|region||Friuli Venezia Giulia|
|Residents||203,234 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||2,405 inhabitants / km²|
|Factions||Barcola, Villa Opicina, Miramare , Grignano, Basovizza , Banne, Cattinara, Conconello, Contovello, Gropada, Longera, Padriciano, Prosecco, Santa Croce, Trebiciano, Servola|
|Popular name||Triestiner or Triester (it. Triestini)|
|Patron saint||San Giusto|
Trieste seen from the north
Trieste [ triɛst ] (triestinisch / Venetic and Italian Trieste , Friulian Triest , Slovenian and Croatian Trst , Latin Tergeste ) is in northern Italy on the Gulf of Trieste located port and city with 203,234 inhabitants (31 of December 2019), including a Slovenian Minority. It is located on the upper Adriatic directly on the border with Slovenia and is the capital of the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia and, until 2017, of the province of Trieste , which was then dissolved.
Trieste is the seat of the Roman Catholic diocese of Trieste . The city has two famous astronomy and geophysics observatories and, since 1924, the University of Trieste . The city is the headquarters of global companies such as the coffee producer illycaffè SpA , the insurance company Generali , the shipbuilding company Fincantieri and the shipping company Italia Marittima (formerly Lloyd Triestino or Austrian Lloyd ).
As early as 774, Trieste became part of the Frankish Empire under the later Emperor Charlemagne . In the continuity of the empire, the Eastern part of the Frankish Empire developed into the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation , of which Trieste remained for almost 1000 years with short interruptions (see the History section) until its fall in 1806. Even after that the city belonged as part of the German Confederation belonging to the Empire of Austria from 1815 to 1866 to do so. From 1382 to 1918 Trieste was part of the Habsburg Monarchy or Austria-Hungary . It was his most important trading port, one of the bases of the Austro-Hungarian Navy and the seat of the governor of the Austrian coastal region (Litorale) and the three crown lands formed from it in 1861, the princes of Gorizia and Gradisca, the margravate of Istria and the imperial city of Trieste .
Culturally and historically, Trieste, as part of Italy, has remained a place where cultures, languages, ethnic groups and religions meet (“Città mitteleuropea”) since 1918 . After 1945 the city and its mixed-language hinterland were successfully claimed by Yugoslavia , after an interlude as the Free Territory of Trieste, the city was again subject to the Italian state from 1954.
Like Berlin on the fault line between East and West or between democracy and communism, Trieste was in a marginal position in terms of transport policy for decades due to the East-West conflict . The disadvantage of this border location and the resulting loss of economic importance fell with Slovenia joining the EU in 2004 and joining the Schengen area , which led to the abolition of border controls with Italy on December 21, 2007, and Croatia joining the EU in 2013 gone.
With its deep-water port, Trieste is today, as it was before 1918, a maritime gateway for Northern Italy, Germany, Austria and Central Europe and is considered the end point of the Maritime Silk Road ( Maritim Silk Road or 21st Century Maritim Silk Road ) with its connections via the Suez Canal or Turkey and the Land route to China, Japan and many countries in Asia.
The port of Trieste has an international duty-free area ( free port ) with five free zones. Since the 1960s, Trieste has been one of the most important research locations in Europe thanks to its many international organizations and institutions, an international school and university city and has one of the highest standards of living among Italian cities.
Trieste has a very long coastline, free access to the sea in Barcola and is surrounded by grassland, forest and karst areas. In the city, on the Molo Sartorio, there was the Mareograf , whose fixed values from the years 1875 and 1900 in Central Europe refer to most of the reference heights with the designation “ meters above the Adriatic ”. Trieste is also the Città della Barcolana , as the signs at the city entrances make clear, and thus the annual venue for this world's largest sailing regatta.
Trieste, which lies at the intersection of Latin, Slavic, Greek and Jewish cultures, where central Europe meets the Mediterranean , is considered one of the literary capitals and was often referred to as early New York because of its different ethnicities and religious communities . There are also other national and international names for the city, such as Trieste città della bora , città del vento , Trieste città della scienza - City of Science , "City of the Three Winds", "Vienna by the Sea" or "City of Coffee" “, In which individual defining characteristics are highlighted.
Trieste is located in northeastern Italy on the Gulf of Trieste , a bay in the Upper Adriatic , a few kilometers from the Slovenian border. The city is part of the historical region of Julisch Venetien ( Venezia Giulia ), which was also known as the Austrian Coastal Region before the First World War and whose territory is now divided between the states of Italy , Slovenia and Croatia . Since Trieste had lost a large part of its hinterland due to the demarcation of the border in the 20th century, Venezia Giulia was united with Friuli to form the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia , the capital of which has been Trieste since 1962.
Trieste and its hinterland extends from the slope of a high coastal step of the Karst of the same name (Triestiner Karst), which merges into a stony, shady , chalky and arid high landscape towards the inland , to a coastal flat zone on the Adriatic Sea. The high-lying landscape areas are known for their caves, sinkholes and other karst forms . The urban area of Trieste extends southward into a flysch area , which in the form of a double trough extends over the urban area and the national border to Pazin .
Another characteristic of this area is the terra rossa soil type , a red clay resulting from the weathering of limestone, which is particularly suitable for growing wine. The Carso Terrano vine , a variety of the Refosco grape variety , is mainly grown in the Carso wine-growing region , which surrounds the city of Trieste . The growing area received the DOC quality seal in 1985 . In 1986 the province of Trieste opened the Terrano wine route ("Strada del vino Terrano") between the towns of Opicina and Sistiana .
As the most important port in Austria and Austria-Hungary (1382–1918), Trieste became a center of nautical and marine science. At Molo Sartorio, the port basin received a long-term observed level , to which the Central European elevation system meters above the Adriatic has been based since the 19th century ; it was looked after by the weather station founded in 1841, which today belongs to the Geophysical Institute of Trieste .
The climate of Trieste is sub-Mediterranean . It is characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. An average temperature of 25 ° C is reached in summer and 8 ° C in winter.
The summer water temperatures range from 24 ° C to 28 ° C near the coast. The annual precipitation is approx. 1023 mm, the relative humidity 64%. In Trieste there is no wind for about 200 days a year. Compared to other seaside cities, the city is not particularly windy.
The bora, which often occurs in winter but also in the rest of the year, is a cold, dry fall wind from the northeast that starts suddenly, can last for weeks and blows from land to the open sea in strong gusts. It is channeled in the Bay of Trieste and thus reaches high wind speeds in the city, in individual cases well over 100 km / h. While the high wind speeds in the urban area of Trieste can lead to chaos, especially in winter in connection with ice and snow, the bora has positive effects on people's well-being. They say: "The Bora blows away bad moods". Many sick people feel relieved of their ailments, sensitivity to weather and pain on borate days.
In contrast to the bora, the rarer Scirocco is a warm, humid east-southeast wind that is accompanied by heavy clouds and rain. The mistral is most common in summer, a light breeze that blows from the sea towards the land and cools warm summer nights.
As a result of the climate and despite the northern location of Trieste, excellent olive oil can still be obtained in Trieste (one speaks of the location of Trieste on the olive oil-butter border) and, on the other hand, the city administration and the house owners regularly fight with termite infestation of the historical properties.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Trieste
At the time Aquileia was founded by the Romans, the area around Trieste was inhabited by Celtic and Illyrian tribes. When the Romans from 177 BC BC from Aquileia made campaigns to Istria, they received support from residents of a village called Tergeste, the first place in Illyria, in the Histrer area. During this time, three Roman military camps were founded, the 13 hectare main San Rocco complex between the two smaller forts in Monte Grociana Piccola in the north-east and Montedoro in the south-west. In 128 BC It came to the first settlement of Roman citizens in Tergeste. The settlement of Tergeste was founded by the Greek geographer Artemidor of Ephesus in 104 BC. Mentioned BC and was already a Roman settlement at that time on the current city hill of San Giusto, where the origins of the settlement are also located.
In the second half of the 1st century BC, an elaborate princely Roman villa was built in the Trieste suburb of Barcola . This private villa was located between today's cemetery and the church of San Bartolomeo, approximately at the height of Viale Miramare 48, directly on the sea with a unique panoramic view. The "Villa Maritima" stretched along the coast and was divided into terraces in a feudal representation area, state hall, a separate living area, a garden, some facilities open to the sea and a thermal bath. Extensions and reconstruction work can be traced back to the second half of the 1st century AD. The works of art, statues and mosaics found are now in the Lapidario Tergestino Museum in the San Giusto Castle, although comparable works have so far only been found in Rome and Campania.
As early as the first century AD, Barcola (as "Vallicula" or later "Valcula") with its climatic advantages and a number of villas for patricians and nobles developed into an exclusive Roman tourist destination. At that time, as Pliny the Elder mentioned, the vines of the Pulcino wine (a presumed predecessor of Prosecco) were grown on the slopes . It was the favorite wine of the Empress Julia, the wife of Augustus , which was only drawn there , and is said to have been praised by the Greeks as the Praetetianum.
Around the birth of Christ, Trieste acted as a border fortress against the Japyden settling in the Eastern Alps . The Romans kept the name Tergeste, which probably means "market" and was derived from Trieste, when the middle of the 1st century AD. Tergeste developed as a Roman colony into an important port in the Roman Empire, with trade routes along the Adriatic Sea and across the Julian Alps . At that time, however, Trieste never achieved the importance of Aquileia, which lies opposite the Gulf of Trieste. The Roman Tergeste had access to the sea through a port and was from 33 BC onwards. BC protected by new walls. In 27 BC Tergeste was assigned to the X. Italian region "Venetia et Histria". At the time of Trajan (98–117 AD) the city had 12,000 inhabitants and received a basilica and a theater. Towards the end of the 3rd century AD, the rich Roman houses and villas were abandoned and a period of regression and retreat to the hill area, which was fortified again, began. The buildings were given a rural character and wood was often used instead of masonry.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Trieste shared the general fate of Istria , where Ostrogoths , Byzantines and Lombards succeeded each other in rule until the city was incorporated into the empire of Charlemagne in 774 as part of the Friuli region . Under Emperor Lothar III. the bishop of Trieste received secular sovereignty over the city.
Trieste retained its independence under its bishops until it was conquered by Venice in 1203. For the next 180 years, the history of Trieste consisted mainly of a series of conflicts with the mighty Venice in tension with the claims of the Patriarch of Aquilea. Venice also forced the demolition of the city wall, which was rebuilt in the course of the 14th century. Since Trieste did not have its own army, it was the duty of the citizens, which they could not escape, to keep watch on the walls and do military service. In order to preserve the independence of Trieste, the citizens of Trieste placed themselves under the protection of Leopold III in 1382 . of Austria , who was also the sovereign of the neighboring Duchy of Carniola . The independence of the city had to remain intact and the Austrian privileges only related to the appointment of a military governor.
Trieste was Habsburg - Austrian from 1382 to 1918 . On September 30, 1382, Duke Leopold III. the voluntary submission of the city of Trieste in the castle of Graz. In the 15th century bitter conflicts arose in the city between the imperial party, the supporters of the Lords of Duino and the Venetians. Especially in the years 1467 to 1469, the civil struggles led to acts of terrorism and devastation in the streets of Trieste. The protectorate slowly developed into a real property relationship, the Austrian coastal land (Litorale). The Habsburg rule in Trieste was nominally represented for a long time by the dynasty of the Counts of Montenari. The governorship was initially granted ad personam by the respective monarch (who was mostly also emperor of the Holy Roman Empire , but did not decide in this function there, but as ruler of the Habsburg hereditary lands ), later hereditary according to the law of primogeniture to the eldest son of Passed Counts of Montenari.
Apart from repeated brief occupations (especially 1508/09) by Venice and the Napoleonic period (1797, 1805–1806 and 1809–1813), Trieste remained part of Habsburg Austria until the end of the First World War .
Trieste's rise in the 18th century
Trieste's rise in the Danube Monarchy began in 1719 with the elevation of the city to a free port by Charles VI. - a status that the city retained until 1891. Karl's successors, Maria Theresa and Joseph II, supported Triests economic upswing by creating important urban areas, the “Maria Theresa City” ( Borgo Teresiano ) northeast of today's main square and the “Joseph City ” ( Borgo Giuseppino ) to the southwest.
As the only large seaport in Austria, Trieste assumed an important strategic position in the Habsburg Monarchy and was the starting point for short-lived colonial acquisitions (Trieste trading company). However, the pressure from Venice for a long time inhibited the economic development of Trieste. Only the conquest of Venice by Napoleon at the end of the 18th century and the subsequent Peace of Campo Formio , in which Venice was awarded to Austria, ushered in the decline of the Republic of Venice and the heyday of Trieste.
With Austrian support, Trieste replaced Venice in its leading role in trade with the Middle East and developed into the largest trading center on the Adriatic. In 1802, 483,326 tons of goods were handled in the port of Trieste , which had been transported by 5,442 ships. At the height of Trieste's heyday, around 100 years later, there were more than twice as many ships and more than ten times as many goods, mainly coffee, sugar and tropical fruits as well as wines, oils, cotton, iron, wood and machines.
Founding time in the 19th century
In 1804 Trieste became part of the newly founded Austrian Empire , further as part of the Litoral. Under Napoleon, Trieste was added to the Illyrian Provinces in 1809 and thus French until 1814. This short time left its mark on classicist buildings such as the Trieste opera Teatro Verdi , which was designed by the architect Matthäus Pertsch .
In 1813 Austria recaptured Trieste under General Christoph Freiherr von Lattermann . After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Trieste was incorporated into the newly created Kingdom of Illyria in the Austrian imperial state .
After Trieste had been part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation for centuries under Habsburg rule , as an Austrian city it also belonged to the German Confederation , which was created at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as a replacement for the old empire that fell in 1806. The city roughly marked the southern extension of the German Confederation to the Adriatic Sea. In this respect, as a result of the bourgeois revolution of 1848 , Trieste was of course part of the electoral area for the German or Frankfurt National Assembly ( also constituent Reich Assembly, Reich Parliament, German National Parliament or even the Reichstag). In these first all-German, free and democratic elections, three members of the parliament of the newly constituting German Reich in Frankfurt were elected in the constituencies of Coastal Triest City 1 and 2: Karl Ludwig von Bruck , Gabriel Jenny and Friedrich Moritz Burger . Even after the failure of the revolution and the empire Trieste part of the restored German Confederation was the this year to end the to 1866. To the end of the year with the German war closed the Peace of Prague , eliminated Austria German and thus Trieste after centuries of membership from the State association.
On July 1, 1829 led Josef Ressel with the built in Trieste ship Civetta the first successful test drive a propeller through. During this time the establishment of insurance companies, shipyards, bank branches and shipping companies began in Trieste, including the Assicurazioni Generali (1831), the Austrian Lloyd (1833), the San Marco shipyard (1839/1840), the Giuseppe Tonellos shipyard (1852) and 1860 the Lloyd arsenal, as the private shipyards could no longer keep up with the production of the fast-growing shipping companies.
In 1850 Trieste became the seat of the Imperial and Royal Central Sea Authority . The Austrian Southern Railway has been connecting Trieste with Vienna via the Semmering since 1857 . The first mountain railway in Europe was built according to the plans and under the direction of the Venetian Carl Ritter von Ghega .
In 1857/58 the Strudenhoff machine factory in Sant'Andrea and the San Rocco shipyard formed the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino (STT) in Muggia , opposite the city in the bay. In 1897, this new large company also bought Giuseppe Tonello's shipyard, which had meanwhile been expanded into a large shipyard. The STT was able to build ships with a displacement of up to 20,500 tons - such as the large battleships of the Austro-Hungarian Navy .
From 1867 the old port facilities, which no longer corresponded to the growing trade, were expanded. First the northern free port ( punto franco ) was expanded. During the monarchy, the port city mainly benefited from the Suez Canal opened in 1869 . Austrian industrial products were now also sold in Turkey , Egypt and Syria .
Trieste and nationalism
In the revolutions of 1848 there were uprisings against the Habsburg rule and for a united Italian nation-state in the Austrian provinces of Lombardy and Veneto (see also Risorgimento ). Trieste remained loyal to Austria and received the title of Città Fedelissima - the “most faithful city”.
In 1849 the Austrian administrative unit Kingdom of Illyria was broken down into its components. Trieste and the immediately adjacent territory were constituted as the imperial city of Trieste and its territory with its own constitution and state parliament and with the status of a crown land ; likewise Gorizia and Gradisca and Istria . ( Carinthia and Carniola , up to then also parts of Illyria, also became their own crown lands.)
In 1852–1861 the three political units were combined to form the Crown Land of the Austrian Coast . The 1861 imperial constitution again divided the three parts into independent crown lands, which existed until 1918. All they had in common was the imperial governor in Trieste as representative of the emperor and the Viennese government and a joint publication organ for their legal provisions. The reorganization of the unified Austrian Empire to the Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867 did not change anything for the self-government of Trieste; it was now counted as part of Cisleithanien and was last represented in the House of Representatives of the Reichsrat in Vienna, the cisleithan parliament, with five members.
However, an increasing Italian irredentist movement began in Trieste, which was largely inhabited by Italians , aiming to detach Trieste as an Italian-speaking area from Austria-Hungary and to join the nation-state of Italy founded in 1861 . Irredentism reached its peak when Emperor Franz Joseph I visited Trieste in 1882 on the occasion of the 500-year period of Habsburg rule over the city. During anti-Austrian demonstrations, the Kaiser narrowly escaped the bomb attack by Guglielmo Oberdan (Wilhelm Oberdank) and his accomplices. Until 1914, Trieste remained one of the hottest centers of conflict in Austria-Hungary in the nationality struggle, as Austria neither could nor wanted to do without this port city, which is extremely important for trade and the Austro-Hungarian Navy . (Hungary had developed the port city of Fiume, in Croatian: Rijeka .)
Overall, the Trieste elite looked towards Vienna, while a few young Italian irredentists sacrificed themselves for Italy. However, the residents of Trieste and many intellectuals knew exactly what was important in their city, because Italy and Trieste were hardly dependent on each other economically, but Austria and Trieste even more. Only a minority called for unification with the Kingdom of Savoy or Italy, but many Italian-speaking Trieste residents perceived Slavic nationalism as a challenge.
Further upswing before the First World War
In 1880 the throughput in the ports of Trieste was 1.225 million tons. By 1912 this amount rose to 4.573 million tons. In 1883, the 30 million kronor port renovation in the south of the city was completed. The storage areas and the new south station ( stazione meridonale ), which is still the only passenger station in the city today, were largely built on heaped land.
Despite the political and national problems, Trieste continued to flourish economically and culturally. In addition to the southern Trieste – Vienna railway with a connection to the Moravian-Silesian industrial area, the Tauern Railway via Görz and Villach to Salzburg offered a direct connection to western Austria and southern Germany from 1909 . The most important train station until 1918 was the state train station ( stazione dello stato ) of the kk state railways . The new port ( porto nuovo ), which was expanded from 1898 and was called Josephs-Hafen until the end of the monarchy, stretched between it and the Lloyd area .
Around 1900 the city was in its full economic boom and displayed its wealth through numerous magnificent buildings. Some of the architects who were responsible for magnificent Ringstrasse buildings in the style of historicism worked in Trieste , such as Heinrich von Ferstel (e.g. Lloydpalast ), Wilhelm von Flattich (e.g. Südbahnhof), Friedrich Schachner (various palaces) . Writers and artists such as James Joyce and Italo Svevo frequented the city. The Irish Joyce had just come into contact with the multiethnic state of Austria-Hungary in the port city of Trieste, on the one hand processing his impressions from Trieste in his works and on the other hand the political system of that time with "They called the Austrian Empire a ramshackle empire, I wish to God there were more such empires ".
Trieste was one of the most economically developed areas of the Habsburg Empire. In 1906 the taxable per capita income of a Trieste resident was 54 kroner, while that of a Viennese was around 9 kroner.
The inner city of Trieste, with its cosmopolitan population of Italians (75%), Slavs (18%), Germans (5%) and inhabitants of other peoples , advanced to become the literary capital of Central Europe , as Claudio Magris noted decades later . The neighboring districts were mostly Slovenes (52%), Italians (43%) and Germans (4%) as residents, the rural surroundings were almost entirely Slovenian (93%). Almost every Triesteese was multilingual, with Italian being the leading language of communication.
In the years before the First World War, a series of shipbuildings for the Austro-Hungarian Navy was carried out in Trieste , mainly at the insistence of Archduke Franz Ferdinand , heir to the throne . The heir to the throne usually took part in the launching, z. B. 1911 at SMS Viribus Unitis and 1912 at SMS Tegetthoff .
See also: Austrian Merchant Navy
First World War
With the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914, the economic and artistic-literary development in Trieste suddenly stalled. Even before Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 23, 1915, many thousands of Trieste residents moved to the interior of Austria-Hungary. Initially around 32,500 men between 18 and 37 years of age went to the front from Trieste and around 50,000 Trieste people aged up to 50 were drafted in the course of the war . The house regiment of the Trieste, the Austro-Hungarian infantry regiment No. 97, was transported by rail to Lemberg in Galicia on August 11, 1914 , and was involved in the most severe defensive battles against the advancing Russian army .
On May 23, 1915, the previously neutral Italy declared war as a new member of the Triple Entente Austria-Hungary . This created a front a few kilometers northwest of the city; many foreigners like James Joyce had to leave Trieste. The Italian declaration of war triggered massive protest rallies against Italians, in particular a crowd of people stormed the editorial office of the newspaper "Il Piccolo", the headquarters of the "Lega nazionale" was destroyed and shops and coffee houses belonging to Italian owners were plundered. When Italy entered the war, Trieste was militarized. Because of the close front, air defense positions were built on roofs and squares; Schools and buildings were converted into hospitals. Young "Marinaretti" and "Scauti" helped older soldiers to monitor public order. The city became depopulated and around 35,000 "Regnicoli" - Italian workers living in Trieste - returned to their Italian homeland with their families. However, many regnicoli did not leave the city and around 15,000 of them were interned by the authorities in various camps along with over a thousand suspicious people. Around 900 Italians from Trieste deserted from the Habsburg army, crossed the border illegally and joined the Italian armed forces. Often viewed with suspicion by Italian comrades and commanders, half of these irredentists nevertheless achieved the rank of Italian officer. The Italian-friendly attitude of some Trieste residents and the position on the front of Trieste led to strict surveillance of the city by the kuk military authorities. The 10th Battalion of the Austro-Hungarian Infantry Regiment No. 97 remained in Trieste; it was involved in the defense of the karst line in the Isonzo battles and was almost completely wiped out in 1915/16.
Born in 1907, the writer Diego de Castro, who descended from the old irredentist Istrian nobility, later assessed the Trieste people as largely Habsburg or Austrophilic during the war and said that the small, indomitable group of irredentists around Mario Alberti was limited to two and a half percent of the total population of Trieste .
Only in 1917 did the front move to the Piave, which is further away from Trieste . In autumn 1918 the dual monarchy began to dissolve . On October 29, 1918, the new South Slav state, the SHS state , was founded. It cut off German Austria , founded on October 30th, and the areas of Old Austria to the north and east of it from the Adriatic Sea. Valentino Pittoni , the leader of the Trieste Left, called in October 1918 for the formation of an "Adriatic Republic of Trieste" to prevent annexation to Italy.
The Imperial and Royal Austrian governor Alfred von Fries- Skene handed over power to the Trieste Comitato di salute pubblica on October 30, 1918 . On the same day, Emperor Karl I instructed Admiral Nikolaus Horthy to hand over the Austro-Hungarian Navy to the South Slav state; this was done the next day.
Since Italian troops could not be expected to arrive soon and it was unclear whether Trieste would fall to the South Slav state, the committee decided to ask the Italian naval authorities in Venice to send troops. Since the Austro-Hungarian ships were no longer available, the Trieste had to borrow a former Austro-Hungarian corvette from the South Slavs in order to get to Venice under the South Slavic flag.
The armistice commission of the collapsing Austro-Hungarian army under Viktor Weber von Webenau signed the armistice of Villa Giusti near Padua on November 3, 1918 . On the same day, Italians coming from Venice landed unmolested at the Molo San Carlo in Trieste, which was named Molo Audace in 1922 , and symbolically took possession of the city. As de Castro later indicated, the enthusiasm of the population could not be explained by the previous elite phenomenon of irredentism , but by the joy at the end of the hunger period during the war and the fact that the city was not included in the SHS state. The city center was mostly inhabited by Italians, but the adjacent quarters were partly inhabited by Slovenes (18%). In the Treaty of Saint-Germain , Trieste was formally awarded to Italy together with Istria and East Friuli in autumn 1919 .
Many Austro-Hungarian soldiers from Trieste and the surrounding area did not return from Russian captivity until 1920.
After Trieste was annexed to Italy, the national forces sought to Italianize the resident non-Italian population, which led in particular to the suppression of the Slovenian minority. Trieste became a center of the young fascist movement. Slovenian associations and assemblies were banned. The use of the Slovenian language in public life was prohibited. Slovenian surnames were Italianized arbitrarily and without the consent of those concerned. Many Slovenes fled to the neighboring kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes during this time . There were repeated violent clashes between Italians and Slovenes in Trieste.
The conflict reached one of its climaxes on July 13, 1920, when the Narodni dom , the community center of the Slovene population, was burned down by Italian fascists . The attack was initiated by the later secretary of the National Fascist Party ( Partito Nazionale Fascista ), Francesco Giunta , and was described as a retaliatory measure because two Italian soldiers were shot by Yugoslav security forces during riots in Split .
Although in the period after 1919 mainly industry developed in Trieste, the annexation to Italy had long-term negative consequences for the economic situation of the city. The former most important port city of the Habsburg Monarchy suddenly became one of the numerous Italian Adriatic ports and lost its economic importance due to its peripheral location in Italy.
Second World War
In the Second World War, Italy was allied with Germany. After the landing of Allied troops in southern Italy in July 1943 and the Italian surrender on September 8, 1943 by King Viktor Emanuel III. Northern Italy was occupied by German troops who kept Mussolini's Repubblica Sociale Italiana as a puppet dictatorship until the end of April 1945 in order to prevent the ultimate collapse of the Axis powers .
The German occupation forces combined Trieste with Udine , Gorizia , Pula , Fiume and Laibach / Lubiana to form the Adriatic Coastal Operation Zone (OZAK). The zone was subordinate to the Higher SS and Police Leader Odilo Globocnik . At his instigation, the only National Socialist concentration camp on Italian soil was set up in the former Risiera di San Sabba rice mill in a suburb of Trieste . The building complex of the former rice mill was used as a prison camp for disarmed Italian soldiers after Italy left the war and the invasion of the Wehrmacht and SS. From October 1943 on, the Risiera came under SS command. The camp was mainly used to detain hostages, partisans and other political prisoners or as a collection camp for Jews before they were deported to the extermination camps . Mobile gas chambers were also installed and a crematorium built. From October 20, 1943 to spring 1944, around 25,000 Jews and partisans were interrogated and tortured in the Risiera. 3,000 - 5,000 of them were murdered here by shooting, beating or in gas vans. The concentration camp crew consisted mainly of German SS members. When Yugoslav partisans took Trieste in 1945, the SS blew up some parts of the camp to cover their tracks.
Trieste Free Territory
At the end of the Second World War, Trieste was claimed by the Yugoslav partisans Titos for Yugoslavia , which was justified by the existence of the local Slovene population group. Trieste was occupied by the Yugoslav partisans, who shortly afterwards left the city under pressure from the Allies, but without giving up their claim to Trieste. This began a time in which Yugoslavia and Italy fought over possession of the city.
Through the Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 between Italy and the Allies, Trieste with the north-western part of Istria up to and including Cittanova / Novigrad in the south became the Free Territory of Trieste (English Free Territory of Trieste , Italian Territorio Libero di Trieste , Slovenian Svobodno tržaško ozemlje , Croatian Slobodni teritorij Trsta ) was declared a neutral state under the sovereignty of the United Nations (similar to the Free City of Danzig under the protection of the League of Nations in the interwar period). The governor was to be appointed by the United Nations Security Council , but administratively the area was divided into two zones. The Zone A , which included the city of Trieste with their immediate environment, was under British - American military administration, Zone B , which included the hinterland of the city and the northwestern Istria, Yugoslav military administration.
From provisional to definitive
The Free Territory of Trieste was dissolved by the London Agreement between Italy and Yugoslavia of 1954. The area of the previous Zone A was provisionally again subordinated to Italian civil administration, the area of the previous Zone B to Yugoslav civil administration, whereby the Yugoslav part north of the Dragonja river was incorporated into what was then the Republic of Slovenia , while the part south of the Dragonja was incorporated into Croatia (across the border until today divergences; see also: International conflicts of the successor states of Yugoslavia ). From 1954 to 1961, more than 20,000 Trieste residents left their city and emigrated. The majority went to Australia, especially Melbourne and Sydney.
On November 10, 1975, in the Osimo Treaty, the demarcation line of 1954 was finally established as the Italian-Yugoslav border and thus the affiliation of the city of Trieste to Italy was definitely confirmed. In 1962 Trieste became the capital of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region .
Due to the dissolution of the Danube Monarchy and the immediate border location to Yugoslavia, which was governed by socialism after 1945, Trieste was largely economically isolated until the mid-1980s. With the disintegration of Yugoslavia, the entry of the now independent Slovenia into the EU in 2004 and the accession of Slovenia to the Schengen area at the end of 2007, Trieste lost its decade-long marginal position. In 2004 Trieste applied (unsuccessfully) for the EXPO 2008 . But the port handling decreased for a time precisely because of the collapse of communism and the positive development of the port of Koper.
Since 2011 there has also been the movement "Trieste Libera / Svobodni Trst / Free Triest", which has been pushing for self-determination for the Trieste and the expansion of the free port. With reference to the peace treaty of 1947 and 1954, this movement would like to build on the economic successes of a large, united Central European economic area and demand that Trieste be administered by a UN governor. Anti-Italian vandalism occurs again and again at the Molo Audace. The organization Trieste Pro Patria or Trieste Italiana regularly organizes demonstrations in Trieste in order to draw attention to the Italian roots of Trieste and the “Italian” Istria.
At the beginning of the economic crisis in 2008, the large-scale, controversial urban development of the Porto Vecchio (Old Port) stalled. In February 2019, the city council approved the framework planning for the renewal of Porto Vecchio.
Due to the relocation of industry, the previously considerable environmental pollution (predominantly lead pollution in the Gulf of Trieste) has decreased significantly. Youth unemployment was 17.67% in 2012 and rose to 23.25% in 2013.
During the Roman Empire, Trieste developed from a small, relatively insignificant place into a rich, bustling port city. In the 1st century AD, the population of Trieste is estimated at around 12,000. With the fall of the Roman Empire, numerous barbarian invasions and the repeated destruction of the city, the population fell to around 4,000 in the Middle Ages.
It was only with the appointment as a free port in 1719 and the associated increasing importance within the Austrian monarchy that the city experienced a renewed upswing, which in particular resulted in rapid population growth: while around 1717 only 5,600 people lived in Trieste, in 1800 there were already 20,900 and 1900 over 134,000.
After 1945 there was a strong increase in the population of Trieste, because in Dalmatia and Istria the majority of the Italian population group left communist Yugoslavia to the north, whether voluntarily or by force. This led to a severe housing shortage in Trieste and the establishment of barracks. The population has been falling again since the mid-1960s. The clear population decline of 25% is due to the suburbanization , the onward migration of the many Italian-speaking post-war refugees from Dalmatia and Istria, but also to the economic isolation from which Trieste suffered for a long time. With Slovenia joining the EU in 2004 and Croatia in 2013, however , this border location has become an advantage for Trieste. According to the 2011 ISTAT census, in contrast to the “youthful” cityscape of Trieste, the average age of Trieste residents is 48.9 years (Italy: 43.3 years) due to the large number of foreign pupils and students, and a further significant increase is to be expected. In surveys of the average income of the population, Trieste regularly ranks as the leading city in northeastern Italy, ahead of Bolzano, Padua, Vicenza and Venice.
The following overview shows the population figures according to the respective territorial status between the years 1617 and 2009. Up to 1857 these are mostly estimates, from 1869 on census results from Statistics Austria and from 1921 from ISTAT .
Trieste brings together different peoples, languages and religions due to its geographic location and past.
Since the 18th century, Trieste has been inhabited by various ethnic groups who brought their cultures and religions as well as their own traditions with them. At the end of the 19th century, Italians made up the majority of the Trieste population (62%), followed by Slovenes (14%) and German-Austrians (10%). The rest of the population consisted of Greeks , English , Armenians and Turks . 1867–1918 Triestines of all mother tongues had Austrian citizenship.
Even today, Italians make up the majority of the population and give the cityscape a predominantly Italian character, which, however, is still influenced by a larger minority of Slovenes and Croats and a small proportion of Austrians and Greeks. For some years now, other nationalities such as Albanians , Chinese and Africans have also been represented in Trieste and are increasingly shaping individual districts.
In addition to the Roman Catholic majority with its many churches, there is a Greek Orthodox community with the Church of San Nicolo dei Greci, a Serbian Orthodox community with the Church of San Spiridione, an Italian Protestant community with its Protestant church, the Waldensian community the church of San Silvestro and an Armenian parish with the church of Madonna delle Grazie. The Muslim community in Trieste has approximately 6,000 members from more than 30 different countries.
The Jewish community of Trieste now has around 600 members. The Jewish families come from Central Europe, but also from Corfu and the rest of the Mediterranean. The two synagogues, where people prayed according to different rites, were merged 20 years ago. According to Andrea Mariani, President of the Jewish Congregation, services today are held in an Askenasian with Sephardic customs, which results in a separate Trieste rite. Before the Second World War, the community had 6,000 members, one of the largest in Italy, the largest in terms of population share with 2.5 percent in 1938. In addition to the synagogue, points of Jewish intellectual life and remembrance are the Jewish Museum “Carlo e Vera Wagner”, the ghetto in the Citta Vecchia, Via San Nicolo 30 with the antiquarian bookshop “Umberto Saba”, the Jewish cemetery and the Risiera di San Sabba .
The urban population speaks mainly Italian or Trieste , in some suburbs and in the surrounding area Slovenian is spoken. A very small minority still speaks German . For a long time, the Italian language was not really pronounced in Trieste and its surroundings. The Friulian variety Tergestino was spoken until the beginning of the 19th century . Tergestino disappeared as the importance of other languages and dialects such as Venetian , Slovenian and German increased.
A new Italian dialect developed , the so-called Triestinisch (Italian Triestino , dialect Triestín ). This dialect is similar to Venetian, but it also contains elements of the Friulian , Slovenian, Croatian , German and Greek languages . The Italian writer Claudio Magris describes the dialect almost as a separate language.
In contrast to many other dialects, the Trieste dialect has not declined in recent years, but is now actively spoken by the entire Trieste population and in particular by the authorities. Closely related to the Trieste dialect is the Trieste people's motto "Semper allegri, mai passion, viva là e po bon!" ("Always happy, never suffer, live here and forget the rest").
Economy and Transport
Trieste is an Italian port city with good connections to Central Europe. Due to the isolated location on the Iron Curtain for years, traditional trade routes were interrupted and the economy stagnated, while the city established itself as an international research location and university city. Trieste has been the starting point of the Transalpine Oil Pipeline since 1964 . Only since the end of the 1990s and the accession of Slovenia and Croatia to the EU has the city been on an economic upswing. Major companies such as Assicurazioni Generali , Fincantieri or Illy have their headquarters in Trieste today.
In line with the economic development after 1945, the real estate market in Trieste was underdeveloped for a long time and is still at a low level compared to other Italian cities, although there have been positive impulses in recent years. This is due on the one hand to the Silk Road Initiative, the emerging urban tourism, the very good quality of life and on the other hand the very low price level to date. The relevant land register law comes from the Austro-Hungarian legislation and was adopted by the Italian legal system after 1918 in Trieste, as well as in the provinces of Trento, Bozen and Gorizia and in some municipalities in the provinces of Udine, Brescia, Belluno and Vicenza.
The port of Trieste is one of the largest Italian ports, an important seaport in the upper Adriatic and, next to Gioia Tauro, the only deep-water port in the central Mediterranean for seventh generation ships. Trieste has also established itself as the most important port for oil tankers in the Mediterranean. There are seven post- panamax cranes on a quay of 770 meters . In the Trieste Marine Terminal , the most modern container ships can be unloaded at a natural water depth of 18 meters . The container station in the port has an annual capacity of 11,500 trains and consists of five tracks, each 600 meters long and three rail-guided cranes.
The port of Trieste has a free trade zone or is a free port and has five free zones that are secured by the International Peace Treaty of 1947. The Trieste Free Zones, a unique feature of the Italian and European legal system, offer various advantages for goods in transit that are stored or processed as they are located in a customs territory of the European Union. The exemption from customs clearance brings with it a number of favorable conditions. In this way, goods arriving from non-EU countries can be unloaded and stored without customs duties, VAT and other import charges until these goods cross the borders of the EU. All kinds of goods can be stored indefinitely, the origin of the goods can be retained, and the free port can accommodate any type of industry, trade or ancillary activities.
Due to its geographical location, it is an important trading port for Germany , Austria , Luxembourg , Hungary , the Czech Republic , Slovakia and Italy with connections to the Far East, direct connections in the Mediterranean, shipping companies specializing in shipping areas in the Middle East, India, Pakistan and East Africa as well as fast direct connections to the hubs in the Mediterranean with connections to numerous other worldwide destinations. Important trade routes run via Trieste to Turkey or Greece and from there via Iran or the Suez Canal to China.
In addition, there have recently been extensive Chinese initiatives to further and intensively expand the Silk Road with its economic corridors and transport lines on the one hand from Shanghai's deep-water port Yangshan via the Suez Canal, the Greek port of Piraeus to the deep-water port of Trieste and, on the other hand, as an overland route starting in the Chinese coastal city of Yiwu via Kyrgyzstan , Iran to Turkey. Especially with regard to Turkey and the land connections to East Asia, trailers are used in RoRo traffic. In addition to the access to the Silk Road, Trieste is the largest railway port in Italy, with a total of 7,631 trains handled in 2016 and 8,681 trains in 2017. Since 2017 there have been goods train connections between Trieste and the port of Duisburg, which is connected to China via the so-called "New Silk Road". This cooperation with the Duisburg port (- this is traditionally connected to the North Sea ports such as Rotterdam and Antwerp) is the port of Trieste and thus the "maritime silk road" (- the connection of Trieste over the Mediterranean, the Suez Canal, the Gulf of Aden, Nairobi in Ethiopia, Kolkata in India, Colombo in Sri Lanka, via Jakarta to the Far East) with the land connection "New Silk Road" (- the connection of Western Europe via Moscow and Kazan to China). There are close direct relationships between the city of Trieste and the Chinese port city of Shenzhen . As part of the new Chinese Silk Road initiative, special logistics support between the North Adriatic port and Shanghai or Guangdong is also involved, with the involvement of the China Communications Construction Company .
With regard to the port, the customs relief in Freeport and the possibilities under international law through the treaties in the period after the Second World War (including Resolution 16 of January 10, 1947 of the United Nations Security Council, Treaty of Osimo), comparisons between Trieste and Singapore manufactured.
In 2016, the cargo handling in the port amounted to a volume of 59 million tons, of which 43 million tons were liquid goods such as crude oil , which is forwarded via the SIOT terminal (via the Transalpine Oil Pipeline in the direction of Austria ( Schwechat ) and Germany ( Ingolstadt ). , with a branch to the Czech Republic ). Eight refineries in Austria, southern Germany and the Czech Republic are supplied. Austria obtains 90 percent of its crude oil from the TAL, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg 100 percent (Germany 40 percent) and the Czech Republic 40 percent. The remaining cargo volume in the port consists of a. from solid bulk goods (2 million t) such as coal , wood , minerals , grain and oil seeds . The handling of containers is not that important with 486,507 TEU (2016) and 616,156 TEU (2017).
Fishing boats anchor at Molo Veneziano near Piazza Venezia. It is fished in summer with “lampare” (large lamps) and in autumn and winter with “redi di posta” (smaller fishing nets). In the Gulf of Trieste, because of the crystal-clear, nutrient-poor water with little plankton, fishing in itself is challenging. The fishing season essentially lasts from May to July. In terms of fish reproduction, fishing is prohibited in August and restricted in winter. As of 2009, there are fewer than 200 professional fishermen in the city.
History of the port
The importance of the port of Trieste as a seaport and transshipment point grew from the 18th century with the elevation of the city to a free port by Emperor Charles VI in 1719 . The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 strengthened Triests position as a commercial and economic center. Because the cheapest and shortest sea route from the Middle and Far East to Europe led over the Suez Canal through the Mediterranean Sea, up the Adriatic Sea to Trieste. The port of Trieste thus became a gateway to Europe and enabled the Central European economic area, not least because of the new railway connections to Trieste towards the end of the 19th century, direct access to distant countries in Asia.
In 1914 twelve shipping companies with a total of 716,198 gross register tonnes (GRT) had their headquarters in Trieste. The biggest of these were:
- Austrian Lloyd with 65 ships and a total of 237,000 GRT
- Austro-Americana with 34 ships and 145,000 GRT
- Tripcovich & Co with 16 ships and 58,000 GRT
- Navigazione Libera Triestina (NLT) with 16 ships and 42,000 GRT
In recent years the port of Trieste has faced increased competition from the nearby port of Koper in Slovenia and the port of Rijeka in Croatia (the deepest access for ships in the Adriatic). The port of Trieste is divided into five free trade zones, three of which are privately operated. It has 12 quays and 47 operative berths .
From today's Trieste Centrale station (originally Trieste Südbahnhof ), which is located on the site of the first south station, there are heavily used rail connections to Venice / Mestre or Milan and Udine. Trieste is part of the planning for TEN Corridor V, is to be connected to the Italian TAV network, and negotiations are ongoing with regard to a fast connection or railway line to Ljubljana.
Historically, the rail network of the city of Trieste is also based on railway lines from the old Austrian era. The Southern Railway Company reached Trieste in 1857 after bridging the Semmering. In order to break the monopoly of the private Southern Railway , the Imperial and Royal State Railways (kkStB) built a second railway connection that had to cross the Tauern , Karawanken and Wocheinerpass . This rail connection is usually referred to as the Wocheinerbahn , Transalpina or Neue Alpenbahn . The terminus Trieste San Andrea (originally: Trieste State Station , since 1923 Campo Marzio , located on the extreme western tip of the port and southwest of the southern station ) has not been in operation since 1959, but has been home to the Trieste Railway Museum since 1984 .
Before the First World War, Trieste was connected to international express trains that ran from Berlin ( Anhalter Bahnhof ) to Trieste in what was then Austria-Hungary. From 1912 the Simplon-Express reached Trieste and thus created a direct connection to Paris and London. The trains had connections to the ships of the Austrian Lloyds from Trieste to Alexandria in Egypt. After the First World War, the Simplon Express was extended beyond Trieste to Istanbul and thus became the Simplon Orient Express . After the Second World War, this train became one of the few connections from Western Europe to Eastern Europe, but the volume of traffic was so low that in 1950 just three cars crossed the Yugoslav border between Trieste and Sežana .
Until around 1975, the ÖBB operated the Miramare express train from Vienna via Graz, Maribor and Ljubljana to Trieste. The blue lightning diesel multiple unit was used for the train . In contrast to the Cold War era and the 1990s, there is currently no direct connection from Trieste to Ljubljana, Graz or Budapest and Vienna. One travel offer from Vienna called for a change in Udine in autumn 2013 , two others lead with multiple changes via Salzburg and the Tauernbahn . Since 2018 there has been a daily morning and evening direct connection between Trieste and Ljubljana with modern railcars (only 2nd class). The travel time is currently (2019) a good 2 hours 30 minutes. Interrail tickets are valid on the route.
The connection with the Trieste hinterland in Istria took place u. a. with the narrow-gauge railway Trieste – Parenzo (today Poreč ), also called " Parenzana ". This railway line has been closed since 1935, the route is used ( funded by the European Union ) as an international cycle path ( "Path of Health and Friendship" ).
The standard-gauge tram network from Trieste existed from 1876 to 1970. The only rail-bound local transport that still exists is the meter-gauge railway line Trieste – Opicina . Originally the steep section was operated with cogwheel locomotives ; In 1928 the company was replaced by a cable car . The mountain railway to Opicina , one of the last stretches in the world where adhesion-driven vehicles manage a steep section of the route using the cable pull principle, was subjected to a general renovation between October 2012 and August 2014; there was a replacement rail service . The long renovation period, unexplained costs and protests from locals and tourists about the unprofessional approach of the city administration and the public operator caused heated discussions.
As the largest airport in Friuli Venezia Giulia, the airport plays a strategically important role for the entire region. Due to its geographical location, in addition to the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region with its 1.2 million inhabitants, parts of the Veneto and Carinthia region as well as areas in Slovenia and Croatia are in the airport's catchment area , which thus comprises a total of around five million inhabitants. There are flight connections to Rome ( Alitalia ), Milan MXP ( Air Alps ) and the like. v. a. m.
In 2014, Trieste visited 332,000 tourists (including 185,000 Italians, 32,000 Austrians, 19,000 Germans, 8,000 British, 7,000 Americans), which means an increase of 25.24% since 2010.
The following companies and groups have their headquarters in Trieste:
- Assicurazioni Generali , insurance group and Fortune Global 500 company
- Allianz Spa, insurance group and Fortune Global 500 company
- Fincantieri , shipbuilding company
- Illy , coffee production
- Italia Marittima (until 2006 Lloyd Triestino ), shipping company
- Stock , spirits manufacturer with a factory, with the commercial headquarters in Milan since 2009
- Telit , Italian mobile phone manufacturer
Other prominent companies such as Wärtsilä (with the former factory of Grandi Motori Trieste), AcegasApsAmga ( Hera Group ), Autamarocchi SpA, Banca Generali SpA, Genertel , HERA Trading, Nuovo Arsenale Cartubi Srl, Jindal Steel and Power Italia SpA, Pacorini SpA, Siderurgica Triestina (Arvedi Group) and the TBS Group produce or have their branch in Trieste.
Trieste is the seat of many young start-up companies according to the link between research and development with the help of local business incubators. There are collaborations in connection with the University of Trieste and the Area Science Park, for example with Microsoft Corporation , Assicurazioni Generali , Fincantieri and Illy .
In Trieste there are more than 50 companies that deal with the trade, processing and technology but also training and research relating to coffee and many of these companies are grouped together in the “Trieste Coffee Cluster”. The Illy Università del caffè, founded in Naples in 1999, was also relocated to Trieste in 2002. Trieste is known as the capital of Italy when it comes to coffee, especially because a large part of the Italian coffee imports (approx. 2–2.5 million bags) are handled here.
There are also several young companies in Trieste that deal with design. The ITS (International Talent Support) competition for young fashion designers has been held in July since 2002.
Politics and administration
The following mayors have presided over the city since 1949.
|Term of office||mayor||Political party|
|1949-1957||Gianni Bartoli||Democrazia Cristiana|
|1958-1966||Mario Franzil||Democrazia Cristiana|
|1967-1977||Marcello Spaccini||Democrazia Cristiana|
|1978-1983||Manlio Cecovini||Partito Liberale Italiano|
|1983||Deodorant Rossi||Democrazia Cristiana|
|1983-1986||Franco Richetti||Democrazia Cristiana|
|1986||Arduino Agnelli||Partito Socialista Italiano|
|1986-1988||Giulio Staffieri||Lista per Trieste|
|1988-1992||Franco Richetti||Democrazia Cristiana|
|1992-1993||Giulio Staffieri||Lista per Trieste|
|2001-2011||Roberto Dipiazza||Forza Italia|
|2011-2016||Roberto Cosolini||Partito Democratico|
|since 2016||Roberto Dipiazza||Dipiazza per Trieste|
The municipality of Trieste has been divided into seven administrative districts ( circoscrizioni ) since 1976 , each of which comprises several districts ( rioni ) or localities ( frazioni ):
|Administrative district||Districts and localities|
|1. Altopiano Ovest||Santa Croce ( Križ ), Prosecco ( Prosek ), Contovello ( Kontovel )|
|2. Altopiano Est||Villa Opicina ( Opčine ), Banne ( Bani ), Trebiciano ( Trebče ), Padriciano ( Padriče ), Gropada, Basovizza ( Bazovica )|
|3. Roiano - Gretta - Barcola - Cologna - Scorcola||Miramare ( Miramar ), Grignano ( Grljan ), Barcola ( Barkovlje ), Gretta ( Greta ), Roiano ( Rojan ), Scorcola, Cologna, Guardiella ( Vrdela ) ¹|
|4. Città Nuova - Barriera Nuova - San Vito - Città Vecchia||Città Nuova ( Borgo Teresiano ), Città Vecchia , Barriera Nuova, Borgo Giuseppino , San Vito|
|5. Barriera Vecchia - San Giacomo||Barriera Vecchia ( Stara mitnica ), San Giacomo ( Sv. Jacob ), Chiarbola ( Čarbola )¹, Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore¹|
|6. San Giovanni - Chiadino - Rozzol||Rozzol , Chiadino ( Kjadin ), Guardiella ( Vrdela ) ¹, Longera ( Lonjer )|
|7. Servola - Chiarbola - Valmaura - Borgo San Sergio||Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore¹, Santa Maria Maddalena Inferiore, Chiarbola ( Čarbola ) ¹, Servola ( Škedenj )|
¹ only a part belongs to the administrative district
- Beirut , Lebanon (since 1956)
- Douala , Cameroon (since 1971)
- Graz , Austria (since 1973)
- Santos , Brazil (since 1977)
- Southampton , England (since 2002)
- Le Havre , France
The city and its sights
Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia
The heart of the city is the Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia ("Square of the Unity of Italy"). This rectangular main square, bordering the sea, is lined on three sides by neoclassical buildings: the Palazzo del Governo (1904), the Casa Stratti , the Palazzo del Municipio (town hall; built by Giuseppe Bruni in 1875), the Palazzo Pitteri (1790), the hotel Duchi d'Aosta (1873) and the Palazzo del Lloyd Triestino (built by Heinrich von Ferstel in 1883). In the middle of the square is a fountain that was built by Mazzoleni in 1750 and represents the four continents known at the time. A pillar of Emperor Charles VI rises next to it . whose left hand points to the harbor. Charles VI had promoted the economic development of the city in the 18th century with the creation of the free port.
The Palazzo Pitteri (built by Ulderico Moro in 1790), the fountain (1750) and the column (1728) are the only memories of the 18th century and form a “ baroque corner” on the square. The center of the city - around today's Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia - was completely redesigned around 1900.
The 71 m high industrial crane “Ursus”, planned in 1910, completed in 1920 and decommissioned in 1994, is clearly visible from the pier at Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia in the direction of Porto Vecchio. In good weather, you can see the eastern Alpine arc with the Friulian and Ampezzo Dolomites from the Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia, as on the entire Rive and on Piazza Venezia, behind the Gulf of Trieste and the port facilities of Monfalcone .
Opera and Stock Exchange
The Piazza Verdi opera square is directly adjacent to the Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia . Here is the Trieste opera house Teatro Verdi , which was started in 1798 by the classicist architect Matteo Pertsch and named after the Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi . The premieres of Verdi's melodramas Il corsaro ( The Corsair , 1848) and Stiffelio (1850) took place in the Trieste Opera House. Architecturally, the Trieste opera was still at the beginning of the development of this genre, which was characteristic of the 19th century. It is still one of the most popular opera houses in Italy today .
The old stock exchange , which was built in 1806 by the architect Antonio Molari , forms the background of the theater square . Its front was built based on a Doric temple front with portico . In the square in front of the stock exchange, the Piazza della Borsa , stands the statue of Emperor Leopold I on a column , who, like other Habsburgs, was involved in the city's upswing. Today the Trieste Chamber of Commerce is located in the building of the Old Stock Exchange .
Old town and Colle di San Giusto
The main square of Trieste, the Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia , extends to the hill of San Giusto . At the foot of the hill is the Città Vecchia (old town), the oldest part of Trieste. The old town, which was renovated in recent years, now consists of only a few streets. Mussolini had deliberately let this part of the city deteriorate or destroy it in order to uncover the ancient remains from the Trieste past. These include the ruins of the Teatro Romano , the Roman theater from the 1st century AD.
The baroque Jesuit church of Santa Maria Maggiore is located near the Roman theater . Next to it is the small, Romanesque church of San Silvestro , whose unplastered but precisely shaped exterior impresses with its simplicity. It is considered to be the oldest church in Trieste.
Behind the churches is the Arco di Riccardo (Richard's Arch), the oldest monument in Trieste. The over seven meter high gate is the last remaining part of the Roman city wall, which was built in 33/32 BC. It was built under Emperor Augustus and embellished in the 1st century AD. According to a legend, the English King Richard the Lionheart was arrested here on his way back from a crusade.
Above the city, on the hill of San Giusto, is the most important building and landmark of the city, the Cathedral of San Giusto . An early Christian basilica was built on the site of today's cathedral in the 5th century, which was replaced by two parallel churches between the 9th and 12th centuries. The left was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary , the right to Saint Justus (Italian: San Giusto ). In the 14th century, both churches were combined to form today's Cathedral of San Giusto. Some of the floor mosaic of the basilica from the 5th century can still be admired in the church today.
The church hill is dominated by a mighty castle, the second landmark of the city. The castle of San Giusto was built in its current form in 1470 under the Habsburg emperor Friedrich III. started but not finished until 1630. As early as 2000 BC There was a "castelliere". A first fortress is mentioned in 1253, which was destroyed by the Venetians in 1371 and replaced by a new bastion. Shortly afterwards, this was again reduced to rubble by the Triestines.
The Roman Catholic parish church of Madonna del Mare stands on Piazzale Antonio Rosmini in front of the south slope of the elongated hill . The three-aisled interior of the neo-Romanesque church is influenced by San Giusto . The windows show stained glass . Archbishop Antonio Santin (1963–1975 Archbishop of Trieste) is named in the middle on the west wall (fig.) . The mural in the apse of the choir shows a Madonna del Mare . It is dedicated to the Second Vatican Council .
The Borgo Teresiano ( Theresienvorstadt ) represents the "new town" between Piazza d'Unità d'Italia (formerly Piazza Grande ) and the main train station and was built by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria in the middle of the 18th century on drained salt pans as part of the city's expansion built. The center of Borgo Teresiano is the Grand Canal , which leads at right angles from the embankment into the city, with the classical church of Sant'Antonio Nuovo , (built by Pietro Nobile in 1842) as a conclusion.
At the beginning of Via San Nicolo, today a pedestrian zone with numerous luxury shops, is the Greek Orthodox Church of San Nicolò dei Greci , which is easily recognizable from the sea and is dedicated to Nicholas of Myra, the patron saint of seafarers. One of today's most important Art Nouveau buildings in Trieste, the "Casa Smolars", has been in Via San Nicolo since 1905 at No. 36.
The literary and intellectual center of Trieste was or is the existing “Libreria Antiquaria Umberto Saba ” on the corner of Via Dante Alighieri in the house Via San Nicolo No. 30, in which James Joyce already lived, and Via San Nicolo No. 32, in which Berlitz is located School was where James Joyce taught and came into contact with Italo Svevo , and the house at Via San Nicolo No. 31, where Umberto Saba took his breaks from work in the former cafe-dairy shop Walter. In this area, at the end of Via San Nicolo, there is now a life-size statue of Umberto Saba.
A small Chinatown has emerged north of the Grand Canal . To the south of the canal is the Piazza del Ponte Rosso with the late Baroque Giovanni Fountain, formerly part of the aqueduct built under Maria Theresa in 1753. The Piazza Ponterosso - as the Trieste call it - is now a picturesque market square for many farmers from the area around Trieste. The Serbian Orthodox Church of San Spiridione (built 1861–1866 by Carlo Maciachini ) is right on the canal bank . The Trieste synagogue was completed in 1912 and is one of the most important Jewish places of worship in Europe.
The district of Borgo Giuseppino ( Josephsvorstadt ) stretches from the main square Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia to Campo Marzio and from the promenade to Piazza Attilio Hortis . The center of the quarter is the Piazza Venezia open to the sea (formerly "Piazza Giuseppina" or "Piazza Ganza"). Immediately in front of this square with its avenue trees, the boats of the Trieste fishermen anchor at the Molo Veneziano. A few meters away is the Molo Sartorio , where for Austria the height above sea level is measured as "meters above the Adriatic Sea".
The monument to Archduke Maximilian of Austria has stood on Piazza Venezia again since 2009, who in Vice Admiral's uniform looks over the Gulf of Trieste to Miramare Castle and in the background the Alpine arc with the Dolomite mountains Civetta , Monte Pelmo and Antelao . The more than 9 meter high bronze monument with the allegories of the four continents is intended to honor Maximilian's philanthropy and his interest in science and art and was created by the sculptor Johannes Schilling at the instigation and under the direction of Baron Pasquale Revoltella, in 1875 by a committee in Piazza Giuseppina (now Piazza Venezia) in Trieste inaugurated in the presence of Emperor Franz Josef, removed after 1918 and relocated to the Miramare Palace Park in 1961.
After Borgo Teresiano, Borgo Giuseppino is the second planned expansion of the city at the end of the 18th century. In contrast to the Borgo Teresiano, which was primarily designed as a trading center, the Borgo Giuseppino is smaller and mainly characterized by public buildings and squares. In the area towards Cavana, however, the quarter is characterized by narrow streets and small squares and this part in particular was considered a badly reputed red-light district from the times of James Joyce until the 1990s, in which there are now cosmopolitan bars, cafes and restaurants gives. The pedestrian zone in Via Torino is considered to be the center in this regard.
The Museo Revoltella in the style of the Italian Renaissance with its six allegorical statues of the Venetian Francesco Bosa on the roof balustrade is located in Piazza Venezia , while the Biblioteca Civica Attilio Hortis public library and the natural history museum Museo di Storia Naturale are located in Piazza Attilio Hortis . The Civico Museo d'Arte Orientale with its Chinese and Japanese collections has been in the Palazzo Leo since 2001 .
The historical “Antico Magazzino Vini” right next to the Piazza Venezia by the sea was built in 1902 to store wine from Dalmatia and Istria, it has now been revitalized and now houses an Eataly . The Stazione Rogers, built in 1953, is located on the Riva Grumula. The "Aquila" gas station planned by Studio BBPR and Ernesto Nathan Rogers is considered an important building of rationalism or post-war modernism and is now a multi-purpose center for culture and architecture after its renovation.
Pilgrimage Church of Monte Grisa
Outside the city
The Trieste – Opicina railway is a historically and technically exceptional mountain railway that was opened on September 10, 1902 to open up the immediate hinterland of the city to the villa suburb of Villa Opicina . In 1913, the railway carried 459,000 passengers. Today, however, it has lost its importance as an important means of transport and is dependent on high subsidies. Highly valued by the Trieste people, it is sung about in numerous Italian and Slovenian folk songs.
In the neighboring municipality of Sgonico, about 15 kilometers away, there is the Grotta Gigante , which has been listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the "largest show cave in the world" since 1995 and is also called the Giant Cave of Trieste for this reason .
In the Rozzol Melara district there is the large social housing complex Il Quadrilatero , which was built between 1968 and 1983 but was never completed. It is known for its eye-catching architecture with an obvious reference to Le Corbusier and great social tension.
Directly on the cliffs on the Gulf of Trieste - within sight of the port - is the Miramare Castle (often called Miramar in Austria), the Archduke Maximilian von Habsburg , the brother of Emperor Franz Joseph I and later Emperor of Mexico , his wife Charlotte von Belgium built.
In the neighboring municipality of Duino-Aurisina is Duino Castle, the former seat of the Patriarchs of Aquileia and today owned by the von Thurn und Taxis family . During his stay in Trieste from October 1911 to May 1912, Rilke began to write his Duinese elegies here .
Trieste has numerous museums, most of which are owned by the city, with the exception of the Miramare State Collection , the National Gallery of Ancient Art, and some private collections. Most of the museums in Trieste are former homes of wealthy citizens who were bequeathed to the city after their death. In contrast to palaces and castles, they show the fashion and taste of the bourgeoisie in different epochs and are testimony to the fact that in Trieste above all wealthy merchants and banking families promoted art, literature and science.
The art and milieu collections in Trieste include:
- The City Museum Revoltella - Gallery of Modern Art ( Civico Museo Revoltella - Galleria d'Arte Moderna ) is one of the largest and most important museums in the city of Trieste. Housed in the former city residence of Baron Pasquale Revoltella , it contains the baron's paintings, sculptures and furnishings from the 19th century as well as works from the 20th century.
- The National Gallery of Ancient Art ( Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica ) includes paintings and drawings from the Italian school (15th - 19th centuries).
- The Morpurgo Municipal Museum ( Civico Museo Morpurgo ) and the Sartorio Municipal Museum ( Civico Museo Sartorio ) include the fully furnished 19th-century apartments of the Morpurgo and Sartorio banking families and their art collections.
The historical museums include:
- The Municipal Museum of the Risorgimento with Guglielmo-Oberdan Memorial ( Museo del Risorgimento - Sacrario a Guglielmo Oberdan ) shows documents, photographs and memorabilia from the national unity movement in Trieste.
- The Risiera di San Sabba Municipal Museum is a national memorial and exhibition about the former Nazi concentration camp , opened in 1969 .
- The Carlo Schmidl Municipal Theater Museum ( Civico Museo Teatrale Carlo Schmidl ) is located on the first floor of Palazzo Gopcevich and includes musical instruments, opera costumes and other testimonies of musical creativity from the 18th and 19th centuries.
- The Museum of the Trieste Chamber of Commerce ( Museo Commerciale di Trieste ) was established in 1906 and reopened in 2005. Located on the second floor of Palazzo Dreher , it covers the history of the port and trade in Trieste since 1755.
- The JJ Winckelmann Municipal Antiquities Museum ( Museo Civico d'Antichità JJ Winckelmann ) is named after the German archaeologist who was murdered in Trieste in 1768. Regional finds from prehistoric epochs or from Roman times are shown. There are also collections of ancient Egyptian, Cypriot, Greek and Etruscan objects. In the so-called Orto Lapidario u. a. ancient inscriptions, sculptures and a Winckelmann monument can be viewed.
The natural science and technology museums include:
- The Maritime Museum ( Museo del Mare ) was founded in 1904 and shows the history of shipping and different forms of fishing in the Adriatic. Events in Trieste such as the test drive of the first ship propeller by Josef Ressel and the Nobel Prize winner for physics Guglielmo Marconi are remembered.
- The Municipal Museum of Natural History ( Civico Museo di Storia Naturale ) was established in 1846 and includes a collection of specimens from zoology , mineralogy , botany , geology and paleontology . The palaeontological collection from the Karst with fossil remains of a 75 million year old carnivorous dinosaur from Villaggio del Pescatore ( Duino-Aurisina ) is important.
- The Railway Museum Trieste Campo Marzio ( Museo Ferroviario di Trieste Campo Marzio ) was opened in 1984 in the station building of the former k & k state railway and shows locomotives, wagons and material on the history of the Trieste railway and the Vienna-Trieste line.
- The Central European Post and Telegraph Museum in the post building includes documents and facilities from Austrian and Italian postal history.
Under Venetian influence, traditional coffee houses have been built in Trieste since the ' settecento '. The oldest documented mention of the Benedetto Capano coffee house in today's Via San Nicolò is in 1768. In later centuries this old tradition also took on Habsburg influences, especially in the interior design. Today you can still visit coffee houses from the 19th century:
- The Caffè Tommaseo on the Lungomare has been in operation since 1830, making it one of the oldest in Italy . Originally named after its owner Tomaso Marcato Caffè Tomaso , the name of the coffee house was renamed in 1848 in honor of the Dalmatian writer Niccolò Tommaseo .
- In one of the magnificent buildings on the Piazza dell'Unità d'Italia , the Casa Stratti , is the Caffè degli Specchi (Mirror Café), the most famous coffee house in Trieste, which was opened in 1839 by the Greek Nicolò Priovolo . Writers like Rainer Maria Rilke , Franz Kafka and James Joyce frequented it . In October 2011 the caffe was closed at short notice due to financial problems of the owner Andrea Sessa. Thereupon it locked up again with a new tenant from the company Peratoner from Pordenone, whereby economic problems persist, since the annual lease amounts to € 150,000 (house owner Assicurazioni Generali) and the sales are said to be too low.
- The Art Nouveau cafe Antico Caffè San Marco , which opened in 1914, is located in Via Cesare Battisti .
Many coffee houses established around the world had the Trieste coffee houses as a model. The Caffe Trieste in San Francisco was the first espresso bar on the American west coast, founded in 1956 by the Giotta family from Rovigno south of Trieste.
Education and Research
In addition to Italian schools, the International School of Trieste , the European School of Trieste and the United World College of the Adriatic , the MIB School of Management Trieste and the Slovene-speaking Liceo scientifico statale "France Prešeren" are international English-speaking alternatives .
Trieste is the seat of numerous international research institutions and, according to surveys from 2005, has the highest number of researchers in Europe according to the population, namely 37.1 ‰. Many of the research institutions are part of the Sistema Trieste and anchored in international partnerships (CEI University Network, E-Eric etc.). Research in Trieste is funded internationally ( e.g. by UNESCO or the IAEA ), European (e.g. within the framework of the European Research Area ERA or the European Framework Program), nationally (e.g. PRIN 2007 and reviewed by CIVR), by the region Friuli Venezia Giulia , the Province of Trieste and the City of Trieste. The research is part of European networks such as the Adria-Danubio Consortium for the Corridor V, the Virtual University of Adriatic-Ionian Basin UNIADRION, the AlpeAdria University Initiative ALADIN and the Alpe-Adria Cooperative E-learning Space. The science and future technology fair “Trieste Next - European Science Forum” is held annually in September. The city of Trieste is trying to bundle many research funding activities under the name "Trieste Città della Conoscenza - Trieste City of Knowledge".
The Central European Initiative (in German official language: Central European Initiative ), an informal cooperation between countries in Central Europe in the fields of culture , technology and natural sciences , is based in Trieste.
Trieste is an important university city with a very high number of students (over 25,000, a high proportion of which are international students) compared to the population. As a result of the combination of research, business and funding, there is a growing number of spin-off companies in Trieste (partnerships in the production world exist with the companies Cimolai, Danieli, Eni, Fincantieri, Generali, Illy, Mitsubishi, Vodafone, among others) and proportionally the highest number of startups in Italy, with the city also known as Italy's Silicon Valley.
The following should be emphasized in research and educational institutions:
- University of Trieste ( Università degli Studi di Trieste ), founded in 1924
- International Center for Theoretical Physics , founded in 1964 by the Nobel Laureate in Physics Abdus Salam , under the auspices of UNESCO and the IAEA
- Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati (International College of Advanced Research - SISSA), an international research institution in the fields of physics, mathematics and neuroscience
- ICS UNIDO Center for Science and High Technology
- Geophysical Institute Trieste (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, OGS) emerged from the Trieste weather station founded in 1841
- Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste (OAT, INAF-Trieste)
- International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
- Carso Center for Advanced Research in Space Optics
- AREA Science Park , the largest Italian technological and scientific park of international importance with public and private companies and laboratories in u. a. in the fields of biotechnology, physics, nanotechnology, IT, environmental technology and medicine, with the park operating regional branches for, for example, nautical and shipbuilding. The technology park (as of 2010: 88 companies and 2,600 employees) also includes the Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste research complex , whose first president was the physicist and Nobel Prize winner Carlo Rubbia . ELETTRA is an electron accelerator and is one of the most important sources of high-energy photons in Europe. Part of the laboratory is the free electron laser FERMI (named after the Nobel Prize winner Enrico Fermi ) with which internationally important basic research is carried out.
- National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN)
- Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Laboratorio di Luce di Sincrotrone)
- TWAS, Academy of Sciences for the Developing World , a non-governmental academy of sciences
- InterAcademy Panel, The Global Network of Science Academies (IAP)
- Laboratorio di Biologia Marina
- Laboratory TASC Technology and Nano Science
- Istituto di Struttura della Materia del CNR, Istituto di Cristallografia del CNR
- Fondazione Carlo e Dirce Callerio ONLUS
- Center of Molecular Biomedicine - CBM
- Burlo Garofolo Scientific Hospital Care Institute
- Goethe Institute Trieste
Despite its modest size, Trieste has developed a considerable literary presence since the late 19th century.
The city was home to important Italian writers and poets such as Italo Svevo , Scipio Slataper , Umberto Saba , Attilio Hortis , Giani Stuparich , Gillo Dorfles , Roberto Bazlen , Fulvio Tomizza , Lina Galli , Luciano Comida , Claudio Magris , Paolo Rumiz , Mauro Covacich , Ferruccio Fölkel and Susanna Tamaro as well as some Slovenian representatives such as Srečko Kosovel , Boris Pahor , Kenka Lekovich and Alojz Rebula , who lived and wrote in the city. Even Louis Antoine Debrauz de Saldapenna worked partially in Trieste. The literature for which Trieste became famous was often in Italian and the authors were usually of Jewish origin. Despite all the Italian literary debates about identity in the 20th century, their authors testify to a supranational approach to culture.
Writers in other languages also frequented Trieste. The Irish writer James Joyce stayed in the city with interruptions from 1904 to 1920, to whom he erected a memorial in Ulysses , his brother Stanislaus Joyce was a professor of literature at the university there and lived and died in Trieste. The Austrian Rainer Maria Rilke created the first three of his Duinese elegies during his stay from October 1911 to May 1912 in the nearby Duino Castle .
Other German and English-speaking writers who spent part of their lives in Trieste or who still do so today:
- Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890)
- Theodor Däubler (1876–1934)
- Veit Heinichen (* 1957)
- Julius Kugy (1858-1944)
- Sebastian Weberitsch (1870-1946)
The US Triestina football club , which currently plays in Serie D , is based in Trieste . In the Stadio Giuseppe Grezar , the former home of US Triestina, the round of 16 of the 1934 World Cup between Czechoslovakia and Romania (2-1) took place.
It is a multicultural cuisine, in which different ethnic groups are expressed through centuries of Central European, but also port-related influence. Typical dishes are for example the Jota , Minestra de Bisi Spacai, Rotolo di Spinaci in Straza, Sardoni Impanai, Capuzi Garbi, Capuzi Garbi in Tecia and Fritto Misto Mare or as desserts Presnitz , Fave Triestine, Titola, Crostoli Speciale, Struccolo de Pomi, Kugelhupf, Rigo Jancsi and the Triester Torte.
Typical local types for Trieste include the buffet, a small urban tavern with ready-to-serve local dishes (in addition to "Italian" dishes, fresh ham, meat loaf, goulash, roast meat , boiled emperor meat , tongue, stilt and belly meat), and the osmizza, a lived original form of the Central European or Habsburg wine tavern with short, blocked opening times for the consumption and sale of self-produced mainly cold farm products from the Trieste Karst.
The local coffee specialty is the “Capo Triestino” (also “Capo in B” or “Capo in bicchiere”), which intellectuals like James Joyce or Italo Svevo are said to have appreciated. This miniature cappuccino in a glass cup is usually consumed at the bar.
Famous personalities of the city are included in the list of personalities of the city of Trieste .
Places or streets named after Trieste
In Vienna the Triester Straße is the most famous arterial road to the south or south autobahn ; starting from the southern line, it runs through the 10th district, Favoriten , and the 23rd district, Liesing , to the southern city limits and continues southwards as the former federal road 17 . Triester Straße existed as early as 1879 as the Reichsstraße from Vienna towards Trieste.
In Graz , Triester Straße is one of the most important arterial roads and also the second longest street in the city. Grazer Triester Straße begins at Karlauer Platz in Graz-Gries and ends in Graz-Puntigam on the southern city limits with house number 509, where it goes over to Feldkirchen near Graz . There it leads with the house numbers from 1 to 395 in north-south direction through the entire municipality.
In Ljubljana , the capital of Slovenia, the Tržaška cesta (Triester Straße) runs from the square called Trg Mladinskih delovnih brigad to the southeast, parallel to the former Austrian Southern Railway to the village of Brezovica pri Ljubljani .
- Gregor Gatscher-Riedl : Trieste - Kuk place of longing and Old Austria's port to the world. Kral, Berndorf 2016, ISBN 978-3-99024-465-4 .
- Claudio Magris, Angelo Ara: Trieste. A literary capital in Central Europe. dtv, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-423-34175-0 .
- Renate Lunzer: Trieste. An Italian-Austrian dialectic. (PDF; 833 kB) Wieser, Klagenfurt 2002, ISBN 3-85129-345-2 .
- René Moehrle: Persecution of Jews in Trieste during Fascism and National Socialism 1922–1945. Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86331-195-7 .
- Oliver Schneider: "Trieste". A discourse analysis. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 2003, ISBN 3-8260-2469-9 .
- Mauro Covacich : Trieste is wrong - Fifteen walks in the city of the wind. Wagenbach Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-8031-2696-2 .
- Ignaz Civelli: Trieste lost its heart in the hinterland. The Trieste mountain and tramway is 100 years old. In: rail. Railways - Transport Policy - Travel Culture. Vol. 21, No. 6, 2002, , pp. 38-42.
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wikisource||- Sources and full texts|
|Wikivoyage||- Travel Guide|
- Website of the municipality of Trieste (Italian)
- Trieste - Photo Guide (Italian)
- Provincial Law Gazette Trieste and Coastal Region 1851–1918
- Trieste and its Riviera
- Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- cf. annual ranking of the daily newspaper "24 ore", u. a. http://www.ilsole24ore.com/speciali/qvita_2012/home.shtml?refresh_ce=1
- Guido Stache : Geological landscape of the Istrian coastal land . In: Österreichische Revue , Gerold Verlag , Vienna, 1864 vol. 2, no. 5, p. 193, 196–197
- Joseph Wasmayer "Weather and Oceanography of the Adriatic" (1976), S. 145th
- Laura Toneros: "Trieste: Termites infest houses in Viale Battisti", Il Piccolo of April 29, 2013
- Trieste: Probably the oldest Roman camp in Italy discovered in Der Spiegel from March 17, 2015
- Theodor Mommsen : Inscriptiones Galliae Cisalpinae Latinae. de Gruyter, Berlin 1972, reprint: Reimer, Berlin 1959, 2000, p. 53.
- Cf. u. a. Marzia Vidulli Torlo "Trieste" (2010), p. 82 ff.
- Cf. Pliny "Die Naturgeschichte des Caius Plinius Secundus" (approx. 77 AD), third volume, 14th book.
- Zeno Saracino: “Pompei in miniatura”: la storia di “Vallicula” o Barcola. In: Trieste All News. September 29, 2018, accessed December 29, 2019 (it-IT).
- Scrinium Adriae - Medioevo e dintorni. Retrieved January 7, 2020 .
- Ugo Cova: Trieste. In: dates and facts of Austrian history. History of the Crown Lands. Archiv Verlag, accessed July 1, 2009 .
- Historical legal texts on the website of the Austrian National Library, also in Italian
- Marina Rossi: La scossa di Oberdan a quella città «imperiale». In: Corriere della Sera . April 3, 2010, accessed September 2, 2014 (Italian).
- David Gilmour, In Search of Italy (2013), pp. 303 ff.
- Simona Colarizi: Il sacrificio di Oberdan naufrago nell'Italietta senza sogni e prestigio. In: Il Piccolo . November 23, 2013, accessed September 2, 2014 (Italian).
- Cf. u. a. Franz Karl Stanzel "James Joyce in Kakanien (1904-1915)" (2019), p. 29.
- Sabine Rutar: Culture - Nation - milieu. Social democracy in Trieste before the First World War. Klartext, Essen 2004, ISBN 3-89861-116-7 , p. 54.
- Frank Wiggermann (2004): KuK Kriegsmarine und Politik: A Contribution to the History of the Italian National Movement in Istria (Studies on the History of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Volume 28; ISBN 978-3-7001-3209-7 , p. 319 )
- Uwe Rada, Die Adria (2014), p. 261.
- Aram Mattioli: Under Italy's Boots. The time of October 19, 2006
- Rolf Wörsdörfer: Adriatic crisis hot spot 1915–1955. Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn 2004, p. 81.
- Cf. u. a. Gabriella Coslovich "A tragic history that brought thousands of Triestini to Australia" in Sydney Morning Harald on March 26, 2012.
- Christiane Kohl: The future has already laid: Süddeutsche Zeitung of October 22, 2004
- Carla Reschia, signature boom in Trieste, La Stampa of 31 May, 2013.
- Gabriella Ziani: Autonomous city with a UN-appointed governor. Il Piccolo of June 22, 2013.
- Il Piccolo : Trieste, imbrattata la rosa dei venti , April 5, 2013.
- portovecchio.comune.trieste.it: Il 28 gennaio 2019 il consiglio comunale ha appovato le linee di indirizzo per la riqualificazione dell'area di porto vecchio
- Unemployment of young people in Trieste: Il Piccolovom 26 June 2014;
- Ugo Salvini: The city is getting older! Il Piccolo from October 13, 2013
- cf. Gianpaolo Sarti "I triestini sono i più ricchi del Nordest" in: Il Piccolo of April 2, 2016
- Eugen Gelcich : Studies on the development history of shipping with special consideration of nautical science . Laibach 1882
- Thomas Schlemmer, Hans Woller : The Italian fascism and the Jews 1922 to 1945. In: Quarterly books for contemporary history . Volume 53, 2005, Issue 2, pp. 165–201, here p. 169 f. (PDF).
- Claudio Magris in conversation with Martin Schulz, FAZ of April 23, 2014, p. 12
- Cf. u. a. "Trieste and the Karst" in Tiere furlane (2016/8/1), p. 48ff.
- Thomas Fromm: Everything in the flow. Retrieved January 5, 2020 .
- Alessandra Caparello "Immobiliare: prezzi delle case in calo anche nel 2019 a -2.8%" in Wall Street Italia of December 30, 2019.
- See also Sigrún Davíðsdóttir "Life could be a breeze: buying a home in the Italian city Trieste" in Financial Times of July 10, 2015.
- Andreas Deutsch: Shifting Effects in Container-Based Hinterland Transport . University of Bamberg Press, 2014, ISBN 978-3-86309-160-6 , pp. 143 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Trieste is again the strongest port in Italy. In: Industriemagazin.at , January 25, 2018.
- trieste-marine-terminal.com: cranes and ship moorings
- See u. a. Hendrik Ankenbrand "China's New Silk Road" in FAZ on December 27, 2016; "The Chinese want to invest in the port of Trieste - goods traffic on the Silk Road runs across the sea" in Die Presse on May 16, 2017.
- See Axel Granzow "Close cooperation between Trieste and Duisburg" in DVZ of June 8, 2017.
- See Willi Mohrs "New Silk Road. The ports of Duisburg and Trieste agree on cooperation." in Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung on June 8, 2017.
- Zeno Saracino: Cina, Dipiazza incontra il vicesindaco della città-porto Shenzhen. In: Trieste All News. October 18, 2019, accessed October 19, 2019 (it-IT).
- Cf. u. a. Guido Santevecchi "Di Maio e la Via della Seta:" Faremo i conti nel 2020 ", siglato accordo su Trieste" in Corriere della Sera on November 5, 2019.
- See Andrew Wheeler "How Trieste could become the Singapore of the Adriatic" in Asia Shipping Media - Splash247 of February 19, 2019.
- industriemagazin.at: Record volumes in Austria's most important oil pipeline
- Wolfhart Fabarius: Trieste handles fewer boxes . In: Daily port report from February 1, 2017, p. 4
- Cf. Ute Mörtl "The always meager life of fishermen in the Gulf of Trieste" in Der Standard from October 26, 2009.
- On the construction of the Trieste train station, see the description and images in the Allgemeine Bauzeitung from 1859, page 223 ( ANNO digitalisat )
- The Southern Railway and its traffic area in Austria-Hungary. Published by the KKPriv. Southern Railway Company. Publishing house Rudolf Rohrer, Vienna and Brno and Leipzig
- Topographia Austriaca, Vol. 8: Südbahn-Album. Picturesque views near the kkSüdbahn from Vienna to Trieste (around 1856). Taken from nature by Chapuy and Fiedler, and engraved in steel by proven artists. (Reprint). Academic Printing and Publishing Company, Graz 1991, ISBN 3-201-01548-2
- Hannes Nothnagl and Barbara Habermann: At the southern railway . Sutton-Verlag, Erfurt 2007, ISBN 3-86680-218-8
- Irene Anastasiadou: Constructing Iron Europe: Transnationalism and Railways in the Interbellum . Amsterdam University Press, 2011, ISBN 978-90-5260-392-6 , pp. 36 ( google.ch ).
- Buon Viaggio e buon appetito. Jack Birns photographs the Simplon Orient Express in 1950 - part 4: Italy. Retrieved June 16, 2019 .
- Giuseppe Palladini, Il Piccolo April 3, 2015
- See Lillo Montalto Monella "Trieste adotta le startup scoperte da Teorema e Area Science Park" in Il Piccolo on May 17, 2017.
- See Piercarlo Fiumanò "Così Microsoft aiuta le startup triestine" in Il Piccolo from May 17, 2017.
- triestecoffeecluster.com ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Helmut Luther: Why drinking coffee in Trieste is demanding , in: Die Welt from February 16, 2015
- cf. Adenberger / Hilpold: Young designers: The new guard , in: Der Standard from July 24, 2014
- Lisa Riehl: Fashion Coronation in Trieste - ITS Fashion Awards 2013 , in: Elle from July 18, 2013
- Dumont: Friuli and Trieste. 2011, p. 358
- orf.at: Ursus: From an industrial crane to a landmark?
- The Arco di Riccardo is dated because of its architectural ornaments stylistically Claudian-Neronian, perhaps as late frühflavische time. - Elisabetta Mangani, Fernando Rebecchi, Maria Josè Strazzulla: Emilia, Venezie (= Guide archeologiche Laterza ). 2nd Edition. Laterza, Rom / Bari 1993, ISBN 88-420-1791-4 , pp. 273 (Italian).
- Historians consider it more likely that the name is not derived from King Riccardo , but from the medieval administration of the ricario . - Elisabetta Mangani, Fernando Rebecchi, Maria Josè Strazzulla: Emilia, Venezie (= Guide archeologiche Laterza ). 2nd Edition. Laterza, Rom / Bari 1993, ISBN 88-420-1791-4 , pp. 272 (Italian).
- Trieste, via Torino chiede il numero chiuso "troppi locali, stop all licenze". September 2, 2017, accessed December 29, 2019 (it-IT).
- stazionerogers.org: l'edificio
- Housing 'Quadrilatero'. (No longer available online.) In: AZW tour 76. Triest - litorale, cittá, altipiano 30.3.-1.4.2001 . Architekturzentrum Wien , 2001, archived from the original on October 8, 2014 ; accessed on September 2, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Rough Guides: The Rough Guide to Italy . APA Publications Ltd., 2019, ISBN 978-1-78919-453-1 .
- Austria Press Agency, report from October 31, 2011, 3:49 p.m. Title: "Adieu Spiegel-Cafe: Trieste loses its most famous coffee house".
- Gabriella Ziani, Ill Piccolo of March 31, 2013 "Caffe degli Specchi - We are on our knees"
- Fabrizio Somma: Trieste - Dall'Emporio al Futuro. 2009, p. 266.
- Filippo Santelli: Start up, so Trento e Trieste le capitali dell'innovazione. In: La Repubblica of April 25, 2014.
- Kugler: A deep look through "X-Rays" , in: Die Presse from November 24, 2013.
- this Piero Pieri "The FERMI laser from Trieste", in BR from January 31, 2016.
- Veronika Eckl, Triest - On life in cafes and between book covers , FAZ from January 17, 2008
- Coffee inspirations: Coffee book with exclusive recipes (2013) from the Università del Caffè di Trieste, p. 62