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coat of arms
coat of arms
Rijeka (Croatia)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Coordinates: 45 ° 19 ′ 47 "  N , 14 ° 25 ′ 56"  E
Basic data
State : Croatian flag Croatia
County : Flag of Primorje-Gorski kotar County Primorje-Gorski kotar
Height : m. i. J.
Area : 44  km²
Residents : 128,624 (2011)
Agglomeration : 188,797 (2011)
Population density : 2,923 inhabitants per km²
Telephone code : (+385) 051
Postal code : 51,000
License plate : RI
Boat registration : RK
Structure and administration
(status: 2013, cf. )
Community type : city
Structure : 7 boroughs
Lord Mayor : Vojko Obersnel ( SDP )
Coalition partner : HNS, HSU, IDS, ARS, SDA Hrvatske, SDSS
Postal address : Korzo 16
51 000 Rijeka
Website :
Patron saint : St. Vitus (Sv. Vid)
Rijeka Riva promenade aerial.jpg

Rijeka [ ˈrijɛːka ] ( German  Sankt Veit (h) am Flaum / Pflaum , Italian and Hungarian Fiume ) is a port city on the Kvarner Bay in Croatia . The third largest city in the country with around 130,000 inhabitants (as of March 31, 2011) is the capital of the Primorje-Gorski kotar County and the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Rijeka . Rijeka and the Irish Galway are 2020 European capitals of culture .


The city name derives from a fort and a church on the river Rječina ( Latin Flumen Sancti Viti "St. Vitusstrom") in today's Trsat district . In Slovenian the city is called Reka , in Italian Fiume , and in German, outdated, Sankt Veit am Flaum or Pflaum , in Hungarian also Szentvit . The place name means "river" in Croatian, Slovenian and Italian. The component fluff or plum in the former German place name Sankt Veit am Flaum is derived from the Latin flumen for “river”.


Location and climate

The port city of Rijeka is located on the bay of the same name (Croatian Riječki Zaljev ), which forms the northern end of the island-rich Kvarner Bay , at the mouth of the Rječina , which flows through the city into the Adriatic. The current name of the river is derived from that of the city to which he originally gave the name.

The mean air temperature in January is 5.9 ° C and in July 23.5 ° C, the annual air temperature is 14.3 ° C, the annual amount of precipitation 1548 mm. There are a total of 86 rainy days a year. On average, the sun shines 2120 hours a year.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: Meteorological and Hydrological Service Croatia ; Hours of sunshine, water temperature, humidity: wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Rijeka
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 8.7 9.5 12.4 16.1 20.9 24.6 27.7 27.6 23.6 18.6 13.4 10.0 O 17.8
Min. Temperature (° C) 2.7 3.2 5.5 8.8 12.9 16.2 18.6 18.5 15.3 11.1 7.1 4.1 O 10.4
Precipitation ( mm ) 134.9 114.3 104.0 110.7 102.4 110.8 82.0 100.2 165.3 175.7 183.4 154.2 Σ 1,537.9
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 3.4 4.4 5.5 7.0 8.7 9.7 10.9 10.0 7.8 5.9 3.5 3.1 O 6.7
Rainy days ( d ) 11.0 9.4 10.2 11.6 12.3 11.9 9.1 9.2 9.8 10.9 12.4 11.6 Σ 129.4
Water temperature (° C) 11 11 11 13 17th 21st 23 24 22nd 19th 16 13 O 16.8
Humidity ( % ) 77 73 72 71 70 68 63 66 72 74 76 76 O 71.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: Meteorological and Hydrological Service Croatia ; Hours of sunshine, water temperature, humidity: wetterkontor.de


Castle on the Trsat

Traces have been found in Rijeka that go back to the Paleolithic (Stone Age) and the Neolithic Age. In the prehistoric age (Bronze and Iron Ages) the Celts probably built fortifications around the hills. They connected the 5 hills (Solin, Martinšćica, Trsat, Velivrh and Gradišće) with earth walls. The word Tarsa (Trsat), which means mountain, possibly mountain on the river, is probably a holdover from the Celtic.

A settlement with a harbor could develop around these ramparts . The Celts were ousted or mixed with the Illyrians . The Illyrian Liburnian tribe lived mainly along the coast and expanded the port, while the Iapods settled in the hinterland , to whom the fortification of the Trsat hill on the other side of the Riječina river is said to go back.

The Illyrians used the port for their pirate activities in the Adriatic . At that time they were known as seafarers, shipbuilders and pirates; at that time they called the village Liburna .


Liburna was a thorn in the side of the Romans at the time, as numerous attacks on the Roman merchant ships in the Adriatic started from here. The Romans waged various wars against the Illyrians, during which they conquered the settlement around 180 BC. The Romans moved the previous settlement closer to the sea, to the current location of the old town.

In ancient times the city was called Tarsatika and was probably already divided into two municipalities at that time . Tarsatica Romana (Rijeka) was the port city and Tarsata Liburna ( Trsat ) the castle town. The Romans later built an observation station on the Trsat. Today you can still find remains of the Roman settlement, including ruins of the thermal baths , a Roman gate, parts of the Roman city wall and wall remains of Roman houses.

middle Ages

The Croatians settled in the area of ​​today's Rijeka around 700 AD. The place was important to Charlemagne for strategic reasons . He sent an army under the leadership of Margrave Erich (Eric) to conquer the city. The Croatians defended themselves successfully, however, and fought back the Franks in 799 AD. Margrave Erich lost his life on the rocky slopes in front of Trsat Castle. The death of the margrave enraged Charlemagne, so that he attacked and destroyed Trsata with a much larger army. During this time the Franks ruled the city, which they integrated into their empire.

In the 9th century Rijeka belonged to the Croatian Kingdom. From the 12th century, Croatia existed in a state union with Hungary as a personal union . In the 13th century, Trsat (Trsata) , which had been rebuilt, was ruled by the Frankopan princes of Vinodol County . These promoted the expansion of Trsat.

In 1287/1288 the Vinodol Code was created, one of the oldest in Europe. The Vinodol municipalities of Grobnik, Trsat (Rijeka), Bakar, Hreljin , Drivenik, Grižane, Bribir, Ledenice and Novigrad (today Novi Vinodolski) signed this code on January 6, 1288. The code of law protected, among other things, serfs and the common man from the feudal lords and the courts.

On the right side of the Rječina , the settlements Reka (Rika) and Sv. Vida (Sveti Vid na Rječini, St. Vitus am Pflaum); they formed a city with gates, towers, streets and commerce. During this time the rulers of the city changed: the Duino dynasty , the Frankopan princes, the Counts of Walsee . The population at that time was around 3,000. Between the 13th and 14th centuries, the Gothic Rijeka was built under the Counts of Walsee.

Under the rule of the Habsburgs

The city tower of Rijeka
Canal in Rijeka
View of the port of Rijeka

In 1465 Friedrich III bought the city of the Lords of Walsee ; the city was called St. Veit am Flaum. Until 1918 St. Veit am Flaum or Fiume, as it was called for most of the time, belonged to the Habsburg Empire with short interruptions . Under the Habsburgs, Fiume developed into a rival to Venice , the Habsburgs constantly expanded Fiume next to their main port of Trieste .

In 1509 Fiume was briefly conquered by the Venetians under the leadership of the Condottiero Melchiorre (?) Trevisan. The city was looted, set on fire and partially destroyed.

With the accession of the Habsburgs to the throne in Hungary, Rijeka became part of the lands of St. Stephen's Crown in 1526 . In the following years it was mostly ruled from Graz (see Inner Austria ). In 1530 the first printing house was established in town.

In 1595 Ottoman troops reached the Grobnik plain and were close to Fiume.

In the 16th century the city flourished; During this period manufacturing, trade, art and the school system developed in Fiume. The Jesuit high school was founded in 1626 , the first on the Adriatic; it continues to this day without interruption. During this period, the Renaissance and Baroque periods emerged . At the same time, there were repeated attacks by the Ottomans, but Fiume never fell into their hands.

Emperor Charles VI. introduced mercantilist economic policy in 1717 ; this enabled free shipping in the Adriatic. In 1719 the port of Fiume was declared a free port together with the port of Trieste , industry, seafaring and handicrafts developed. In 1725 the first road was built to connect Vienna to the Adriatic via Karlovac (Karolina).

In 1750 Fiume was shaken by several earthquakes for weeks, some of which are likely to have been very violent. Trsat Castle was also damaged in the process. After the earthquake, a sugar refinery was established that existed until 1828.

With a decree of Maria Theresa in 1779, Fiume became a corpus separatum , an independent, autonomous body. The city was thus detached from the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia and placed directly under the Habsburg crown. Andrija Ljudevit Adamić (Andrea Lodovico Adamich) (1766–1828), a merchant of Jewish descent and meritorious patron of culture, had a theater for 1,600 spectators built in 1805, which was one of the largest in Europe, but was later demolished.

In the Napoleonic Wars

In the Third War of the Coalition , the French took Fiume in 1805 and incorporated it into the Kingdom of Italy (1805–1814) , a puppet state under Napoleon's stepson Eugène de Beauharnais . The wife of a merchant from Rijeka, Karolina Belinić (called Karolina von Rijeka ) played a special role during this period . According to tradition, she saved the city from destruction by the British fleet in July 1813 by using her feminine charm, good looks and a low-cut cleavage in negotiations with the English admiral Freemantle. Thanks to Karolina's intervention, allegedly only a single shot was fired from a cannon in the direction of Fiume. The cannonball was later walled up next to the main portal of St. Vitus Cathedral, with a Latin inscription, which translates as: “England sent this fruit when it wanted to drive the Gauls from here”.

After the Congress of Vienna

Postage stamp from the Austrian coat of arms edition 1850 with local stamp of Fiume

After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Habsburgs took power again after the city had belonged to Italy for six years. A paper mill was built in 1823 and the first steam engine in Southeastern Europe was installed here in 1833. The former sugar factory was replaced by a tobacco factory after 1828, which became the largest in the kingdom, employing 2400 workers for a time. Count Laval Nugent opened the picture gallery in Trsat Castle in 1843, the first museum in Croatia.

During the revolution of 1848 the Croatian ban and imperial general Joseph Jelačić von Bužim took Fiume (Rijeka), he deposed the city government, then Rijeka was again under Croatian administration. In 1855 the port was completely modernized, with the Riječina river being relocated to a new bed.

The Austrian Navy opened the Naval Academy Fiume in 1857 (today the building of the hospital in Rijeka). Around 1860, the local engineer Giovanni Luppis (Croatian Ivan Lupis-Vukić) developed the first screw-powered torpedo . Together with the engineer Robert Whitehead from England, he developed the torpedo from 1864 onwards so that it could also be used effectively. Whitehead founded the world's first torpedo factory in Fiume in 1873. The Torpedo factory (formerly Whitehead Shipyard ) still exists today. In Fiume, in addition to numerous ships , the first submarines for the Austro-Hungarian Navy were built from 1908 onwards.

After the Austro-Hungarian settlement in 1867, Fiume belonged to the Hungarian half of the empire . In the Hungarian-Croatian settlement a year later there was no real agreement on the allocation of Rijeka / Fiume: While the Croatian version of the document said that further negotiations were to be carried out on Rijeka's affiliation, Fiume was again a corpus separatum in the Hungarian version (Special Administrative Region) considered. After the Hungarian and Croatian parliaments had each approved the version in their language, the document was submitted to Emperor Franz Joseph I for signature. Shortly before, however, the Hungarian government had the article in question in the Croatian version pasted over with a piece of parchment, the so-called “Rijeka scrap” (riječka krpica) , which contained a translation of the Hungarian version. The Hungarian Prime Minister Gyula Andrássy finally made Fiume subordinate to a governor of his government in 1870. This “provisional” solution remained until the fall of the Habsburg monarchy.

Fiume with harbor around 1900

After 1867 Fiume (Rijeka) became the main port for Hungarian goods; The port flourished under the Hungarian leadership, and from 1872 a new, artificial port basin was created. In 1871 banks were opened (including Riječka Banka ) and steamships joint-stock companies were founded. Trams ran through the whole city, there were 22 consulates, 20 hotels and 9 cinemas. Railway lines to Ljubljana and Zagreb , Vienna and Budapest , and in 1874 to Trieste were opened. In 1882 one of the first oil refineries in Europe was founded in Rijeka. From 1883 the Austrian Archduke Joseph Karl Ludwig lived with his wife in the Villa Nadvojvodina. In 1899, Rijeka received electric trams that connected the individual parts of the city with each other.

Between 1870 and 1910 the population doubled to 50,000. Although the "city of Fiume with territory" retained a special administrative status and, unlike in the rest of the Kingdom of Hungary, " Magyarization " was not enforced, the proportion of Magyars (Hungarians) in the population rose between 1891 and 1910 by less than 3.6 percent to 13 percent, while the proportion of Croatians and Slovenes fell. The largest ethnic group, however, remained that of the Italians, who made up almost half of the population and also made up the urban elite.

Rijeka was an important port for emigrants to America, especially after the Cunard Line offered the direct passage from Rijeka to New York from 1903. In 1906, emigration reached its peak when almost 50,000 emigrants from Rijeka embarked for America. Before the outbreak of World War I in 1913, Fiume was one of the ten largest ports in Europe with almost 8,000 ships handled and a turnover of almost three million tons.

The First World War brought Rijeka into severe decline. In the London Treaty of 1915 (secret treaty), Italy was allowed the annexation of Istria and Dalmatia if the Allies won, but Rijeka was expressly excluded from this. The lock of Otranto by the Allies brought the port of Rijeka to a standstill.

The “Fiume Question” after the First World War

In view of the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, the last Hungarian governor, Zoltán Jekelfalussy, left the city on October 29, 1918. An Italian National Council then took over the government. In the armistice of Villa Giusti on November 3, 1918, the Austrian Army High Command left Fiume to the Italians. In addition to the Italian, the Croatian National Council also claimed Rijeka - always citing the right of peoples to self-determination , as US President Woodrow Wilson laid out in his 14-point program . Despite this principle, Wilson proved to be an outspoken opponent of an annexation of Fium to the Kingdom of Italy . After November 17, 1918, an inter-allied occupation corps took control of the city.

Gabriele D'Annunzio with his Arditi in Fiume (1919)

During the Paris Peace Conference in August 1919, the Prime Ministers of France and Great Britain, Georges Clemenceau and Lloyd George , agreed with the Italian Foreign Minister Tommaso Tittoni to place Fiume as a Free City under the supervision of the League of Nations . They were just waiting for US President Wilson's approval. On September 12, 1919, however, 2,500 Italian irregulars - called Arditi - occupied the city under the unauthorized leadership of the Italian nationalist and writer Gabriele D'Annunzio , against the will of the Italian government. With the status of Fiume (Rijeka) as an Italian city, D'Annunzio wanted to create a fait accompli and prevent the city from being assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (SHS state, later Yugoslavia).

When Italy did not annex the city, D'Annunzio proclaimed the " Italian reign on the Quarnero ", which can be seen as an important forerunner of the fascist system; he himself took over the city command. A state of emergency was declared and a policy of mass mobilization was initiated. The Italian government remained cautious about D'Annunzio's occupation, only the fascists stood behind him: their leader Benito Mussolini supported D'Annunzio in his project. D'Annunzio saw in the Italian fascist Mussolini, despite some differences, the fulfiller of his enthusiastic nationalist ideas and, conversely, served him as a model. In Fiume rituals were practiced which the fascists later took over: The functionalities of the “aesthetics” of fascism, which cast a spell over the masses, were first used in Fiume and tested by D'Annunzio.

Free State of Fiume 1920–1924, orange: old urban area, yellow: 1920 affiliated places

On November 12, 1920, the Rapallo border treaty between Italy and the SHS Kingdom came about, in which the city (including the hinterland) was declared the independent Free State of Fiume . But D'Annunzio preferred an Italian occupation and could only be moved to retreat through the deployment of an Italian warship at Christmas 1920. Unrest broke out in the city, and in March 1922 there was even a coup by local fascists.

Italian rule and World War II

The free state was dissolved in the Treaty of Rome (friendship treaty between Italy and the SHS state) on January 27, 1924: the territory was divided, the city came to Italy, the neighboring city of Sušak came to the SHS kingdom. The port administration was carried out jointly. Fiume (Rijeka) had 46,264 inhabitants at that time, 28,911 were Italians and 10,927 Yugoslavs.

In July of the same year, fascism prevailed throughout Italy, including Rijeka, as the predominant political ideology. A so-called Italianization was sought in Fiume and the surrounding area, i. H. Croats and other non-Italians were assimilated or expelled, leftists were expelled and also imprisoned, and the Croatian language was banned. Many Croatians eventually emigrated to the SHS state. Italy encouraged the immigration of Italians to this region.

The port was divided into two parts, the volume of goods handled fell to a low of 500,000 GRT . The port of Sušak was added to the Independent State of Croatia . Although it was around six times smaller than the Italian part, the amount converted was the same. Rijeka entered an era of intensive Italianization and went into economic ruin, as it became a provincial border town of a state.

During the German-Italian occupation of Yugoslavia in 1941, the area around the city came under Italian occupation. Non-Italians were partially expropriated and expelled from the city of Rijeka. After Italy surrendered in September 1943, Rijeka and the surrounding area were incorporated into the Adriatic coast and so came under German occupation until 1945. At the end of the Second World War , the German Wehrmacht destroyed 50% of the warehouses and the anchorages of the port. There was also some minor destruction in the city itself, after major damage from Anglo-American air raids.

After the Second World War

At the end of World War II, about 80 percent of the population was Italian. Nevertheless, the city was ceded to the People's Republic of Yugoslavia in 1947 at the behest of the victorious Allied powers . In a referendum, the cities of Sušak and Rijeka became one city again. This ended 21 years of membership in Italy. According to Italian sources, Yugoslavia expelled over 300,000 Italians. The reason given for the expulsion of the Italians is the non-acceptance of Yugoslav citizenship. Most of the refugees came from Rijeka and the surrounding area, but also from Istria and Dalmatia. Historically, this is not the only reason for the Italians' exodus. Many Italians feared the revenge of the Slavic inhabitants, who had suffered from a policy of slavofobia (fear of the Slavs), and left Rijeka and with it Yugoslavia. Some of the expelled Italians were settled in the region of Trieste, many Italians only came to the city and their region after 1920, with the support of the Italian government. The Croatians, who had previously been driven out by the Italians, returned to the city.

In the period that followed, Rijeka became a transit tourism, administrative, commercial, industrial, cultural and university center. The revitalization of the old town began in the 1960s based on designs by the local architect Igor Emili. The castle of Trsat was also completely renovated. In 1973 Rijeka became a university center. The seat of the rectorate is the former town hall of Sušak.

Since the state independence of Croatia

In 1991 Croatia declared itself independent from Yugoslavia. During the war that followed, Rijeka got away without damage; it was about 70 km from the nearest theater of war. The city's population has declined since independence. Many Serbs left the city and its surroundings, while many refugees from the war zones of Croatia and Bosnia were taken in here.

Through various reforms, the most important educational institutes in Croatia were relocated to the capital Zagreb . Various faculties and institutions had to move to Zagreb.

Austria received a free port in Rijeka in 2000 and Hungary in 2001. This measure motivated companies from both countries to open new locations in Rijeka.


Rijeka is the third largest city in Croatia and had 128,624 inhabitants at the 2011 census. In 2001 there were 144,043. In 1991 Rijeka had 164,075 inhabitants. After the end of the Croatian War in 1995, the population decreased slightly.

In 2011, the population consisted of the following nationalities: 82.52% Croatians , 6.57% Serbs , 2.06% Bosniaks and 1.90% Italians .

The population has developed as follows since 1880:


Saint Vitus Cathedral
The Capuchin Church of Maria Lourdes, built 1908–1929

The majority of the Croatians are Roman Catholic . There are a large number of religious minorities in Rijeka; 71.96 percent of the residents (mainly Croats and Italians) profess the Roman Catholic faith, while Serbian Orthodox Christians make up 6.95 percent of the population of Rijeka. There is also an Islamic and a Jewish community. While the Muslims are concentrating on their own larger mosque, the Jews have reconstructed their old synagogue , it is once again used as a prayer room. The number of Jews in Rijeka is around 75 (2008), compared to 4,700 (1943).


The official language is Croatian. Most of the people in Rijeka speak Croatian ( čakavian dialect). Many, especially older residents, also have a command of the Italian language.


Rijeka is close to the border with Slovenia, which separates Rijeka from Italy and Austria.


Ferry in the port of Rijeka

Rijeka is the main port in Croatia . The transit port is of great importance for the Central European landlocked states, especially for Hungary , which had steadily advanced the expansion of the port facilities and the shipping industry in the times of Austria-Hungary . Even today Austria and Hungary each have their own free port in Rijeka (see Port of Rijeka ).

The port of Fiume was heavily promoted by Hungary after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise in 1867 in order to be as independent as possible from Austria in maritime trade. With the help of favorable tariffs, the entire international freight traffic of the Hungarian half of the empire was to be directed to Fiume. As early as 1878, 5,463 ships were handling goods totaling 427,513 tons. From 1880, Hungary also relied on its own shipping companies, which is why the Adria shipping company was founded with its headquarters in Fiume. Hungary also supported the establishment of the Ungaro-Croata coastal shipping company . This headed from Fiume to destinations along the Adriatic coast to Albania. By 1914, the company had a fleet of 49 steamers - the Adriatic , which is also active in ocean shipping, had only 33 steamers. Other shipping companies in Fiume were the Oriente with 6 steamers, the Levante with 12 steamers and the Atlantica with also 12 steamers.

The Rijeka ferry port connects the city with the major ports along the Croatian coast, Venice and southern Italy.

In the 18th century, sailing brought the city prosperity and wealth. However, shipbuilding contributed greatly to the karstification of the hinterland. In the 19th century the number of ships manufactured decreased sharply. Around 35 ships were built annually between 1840 and 1859. By 1862 the number of shipyards had decreased to 12. These fell victim to the expansion of the port, quays and railways. In 1883 the last remaining Fiumes shipyard closed. Except for the Whitehead shipyard , which emerged from the former Stabilimento Tecnico Fiumano , there was no other shipyard or ship repair operation in the city until 1894, when the Naval Support Act came into force. Through a merger of Fiumaner interested parties and the Kiel shipbuilding company Howaldt, the Fiumaner Dockgesellschaft was created in 1892 , which opened its shipyard on November 13, 1894, about four kilometers west of the city center. After ten years of existence, this company also had to be liquidated.

Rijeka and Opatija
Beaches in Kostrena

It was not until 1905 that the state became actively involved in the shipbuilding of Fiume, when the Budapest shipyard Danubius was won over through financial incentives for the operation and expansion of the shipyard in Bergudi (today Brgud ). The reason was expansion plans of the Austro-Hungarian Navy , which required large shipyard capacities. In the following years, a considerable large shipyard was established in Bergudi that employed 2,500 people as of 1913. The largest ship built there, the SMS Szent István with 20,000 GRT , was laid down in 1912 . Today the 3rd Maj . Shipyard is located in the same place . In 2010, the city acquired the former state yacht Titos Galeb, which has now been declared a cultural monument of the former multi-ethnic state .


During the time of the Danube Monarchy, the Rijeka station was connected to the network of the Hungarian State Railways with the Zagreb – Rijeka line via Karlovac and Zagreb . The private southern railway company also created a connection to the Austrian railway network in the direction of Ljubljana and Vienna in 1873 with the Pivka – Rijeka railway via Opatija and Pivka . With these two railway lines, Rijeka overtook Trieste as the largest Adriatic port.

After Slovenia joined the EU, the flow of goods on the Rijeka – Ljubljana – Vienna railway line was largely relocated from the port of Rijeka to the Slovenian port of Koper. Virtually no more goods are transported to Slovenia via the port of Rijeka. This leads to large losses in the port of Rijeka. There are no known expansion plans or renewal plans for the connection between Slovenia and Rijeka. The railway line to Pula can only be reached from Rijeka by crossing the border twice, so this connection is rarely used.

In 2007, the expansion of the railway line to Karlovac , Zagreb and from there via Koprivnica to Hungary began. Today there are connections from Rijeka train station . a. to Osijek and Zagreb main station as well as international z. B. to Ljubljana and Munich . The railway network in this region is now very outdated and urgently needs renovation. For local public transport ( ÖPNV ) in the Rijeka region, the railway no longer plays a role, buses are used for this .


Rijeka International Airport (RJK) is located southeast of the city near Omišalj on the island of Krk . The distance there is about 26 kilometers. From there there are connections to several European destinations, but usually only in the summer flight schedule. In addition to Croatia Airlines , the airport is served by Germanwings , Norwegian , Condor , Skywork and Ryanair .

Road traffic

Rijeka is connected to the motorway network in the central part of Croatia via the A6 and towards Slovenia via the A7 . The Istrian peninsula is reached from Rijeka via the A8 motorway . The intermediate section of the motorway from Croatia to Italy (Rijeka-Trieste) has not yet been implemented by Slovenia, although this is requested by the Croatians. The Automotodrom Grobnik motorsport racetrack is located near the city .

Local transport and long-distance bus transport

Local transport is covered by the local transport company Autotrolej and Autotrans with buses . A total of 17 city lines connect all parts of the city and the surrounding villages. Long-distance lines are also operated by the local Autotrans, so many daily and weekly connections to larger European cities: to Amsterdam , Basel , Berlin , Bern , Frankfurt am Main , Milan , Munich , Prague , Venice , Vienna , Zurich and others. From 1899 to 1952 Rijeka had its own tram network, from 1952 to 1971 trolleybuses took the place of trams, which in turn were replaced by buses. The trolley lines trolleybus exist in part today.

Town twinning


The University of Rijeka has the following faculties: medicine, philosophy, engineering, economics, shipping, law. There is also the university in Rijeka and the marine university in Rijeka .


The independent daily newspaper Novi list has been published in Rijeka since 1890 and is the most important newspaper in the region. It is also one of the few newspapers that is critical of the government and the opposition. The independent Italian-language daily La Voce del Popolo has also been published in Rijeka for over 120 (new edition 60) years.

The regional television station RiTV reports mainly from the region. The Croatian state radio HRT maintains the local radio station Radio Rijeka , which has been in operation since 1945. There are also many other stations, for example Radio SVID , Radio Sušak and Radio Trsat.

Arts and Culture

Croatian National Theater Rijeka

Rijeka was elected European Capital of Culture 2020. The Capital of Culture year in Rijeka has the self-chosen motto “Port of Diversity”. More than 300 program items with more than 600 events are planned. It opened on February 1, 2020 with the “Opera Industriale”, staged by the two artistic directors Josip Marsic and Zoran Medved to the musical composition of Fran 1.urović , a large musical theater play on and in the harbor basin .


In Rijeka there is a building of the famous architecture firm Fellner & Helmer , which specializes in theater buildings , the Croatian National Theater in Rijeka .


The annual carnival has been held in Rijeka since 1982. Every year over 120,000 spectators visit the carnival, which takes place from mid-January to the end of February. Over 10,000 active people take part in the parade, organized in around 150 groups.


There are many sports represented in Rijeka, including a. Soccer, handball, basketball and water polo.

The football club in Rijeka is one of the larger clubs in Croatia. HNK Rijeka has won five national cups so far (twice in Yugoslavia and in 2005 and 2006 in Croatia). In the 2016/2017 season, the club was able to secure the Croatian championship for the first time.

The local water polo club VK Primorje Rijeka was in the final of the men's Champions League in 2012 and won the strong Adriatic League in 2013 , which is played with the best club teams from Croatia, Montenegro and Slovenia.

Between 1978 and 1990 the Grand Prix of Yugoslavia took place 13 times in the Automotodrom Grobnik as part of the motorcycle world championship . Today there are still races for the sidecar world championship and other championships.


sons and daughters of the town


Media reception

According to IMDB, the city of Rijeka itself has been used as a backdrop in 40 films and series episodes so far.


  • Daniel Baric: Rijeka. Small city history. Pustet: Regensburg 2020. ISBN 978-3-7917-3131-5 .
  • Igor Zic: Rijeka - The St. Vitus city . Rijeka, Dusevic & Krsovnik GmbH, 1996. ISBN 953-6029-10-3 .
  • Neda Andrić: Rijeka. History, culture, art, natural sights, tourism . Zagreb 1988.
  • Marijana Erstic / Daniel Winkler: Rijeka / Fiume. Italy and Croatia (= Zibaldone. Magazine for contemporary Italian culture. No. 68, 2019). Stauffenburg, Tübingen 2020, ISBN 978-3-95809-711-7 .

Web links

Commons : Rijeka  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: rijeka  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikivoyage: Rijeka  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. Central Bureau of Statistics: POPULATION CONTINGENTS, BY TOWNS / MUNICIPALITIES, 2011 CENSUS. Retrieved March 5, 2019 .
  2. City of Rijeka: Rijeka Urban Agglomeration. Retrieved March 5, 2019 .
  3. Central Bureau of Statistics: Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011 - Notes on Methodology. Accessed December 31, 2019 .
  4. https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/creative-europe/actions/capitals-culture_de
  5. Rijeka.hr. History of the city of Rijeka ( Memento of the original from December 14, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Croatian). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.rijeka.hr
  6. ^ Ludwig Steindorff: History of Croatia. From the Middle Ages to the present. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2020.
  7. ^ Daniel Lalić: The high nobility of Croatia-Slavonia. De Gruyter Oldenbourg, Berlin / Boston 2017, pp. 55–56.
  8. a b Riječka luka. Muzej Grada Rijeke, as of March 31, 2012.
  9. Péter Techet: Interlinking church and national political front lines in Fiume / Rijeka. 'Liberal' Hungarians and Italians at the time of the Hungarian 'Kulturkampf' (1894/1895). In: Bernhard Bachinger u. a .: Austria-Hungary's imperial challenges. Nationalisms and rivalries in the Habsburg Empire around 1900. V&R Unipress, Göttingen 2020, pp. 295–312, here pp. 296–302.
  10. Michael Arthur Ledeen: D'annunzio: the First Duce. P. 23.
  11. Ljubinka Toševa Karpowicz: The "State of Rijeka" of the Italian National Council (23 November 1918 to 12 September 1919). In: Angela Ilić et al.: Looking into the Unknown: Visions and Utopias in the Danube-Carpathian Region 1917 and after. Verlag Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 2019, pp. 19–32, here pp. 20–21.
  12. Marina Cattaruzza, Sascha Zala : Against the right to self-determination? Wilson's Fourteen Points and Italy in the European order at the end of the First World War. In: Jörg Fisch: The distribution of the world. Self-determination and the right of peoples to self-determination. R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2011, pp. 141–156, here p. 152.
  13. Birte Förster : 1919. A continent is reinventing itself. 2nd edition, Reclam, Ditzingen 2018. Section The Beginnings of Italian Fascism and the Occupation of Fiume.
  14. ^ Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005.
  15. European Capitals of Culture , European Commission
  16. Rijeka is going brilliantly into the Capital of Culture year , “Kulturnachrichten” on deutschlandfunkkultur.de on February 2, 2020, accessed on February 3, 2020
  17. Opening of the European Capital of Culture - Opera Industriale in Rijeka's port , rijeka2020.eu/en from February 1, 2020, accessed February 3, 2020
  18. Entry in the IMDb, accessed on January 1, 2020.