The Scirocco [ʃiˈrɔkko] (also Sirocco or Schirokko ) is a hot wind from south to south-east directions that blows from the Sahara towards the Mediterranean . It's a steady, hot desert wind that often blows in spring, early summer, and fall. In extreme cases, the speeds of a tropical cyclone can be reached.
It arises from the pressure difference between cool low pressure areas in southern Europe and the hot air over the Sahara . Central Mediterranean subtropical cyclones and typical Genoa / Adriatic lows (V weather conditions) can also form the core of the action. The greater the temperature difference, the stronger the Scirocco becomes. The Scirocco is dry over Africa , but absorbs moisture over the Mediterranean , which may rain down in the European Mediterranean countries.
Because it is formed over the desert , the Scirocco carries large amounts of sand dust with it, which gives the air a yellowish-reddish-brown color. The visibility can drop to less than a kilometer and the storm can take on the character of a sandstorm .
The sand carried along is also deposited on alpine glaciers , which leads to a visible brown coloration of the snow surface and thus to a reduction in the albedo (reflectivity) and to increased ablation . However, the Scirocco is not solely responsible for the retreat of the European glaciers, as these layers can also be covered with white snow again ( accumulation ) and other factors also play a role. The deposited dust can be partially recovered by ice cores and thus provide information about the climatic conditions of the last centuries.
|Winds in the Mediterranean|
The Scirocco has different names depending on the region:
|Spain||Lebeche or Leveche|
|Greece||Sirokos (Greek σιρόκος)|
|Croatia||Jugo ("south wind")|
|North africa||Chergui, Chili, Gibli (Libya), Chamsin , Samum|