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Samhitā ( Sanskrit , f., संहिता IAST saṃhitā , "collection") is an umbrella term for "text collection" in Hinduism and is used in Veda , Ayurveda and Tantra .

Samhitās in the Veda

The Veda and therefore the Samhitas among the Shruti (Sanskrit, f., श्रुति IAST Sruti , lit .: "what is heard") produced by "belonging Revealed", it is the revelation texts on which the Samhitas Brâhmanas , Āraṇyakas and ultimately the Upanishads count.

At the center of the Vedic religion are the religious hymns presented in the Veda , such as sacrificial rituals in favor of the deities Indra , Agni and Vayu etc.

The Samhitās of the Veda consist largely of hymns and mantras and form the oldest text layer. Each of the four Vedas ( Rigveda , Samaveda , white and black Yajurveda and Atharvaveda ) has its own Samhitā.

The best known Samhitā is the Rigveda Samhitā (1200–900 BC). The hymns are addressed to the Vedic deities Agni, Indra and Varuna . The world of gods is similar to that of the Indo-European world of gods . One asks the gods for wealth, gold and cattle and hopes to be spared from diseases and other evils.

Samhitās in Āyurveda

One of the most famous Samhitās of Āyurveda is the Charaka -Samhitā, named after the Indian doctor Charaka, whose works were translated into Arabic in the 8th century. Another medical Samhitā is the Sushruta-Samhitā, which is said to come from the Indian doctor Suśruta and is mainly concerned with surgical knowledge.

Individual evidence

  1. In contrast to or in connection with the Smriti ( Sanskrit , f., स्मृति IAST smṛti , "what is remembered"), in a sense "the written canon " in the narrower sense.
  2. Eckard Wolz-Gottwald: Yoga-Philosophy-Atlas. Via Nova, Petersberg 2006, ISBN 3-936486-04-2 , p. 52 f