coat of arms
|mayor||Jan van Zanen ( VVD )|
|Seat of the municipality||The hague|
|98.13 km 2
82.69 km 2
15.44 km 2
|Residents||547,757 (Jan 1, 2021)|
|Population density||5582 inhabitants / km 2|
|Important traffic route|
|Postcodes||2244, 2491-2493, 2495-2498, 2501-2509, 2511-2518, 2521-2526, 2531-2533, 2541-2548, 2551-2555, 2561-2566, 2571-2574, 2581-2587, 2591-2597|
|Website||Homepage of The Hague|
The Hague ( [ dɛnˈɦaːx ] , older and officially also 's-Gravenhage ( [ ˈsxraːvə (n) ˌɦaːɣə ] ), German (outdated) the Hague , the Hague , in the Hague , the Hague , English The Hague , etc.) is the Parliament and seat of government of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland . The city has been the royal residence since 1831 , but Amsterdam is the capital of the Netherlands .
The municipality of The Hague is the third largest city in the Netherlands with 547,757 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2021) on just 98.12 square kilometers. The surrounding area of the urban region is called Haaglanden and has around one million inhabitants on 405 square kilometers with a further eight communities.
Name and status
The place name Die Haghe or Den Hag (h) e has been used since ancient times . Since 1602/1603 the city administration officially used the name 's-Gravenhage (Eng. " Des Count Hag "), which was considered more elegant. The place was originally a hunting seat of the Counts of Holland .
Since 1990 the municipality has consistently used the name Den Haag instead of 's-Gravenhage , partly because of the internationalization of the city - The Hague is the world capital of jurisdiction - and to emphasize the relationship with the spellings in other European languages: English The Hague , French La Haye , Danish Haag , German Den Haag (formerly also: the Hague, one met in the Hague), Italian L'Aia , Polish Haga , Russian Гаага Gaaga , Spanish La Haya , Turkish Lahey , Hungarian Hága .
However, in 1990 the proposal to officially rename the city The Hague was rejected. Since then, both names have been valid in parallel. ID cards, passports and official documents of the city contain the name 's-Gravenhage , while for example the Dutch Railways or the Cyclists Association use the shorter term Den Haag in plans and on signs .
The Hague is not officially a city, as it never received city status in the Middle Ages , and in the 19th century the distinction between village and city became administratively irrelevant.
Location and economy
The city is part of the Randstad metropolitan area . There are other important cities in the immediate vicinity, such as Rotterdam (20 km), Leiden (15 km) and Delft (8 km). The satellite town of Zoetermeer , founded in the 1970s, is about 10 km east of The Hague.
The city is rich in small and medium-sized commercial and industrial companies. It is obvious that the service sector, with many offices of all kinds for a seat of government, is the economic focus; this is also the case in The Hague. The “New Babylon” office complex in the center is located in the immediate vicinity of the main train station and, thanks to its iconic design, is one of the defining buildings on The Hague's skyline.
As early as the 11th century there was a village in the area around today's Binnenhof in which the Counts of Holland owned a building that they lived in or in which they only stayed overnight while passing through. In 1248, Count Wilhelm II of Holland had a castle built. However, he died before the castle was finished. His son, Floris V , had this work completed. Among other things, the knight's hall was built at this time , where the king officially opens the parliamentary session on Prinsjesdag , the third Tuesday in September, with the reading of the speech from the throne . The Haghe had been the residence of the Counts of Holland since the 14th century . Until the 17th century, Hague was only fortified with earth walls and shallow ditches; it never received formal town charter . Nevertheless, the population had some privileges, including taxes. In 1560 the place got a small town hall, and a stone town fortification was approved. However, this was not completed in time to protect the population from the threats of the Eighty Years War . The Hague was looted and burned down several times during this period.
After 1648, The Hague became the residence of the governor of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces . A period of great prosperity now dawned. Johann Moritz von Nassau had the Mauritshuis (now a museum) built. Elegant houses were built for the court, members of the government and foreign state representatives. Many of these houses, built between 1750 and 1900, can still be found all over the city center. One advantage of this was the fact that The Hague was not a walled fortress city and the new building was therefore not subject to any restrictions. King Ludwig Bonaparte officially declared The Hague a city in 1806. In the 20th century, many apartments for civil servants and simple people were added, including the painter's quarter ( Schilderswijk ) , which is now considered "problematic" .
The city had been spared wars for over 300 years until the beginning of the Second World War , on May 10, 1940, when German paratroopers attacked the city. It was their task to take over the Dutch government center “in a flash”. This project failed because of the (exceptionally) sufficient military defense there. It was only after the Netherlands surrendered on May 15 that the German Wehrmacht marched into The Hague. Arthur Seyß-Inquart , appointed by Adolf Hitler as Reich Commissioner for the occupied Dutch territories , soon took his seat in the knight's hall. The prison in the Scheveningen district was now used to imprison political opponents, including many resistance fighters . It was nicknamed the Oranje Hotel by them . On March 3, 1945, British bombers wanted to carry out an air raid on German V2 launchers in The Hague. Due to a suspected navigation error, the bombs hit the Bezuidenhout residential area . Around 500 people were killed in the process; 3000 houses were destroyed.
On September 13, 1974, members of the Marxist-Leninist terrorist group Japanese Red Army stormed the French embassy in the city and captured the ambassador and ten other people. Police officer Hanke Remmerswaal was shot in the back during the attack. The hostages were released after paying a ransom of $ 300,000 and ensuring safe passage to an airplane.
In the 1970s and 1980s, parts of the city were thoroughly modernized.
Even after 1990, numerous eye-catching new buildings were built, including some ministerial offices near the main train station. This includes the Hoftoren (“Hofturm”), with 142 meters the third highest skyscraper in The Hague, which has been nicknamed “Füller” ( de vulpen ) by the population because of its architecture and its 29 office floors mainly from the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science are proven. The 88-meter-high Zurichtoren was also appropriately named " Citrus Press " ( citruspers ), while the 104-meter-high Castalia , which houses the Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sport, is called "Boobs of the Hague" (tieten van Den Haag).
On the other side of the main station, the up to 109 meters high (128 meters including the tower) building complex Prinsenhof with the Prinsenhoftoren ("Prinzenhofturm") was added from 2005 .
In the late 20th century, the planners thought about the canals . Some canals that were filled in or overbuilt have been restored, so that canal tours have been possible since 2003.
Allocation of seats in the municipal council
The local elections on March 21, 2018 resulted in the following distribution of seats:
|Groep de Mos / Hart voor Den Haag||-||-||3||8th|
|ChristenUnie / SGP||1||0||1||1|
|Partij van de Eenheid||-||1||1||1|
|Politieke Partij Scheveningen||1||1||0||-|
- Parties that took part in the election but were unable to obtain a seat on the council will not be taken into account.
Jan van Zanen ( VVD ) has been mayor of the municipality since July 1, 2020 . His colleagues include the alderman Bert van Alphen ( GroenLinks ), Robert van Asten ( D66 ), Saskia Bruines (D66), Rachid Guernaoui (Groep de Mos / Hart voor Den Haag), Richard de Mos (Groep de Mos / Hart voor Den Haag), Kavita Parbhudayal (VVD), Boudewijn Revis (VVD) and Liesbeth van Tongeren (GroenLinks).
The Hague has had a partnership with Wenzhou , China , since 2014 .
The Hague is the headquarters of a large number of national and international (150) institutions, including:
- Seat of the King of the Netherlands,
- Royal Library of the Netherlands ,
- Hoge Raad (the Dutch highest court of law),
- International Court of Justice ,
- International Criminal Court (with the associated United Nations Detention Unit ),
- Permanent Court of Arbitration ,
- Eurojust ,
- Iran-United States Claims Tribunal ,
- Europol ,
- Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons ,
- International University of Hospitality Management .
- Although Article 6 of the European Patent Convention reads “The European Patent Office (…) has a branch in The Hague”, this largest international authority in the region is located in neighboring Rijswijk .
Culture and sights
- Paleis Noordeinde - seat of government of the royal family
- Binnenhof - medieval building complex with the seat of the Dutch government. The knight's hall forms the center .
- Peace Palace (Vredespaleis) - worth seeing neo-renaissance building (1907–1913), seat of the International Court of Justice and the Hague Academy for International Law
- Gevangenpoort - former castle gate and prison, now a torture museum
- Oude Stadhuis - Old Town Hall, built between 1561 and 1565
- Grote Kerk - town church from the 14th century with a 100 m high, hexagonal tower
- Spinozahuis - home of the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677)
- Kloosterkerk - oldest church in the city, built around 1400, part of the Dominican monastery until 1583
- Nieuwe Kerk - 17th century church, tomb of Spinoza and the brothers Cornelius and Johan de Witt
- Catshuis - official residence of the Prime Minister
- World Forum (formerly Nederlands Congres Centrum (NCC))
- Scheveningen - a seaside spa town steeped in history with a historic spa house
- Haagse Markt - huge market in the Transvaal district
- Aksa mosque
- Mauritshuis - the former home of Johan Maurits van Nassau-Siegen , now houses an important collection of Flemish and Dutch paintings with works by, among others. Rembrandt and Jan Vermeer
- Kunstmuseum Den Haag (until 2019: Gemeentemuseum Den Haag ) - mainly visual arts of the 19th and 20th centuries; i.a. Piet Mondrian 's largest collection in the world. In addition, exhibits relating to the history of the city, handicrafts and a fashion gallery.
- Escher Museum (in the former palace of Queen Emma )
- Communication Museum , Museum voor Communicatie - interactive museum of the history and technology of communication.
- Rijksmuseum Den Haag - important collection of French and Dutch paintings with works by Barbizon, Corot, Rousseau, Delacroix, Maris and Israëls
- Museum Beelden aan Zee in Scheveningen
- National Museum of Literature, Letterkundig Museum
- Fotomuseum - changing exhibitions with works by contemporary or deceased photographers, located next to the Gemeentemuseum
- Louwman Museum - Nationaal Automobiel Museum - over 230 historic cars have been re-presented in a modern museum (new building by American architect Michael Graves ) since July 2010 (including James Bond's Aston Martin, Duesenbergs, Spyker, racing cars)
- Museon - popular science museum
- Migratie Museum in The Hague
- Haagse Bos - two kilometers long, magnificent park west of Huis ten Bosch
- Panorama Mesdag - the 120 m long and 18 m high panorama picture of what was then The Hague from the North Sea, created by the Hague painter Hendrik Willem Mesdag in 1881 . The mural is considered to be the oldest cyclorama (all-round picture) in the world, which is still at the place of origin.
- Madurodam - a miniature city
- James Turrell's Celestial Vault in Kijkduin
The Hague is located on two motorways of European importance. The A 12 is the continuation of the German A 3 motorway coming from Frankfurt am Main , Cologne and the Ruhr area . The A 12 runs right through the heart of the city. The A4 connects Amsterdam with Rotterdam and the Belgian metropolises Antwerp and Brussels and continues from there to Paris , France. The Hague is on the German-Dutch holiday route Oranier Route .
The city has two large train stations : the modern terminal station Den Haag Centraal (main station) and the through station Hollands Spoor with historical architecture worth seeing, for example the “ Princely Waiting Room ”.
The first tram in the Netherlands opened in The Hague in 1864. Today the Hague tram network is one of the most extensive in Europe. In 2004 - after great difficulties in construction - a new tunnel for the tram went into operation under the city center. Local public transport is operated by HTM .
The Hague has an international airport, Rotterdam The Hague Airport , which is shared with the neighboring city of Rotterdam. The major airport Schiphol near Amsterdam is only fifty kilometers away, is easily accessible by train and has a much larger number of passengers. In addition, there is the Valkenburg military airfield east of The Hague , which for security reasons is also used for flights by the government and the royal family.
Districts of The Hague
The Hague is divided into districts (stadsdeel / stadsdelen), districts (wijk / wijken) and neighborhood quarters (buurt / buurten). In 1988 the classification that had existed since 1953 was changed. Since then, The Hague has been divided into the following eight districts:
- Centrum (more than 100,000 inhabitants) subdistricts (Archipelbuurt, Willembuurt, Schilderswijk, Stationsbuurt, Rivierenbuurt, Transvaal
- Escamp (around 113,000) subdistricts: (Oostbroek, Rustenburg, Leyenburg, Morgenstond, Moerwijk, Wateringse Veld, Bouwlust, De Uithof)
- Haagse Hout (42.040) subdistricts: (Benoordenhout, Bezuidenhout, Marlot, Burgen en Horsten, Landen, Duinzigt, Arendsdorp)
- Laak (38.200) subdistricts: (Spoorwijk, Laakhaven, Molenwijk)
- Leidschenveen-Ypenburg (around 40,000) subdistricts: De Vissen, De Velden, De Lanen, Rietbuurt, De Rivieren, Haagoord, Boswijk, Morgenweide, Gooland)
- Loosduinen (47,500)
- Scheveningen (56,000)
- Segbroek (59,000)
Leidschenveen-Ypenburg has only been part of The Hague since 2002, when it took over parts of the neighboring communities of Leidschendam , Rijswijk , Nootdorp and Pijnacker in order to develop two new residential areas there. At the same time, part of the municipality of Wateringen was incorporated into the Wateringseveld district (around 8,000 apartments) belonging to the Escamp district.
Each district has its own district office, which facilitates the handling of community and organizational matters, such as registration, community taxes, individual district issues, etc.
Population development from 1962
- ²: as of September 1; ³: as of January 31;
otherwise: Status of the EW numbers on January 1st
- ²: as of September 1; ³: as of January 31;
- Website of the municipality (Dutch, English, French)
- Website of the city's tourism portal (multilingual)
- Benoeming burgemeester The Hague. In: rijksoverheid.nl. Rijksoverheid, June 19, 2020, accessed July 3, 2020 (Dutch).
- Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand . In: StatLine . Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek , March 10, 2021 (Dutch).
- Grondwetpad - 1. Hofplaats. Huis voor democratie en Rechtsstaat, accessed on April 5, 2011 (Dutch): "Other belangrijke wijzigingen in 1983 were onder other: ... Amsterdam wordt officieel de hoofdstad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden"
- Hannover Leasing buys “New Babylon” in The Hague for Danish investor (December 29, 2019)
- Why British bombers destroyed a residential area in The Hague .
- Result of the local elections: 2014 2018 ( Memento from May 27, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 26, 2018 (Dutch)
- seats in the municipal council: 2006 2010 2014 2018 ( Memento from May 27, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on May 26, 2018 (Dutch)
- College van Burgemeester en wethouders. In: denhaag.nl. Gemeente Den Haag, accessed October 12, 2019 (Dutch).
- City friendships. In: www.wenzhou.gov.cn. Retrieved July 11, 2019 .
- Meyer's New Lexicon in eight volumes. VEB Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig, 1964/65., Volume 7 (s'Gravenhage), p. 487.
- The Hague in Cijfers (Dutch), accessed March 14, 2019.