from the Marjan station .

The largest Dalmatian daily newspaper Slobodna Dalmacija appears in Split and is produced in the Dugopolje printing center . Other large Croatian daily newspapers, such as Večernji list , Jutarnji list and the tabloid 24 sata , have their own editorial offices in Split. The free daily newspaper Metro Express was discontinued in September 2008 after two years of publication.


The Spaladium Arena , which was specially built for the 2009 men's handball world championship , can hold up to 12,000 spectators. Major sporting events are held here.

In basketball, the club KK Split is active, which used to be known as Jugoplastika Split and is the only club to have won the Champions League three times in a row .

In football, the Hajduk Split team should be mentioned, with Dinamo Zagreb the most successful Croatian football team. Furthermore, another team from Split plays in the top Croatian league with RNK Split in the 2010/2011 season.

World heritage and sights

The peristyle, Robert Adam , 1764
The Diocletian Aqueduct in Split-Bilice
Campanile of St. Domnius Cathedral , in front of it arches of the peristyle

The old town of Split has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO . It is located on the south coast of the Split peninsula and is formed by the old Diocletian's Palace , from which the city developed, and the medieval city expansion to the west of it.

Right by the sea along the harbor bay in the old town is the Riva , a promenade that is probably the most famous landmark of the city. From the Riva you can get through the cellar vaults ( Podrumi ) to the impressive colonnade peristyle and the vestibule. In the old town is the Cathedral of St. Domnius of Split ( Katedrala Sveti Duje ). It served as the mausoleum of the Emperor Diocletian and his 315 deceased wife Prisca until the 6th century. From the Campanile of the Cathedral you have a good view of the city.

Sights and monuments

  • Diocletian's Palace ( Dioklecijanova palača ), built around 300 with the following buildings:
    • Former Diocletian's Mausoleum, now cathedral
    • Peristyle , a pillared courtyard as a central meeting place at the intersection of the Cardo and the Decumanus .
    • Vestibule , a vestibule to the former imperial apartments in the palace
    • The cellar vault ( Podrumi ), a partly very high network of corridors under the Diocletian's Palace
    • The bronze gate (sea gate), golden gate, silver gate and iron gate form the main entrances to the old town.
    • Jupiter Temple ( Jupiterov hram ), now the Baptistery of St. John
    • Papalić Palace ( Papalićeva palača ) with the City Museum
  • Loggia (old town hall) and St. Mary's Church with early Romanesque bell tower ( Crkvica Gospe od Zvonika ) at the Iron Gate (Narodni Trg square)
  • Prokuratien , a square with the administration buildings and the palace of the Venetian governor
  • Marjan ( Park Šuma Marjan ), a forest park on the peninsula in the western part of the city with the Telegrin viewpoint (178 m), numerous chapels and the old Jewish cemetery from the 16th century.
  • Diocletian's Aqueduct ( Dioklecijanov akvadukt ), a water pipe to supply the Diocletian's Palace, built around 300
  • Fortress Gripe ( Tvrđava Gripe ) in the Lučac - Manuš district, built by the Venetians in the 17th century. in defense of the city against the Turks
  • Croatian National Theater in Split ( Hrvatsko Narodno Kazalište - HNK ) next to the remains of a Venetian fortress on Marmontova Street
  • Archbishop's Palace ( Nadbiskupska palača ) on the eastern edge of the city center, built 1901–1904 by the architect Cyril Methodius Ivekovic (1864–1933) in neo-Renaissance style, expropriated in 1948, returned to the church in 1998
  • Poljud Stadium ( Gradski stadion Poljud ), home of the famous Hajduk Split football club. The stadium was built as a multi-purpose arena for the 1979 Mediterranean Games in Split and it still looks futuristic today.
  • Spaladium Arena , a multi-purpose hall in Split-Poljud.

Churches and monasteries

Trinity Church in Split-Poljud
  • Cathedral of St. Domnius ( Sv. Duje )
  • St. Mary's Church in Pojišan ( Crkva Gospe od Pojišana ), pilgrimage church east of the city center (Pojišanska Street)
  • Dominican Church ( Crkva sv. Dominika ) at the Silver Gate
  • Church of Maria della Salute ( Crkva Gospe od Zdravlja ) in Split-Dobri
  • Churches on the Marjan
  • Franciscan monastery and church in Split ( Franjevačka crkva i samostan sv. Frane ) on the Riva
  • Franciscan monastery of St. Anthony of Padua with St. Mary's Church in Split-Poljud ( Franjevačka crkva i samostan sv. Ante na Poljudu ) behind the Poljud Stadium
  • Trinity Church in Split-Poljud ( Crkva sv. Trojice ), old Croatian church from the 8th to 11th century.
  • Martinskirche ( Crkva sv. Martina ), early Christian, pre-Romanesque church from the 6th / 11th centuries. Century above the Golden Gate
  • Church of St. Filippo Neri above the peristyle ( Akademska Crkva sv.Filipa Nerija ) from 1736
  • Church of the Holy Spirit ( Crkva sv. Duha ) in the old town
  • Bell tower of the former Benedictine convent of St. Arnir next to the sculpture of Gregory of Nin
  • Church of St. Domnius in Split-Brda ( Crkva sv. Dujam )

Museums and galleries

Meštrović Gallery in Split-Meje
  • Archaeological Museum Split ( Arheološki muzej - AMS ) with exhibits of the prehistoric and ancient history of Dalmatia, founded in 1820
  • Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments ( Muzej hrvatskih arheoloških spomenika - MHAS ) in Split-Meje, it houses important finds from Illyrian, Roman, Venetian and Croatian history.
  • Museum of Fine Arts ( Galerija umjetnina ), founded in 1931
  • Salon Galić Gallery on Marmontova Street, founded in 1924
  • Gallery Meštrović ( Galerija Meštrović ) in Split-Meje, here exhibits works by Ivan Meštrović , an artist who was also known and active outside of Croatia. The most famous work by Meštrović in Split is the 8.3 m high statue of Bishop Gregory of Nin ( Grgur Ninski ), which he created in 1929 and which is said to bring good luck if you caress its huge, polished toe .
  • Crikvine-Kaštilac country house by Ivan Meštrović ( Meštrovićeve Crikvine-Kaštilac ) in Split-Meje
  • Ethnographic Museum Split ( Etnografski muzej ) on the peristyle
  • Croatian Maritime Museum ( Hrvatski pomorski muzej u Splitu - HPMS ) in the Gripe fortress
  • City Museum ( Muzej grada Splita ) in the Papalić Palace
  • Museum of Sacred Art ( Muzej sakralne umjetnosti ) in the Skočibušić Palace at the peristyle with the valuable Book of Gospels from Split .

Town twinning

Sister cities of Split are:

sons and daughters of the town


See also


  • Alberto Becherelli: Italia e stato indipendente croato, 1941–1943 , Edizioni Nuova Cultura, Rome 2012.
  • Antun Travirka: Split - history, culture, artistic heritage. Forum-Verlag, Zadar 2009, ISBN 978-953-291-183-1 .
  • Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. Renata Peršin (transl.), Goran Borčić (ed.) On behalf of the Muzej grada Splita (Split City Museum). Muzej grada Splita, Split 2005, ISBN 953-6638-14-2 .
  • Gilberto Pegoraro: Sull'altra sponda dell'Adriatico: storia della comunità italiana di Spalato , tesi di laurea, Università Ca 'Foscari, Venice 2014 ( online ).

Web links

Commons : Split  album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Split  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. since 2017, see page of the city ( http://www.split.hr/Default.aspx?sec=527 )
  2. citypopulation.de
  3. Antun Travirka: Split - history, culture, artistic heritage. 2009, p. 7/8.
  4. Antun Travirka: Split - history, culture, artistic heritage. 2009, p. 8.
  5. Marin Zaninović: Grčka podjela zemljišta na otoku Visu , Opuscula Archaeologica Papers of the Department of Archeology 21 (1979) 77-84, here: p. 79.
  6. a b c d Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 37.
  7. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 38.
  8. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 39.
  9. Željko Rapanić: Split . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 7, LexMA-Verlag, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-7608-8907-7 , Sp. 2127 f.
  10. a b c d Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 40.
  11. a b c d Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 53.
  12. ^ A b Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 59.
  13. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 72.
  14. ^ A b Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 54.
  15. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 60.
  16. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 60 ff.
  17. a b c d Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 66.
  18. a b c Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 67.
  19. In Croatian translation also called Prince's Palace, but the Lieutenancy was not a dynastic hereditary principality, but an office (regiment) limited to two years in Spalato, whose owner (generally Rector, in Spalato: conti-capitani ) appointed Venice (cf. Elvira Šarić: Museum Guide. 2005, p. 67).
  20. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 61.
  21. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 62.
  22. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 64.
  23. a b c Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 68.
  24. ^ A b Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 86.
  25. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 93.
  26. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 87.
  27. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 88.
  28. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 89.
  29. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 99.
  30. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 101.
  31. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 102.
  32. ^ A b Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 104.
  33. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 90.
  34. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 106.
  35. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 107.
  36. ^ A b Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 108.
  37. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 112.
  38. ^ A b Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 114.
  39. a b c d e f D. O. Bašić: Project najamne stambene zgrade Radnić inženjera Ante Radice u Splitu. (Engl .: Designs for the Radnić rental building in Split by engineer Ante Radica). In: Prostor. Vol. 17, No. 1, 2009, p. 78.
  40. Aleksandar Jakir: Dalmatia between the world wars: agrarian and urban living environment and the failure of Yugoslav integration. (= Southeast European works. Volume 104). Oldenbourg, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-486-56447-1 , p. 251. (also Erlangen, Nürnberg, Univ., Diss. 1997)
  41. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 126.
  42. a b c Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 128.
  43. Werner Schürmann: Split. News from an old city. In: Bauwelt . No. 52, 1955.
  44. ^ Elvira Šarić: Museum guide. 2005, p. 127.
  45. Krunoslav Kamenov: Milorad Družeić , in: Allgemeine Künstlerlexikon (cf. Milorad Družeić. In: arch INFORM ; accessed on August 22, 2011).
  46. youtube.com: Spit in War 1991 Dan D
  47. croat. Wikipedia: Boj u Splitskom kanalu
  48. Bili Smo Vojnici - Ostali smo Ljudi - Split. ( Memento from June 19, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
  49. Diocletian's Palace (accessed May 10, 2017)
  50. a b c d e f Split - Sacred Objects (accessed on May 10, 2017)