The cargo capacity of container ships is in TEU ( Twenty-foot Equivalent Units . See tonnage indicated) and corresponds to the number of 20- foot - containers that can be loaded. 40-foot containers (measured in FEU such as Forty-foot Equivalent Unit ) are also common, and since the mid-1990s 45, 48 and 53-foot containers as well as the less common 30-foot containers, which, however, are Deck have to be loaded, as the Cellguides (guide rails in the vertical) are only designed for 40-foot containers. For very large or heavy piece goods, there are also so-called flat racks , open-top containers or platforms , which can be loaded in conjunction with standard containers.
Up to a cargo capacity of 3400 TEU, container ships sometimes have their own loading gear , ships with higher capacities require the corresponding superstructure in the port for container handling . These are usually container cranes at container terminals . The trend towards ever larger container ships is causing an increasing concentration of possible points of contact for container ships in relatively few, central container ports , through which a large part of the sea trade takes place. These ports become hubs ; from and to there are smaller container ships such. B. Feeder ships (see also reloading problem - an optimization problem from the field of logistics ).
According to statistical surveys by the Alphaliner industry service , 6,145 container ships with a loading capacity of 22.8 million TEU were in use worldwide in February 2019. The three largest shipping companies were AP Møller-Mærsk (17.7%), Mediterranean Shipping Company (14.4%) and the COSCO Group (12.2%).
After many years of falling freight rates and considerable overcapacities as a result of the financial crisis of 2008, the forecasts for global container traffic have been better for several years. In the first few months of 2018, growth even reached a three-year high, but then cooled significantly, which is why Simon Heaney of consulting firm Drewry described 2018 as one of the most volatile years the industry has ever experienced. Business in 2019 should therefore be similarly unpredictable. Drewry expects a fleet growth of 2.5% and thus only half as much supply dynamics as in 2018.
In contrast, Peter Sand from the Copenhagen shipping organization The Baltic and International Maritime Council (BIMCO) expects freight rates to fall in 2019, as the estimated growth in demand of 3.8% is offset by a fleet growth of 4.4%. This means that the offer is expanding significantly more than originally expected. BIMCO anticipates that the US-Chinese trade war will affect significantly more products that are transported in containers in the future. In autumn 2018, freight rates in Asia-Europe traffic fell by 4.6% and in Asia-USA traffic by 3.8%. The rates from Asia to South America fell by only 1.9%.
The CEO of MAERSK, Søren Skou, reduced his growth forecast for global container traffic demand for 2019 to only “one to three percent” and sees considerable economic uncertainties. In the opinion of Hapag-Lloyd boss Rolf Habben Jansen, however, fears of growing overcapacities are completely unjustified, as he believes that demand will increase by four to five percent in the coming years. The consolidation of the industry via mergers will continue until only nine of the twenty largest shipping companies are left.
It is questionable whether the global fleet will actually shrink in 2020, since from then on the environmentally harmful sulfur oxide content in marine fuel will have to be reduced significantly and many outdated ships will have to be taken off the market. The insurance broker Lloyd’s in London is even anticipating a serious shortage of supplying feeder ships by 2020, as ever larger container ships have to be loaded and unloaded.
The container ship was built in the USA in the 1950s . After the Clifford J. Rogers , which was commissioned in 1955 with its still very small containers, the converted tanker Ideal X of the forwarding company Malcolm McLean followed in 1956 . He began by transporting the trailer housings of semi- trailers without a chassis over long stretches of the sea by ship. In 1960 McLean founded the Sea-Land Corporation . As early as the first half of the 1960s, new buildings planned as semi-container ships were built , such as the Tobias Mærsk , which was commissioned in 1963, and in 1964 the Kooringa, the first new building planned as a full container ship for ISO containers, was put into operation in Australia .
In the mid-1960s there were already 171 (albeit almost all converted) container ships in the United States. In 1966, the container ship Fairland of the Sea-Land shipping company in Bremen entered Germany for the first time . As early as July 31, 1968, 102 semi or full container ships were commissioned or under construction worldwide. From 1968 the conversion of the most important liner services to container traffic began, initially in the North Atlantic traffic (between USA / east coast and western Europe), from October 1968 the transpacific service between Japan – USA / west coast. The Hakone Maru was used here by the NYK Line . At the end of 1968, Bremer Vulkan built the first container ships (750 TEU each) in Germany with the Weser Express for Norddeutscher Lloyd and Blohm + Voss , Hamburg, with the Elbe Express for HAPAG . They came into operation with the sister ships Rhein Express and Mosel Express on the North Atlantic route. Also in 1968 the Hamburg shipping company August Bolten deployed the Bärbel Bolten (140 TEU), another full container ship under the German flag.
On July 1, 1970, the global stock of semi and full container ships was 201 units (including 154 full container ships), the following year the number of full container ships was 231 units. In 1969 the liner service Europe – Australia / New Zealand was switched to container traffic, at the end of 1971 Europe – Far East, in May 1977 Europe – South Africa and Europe – Caribbean / Gulf of Mexico . The route South Africa – Far East followed in 1981 (safari service). This completed the conversion of the most important line connections to container traffic.
In 1984 the shipping company United States Lines offered a Round the World Service running eastwards for the first time . This service, operated by twelve American New York class ships, ended after six months when the shipping company went bankrupt. A service started in the same year by the Evergreen Marine from Taiwan via the Panama Canal and Suez Canal with twelve ships each in both directions was abandoned around 1999, as regular service from point A to B is more efficient. In the 1990s, the German Senator Lines launched a Round the World Service , but hired it in favor of a Pendulum Service .
The container dimensions of 20 and 40 ft long, 8 ft wide and 8 ft 6 in height have established themselves internationally. The old container size of 35 ft introduced by Sea Land has been dropped. Instead, 40 ft and 45 ft high cube containers are increasingly being used today, and within the USA also 53 ft containers, since there are longer semitrailers than are permitted in Europe.
|1.||until 1968||180 m||25 m||9.0 m||500-800|
|2.||from 1969||225 m||30.5 m||11.5 m||1500|
|3.||from 1972||275 m||32 m||12.5 m||3000|
|4th||from 1987||287 m||39 m||13.5 m||4500|
|5.||from 1997||325 m||41 m||14.1 m||5500|
|6th||from 1999||345 m||43 m||14.5 m||over 8000|
|7th||since 2006||398 m||56 m||16.0 m||over 14,000|
Container ships are divided into generations .
The size of the container ships built in 1968 was the unit of measurement for a 1st generation ship.
At the beginning of 1969, the first ship of the second generation appeared with the Encounter Bay , almost all of which had a maximum ship width of 30.5 m, that is, a maximum of twelve containers could be stowed side by side on deck.
For a long time, the upper limit of the dimensions of container ships was 275 m long and 32.3 m wide so that they could pass through the (old) Panama Canal . Ships of this size were previously called the 3rd generation.
Since around 1988, Panamax has been used to refer to ships that also use the maximum length of Panama Canal locks (294 meters) (and not just the width).
In the initial phase (around 1972) a maximum of 3000 TEU was the upper limit of what was technically feasible, in 1988 it was 4300 TEU. Later “Panamax” newbuildings could load up to 5060 TEU.
The name Post-Panamax is used for larger types of ships with a width of more than 32.3 m . Ships with over 7,000 TEU are (as of 2011) referred to as Super-Post-Panamax or Post-Panamax-Plus ships, those over 11,000 TEU as New Panamax .
Post panamax ships
The first container ships wider than 32.3 m (Panama Canal locks) are the five President Truman class ships operated by American President Lines (APL, USA). They were built in 1988 by the Bremer Vulkan (Vegesack) and HDW (Kiel) shipyards and only used in the shipping company's trans-Pacific service. They were 275.0 m above sea level. long and 38.5 m wide with 61,296 GT, 53,613 dwt and could carry a maximum of 4400 TEU. A maximum of 15 containers were stowed side by side on deck.
In 1991, the CGM Normandy was built by Daewoo Heavy Industries for the French CGM (today's CMA CGM ). She had a capacity of 4410 TEU and was the first post-Panamax ship in the Europe-Far East service. Here, too, 15 containers could be placed next to each other on deck with a ship width of 38.0 m. In 1992 the Bunga Pelangi followed for the shipping company MISC ( Malaysia International Shipping Corporation Berhad ) with similar dimensions.
In 1994/1995 Nedlloyd Hong Kong and Nedlloyd Honshu followed as the first and only post-Panamax open-top ships for Royal Nedlloyd . In December 1994, three ships of the NYK Altair class for the NYK Line , five structurally identical ships for the Mitsui OSK Lines and the OOCL California class of the shipping company OOCL (Hong Kong), which were 40 meters wide on deck 16 for the first time, followed from Japan Stow containers side by side.
In 1995 a further six post-Panamax ships ( C11 class ) were built for American President Lines (APL) , three each at HDW (Kiel) and Daewoo Heavy Industries. At that time (until the beginning of 1999) APL had the largest post-Panamax fleet with a total of eleven such ships.
In 1996, the Regina Mærsk type was the first series of the Very Large Container Ships (VLCS) to go into service. They were the first 42.8 meters wide (they can stow 17 rows of containers next to each other) and the first over 300 meters long container ships. With a slot capacity of 7,000 TEU, the ships were at least 50% larger than the previous record holders - such a leap in size had never happened before.
Projects and completed construction drafts from classification societies and / or shipyards for a type called Suezmax container ship for up to 14,000 TEU have been around since 1996. Since the Suez Canal was expanded, however, larger ships such as the Emma Mærsk class can also pass through the Suez Canal. Drafts for a Malaccamax container ship for 21,000 TEU have also been calculated. However, this did not take into account the limitations on handling capacities and the draft restrictions in the container ports.
The German Hapag-Lloyd AG only stuck to the Panamax ship type for a very long time and was the last of the larger container shipping companies to start building a first post-Panamax ship, the Hamburg Express, in 2001 .
In 2005, the first container ship with a width of 45.6 m, the MSC Pamela, was put into service, where 18 containers can be stowed side by side for the first time.
Ultra Large Container Ships (ULCS)
The Odense shipyard realized from September 2006 with the Emma Mærsk class a very large container vessel type with a capacity of 14,770 TEU. Despite its size, it gets by with a ship's propeller; it is powered by a 14-cylinder Wärtsilä RT-flex 96 CB two-stroke engine with an output of well over 80 MW. The eight ships of the Emma Mærsk class, which all have Mærsk names beginning with “E”, are 56.4 m wide and can load 22 containers side by side on deck. They are 397 m long and have a maximum draft of 16 m. Up to eleven layers of containers are stacked on top of each other in the hull of the ship, and a maximum of nine layers on deck above. There are connections for 1000 refrigerated containers.
In 2016, work began on increasing the container capacity of the ships by around 3,100 TEU by increasing the deckhouses and lashing bridges at Beihai Shipbuilding in Qingdao . The renovations should be completed in 2018. The container capacity increases to 17,816 TEU.
In 2008 the MSC Daniela was put into service. She is in the service of the Mediterranean Shipping Company . With a length of 366 m and a width of 51.2 m, the "Megaboxer" classified by Germanischer Lloyd is designed for the new lock canal of the Panama Canal and can transport 13,800 TEU. The lead ship of the MSC Daniela class initiated the construction of a series of sister ships, which also includes the - albeit differently motorized - CMA CGM Christophe Colomb .
In February 2011, Maersk ordered ten 18,270 TEU ships of the Triple E class with an option for 20 more ships. In June 2011, the option to build another ten ships was exercised, increasing the building order to 20 ships. They are equipped with two main engines. Her maximum speed is 23 knots (that of the Emma Maersk class 25 knots). The ships are also designed to be operated in a fuel-efficient manner at lower speeds ( slow steaming ).
"Triple E" stands for "economy of scale, energy efficiency and environmentally improved", that is, economical by size , energy efficient and more environmentally friendly. At the end of 2012, 163 container ships with a capacity of more than 10,000 TEU were sailing around the world, including the 20 Triple-E's from Maersk, another 120 were ordered. The first of these ships had its semi-launch in Korea on February 23, 2013 .
At the beginning of March 2015, the Japanese shipping company Mitsui OSK Lines placed an order for the first units with over 20,000 spaces. The MOL 20,000 TEU type started up in 2017. In the opinion of shipping experts, this marked the "end of the flagpole"; other experts expected ships of 22,000 TEU and more within a few years. A 2015 study by the OECD found that the cost savings in the ultra-large class are very low. In addition, the economic risk is enormous, since the largest ships only pay off if they are really fully loaded. Ultimately, only “Korean shipyards” benefited from “XXL ships”.
Development of the ship size
|Construction year||Ship name||Length in m||Width in m||Max. Draft in m||TEU||GT||tdw||Shipyard||Shipping company / state|
|2020||HMM Algeciras ( HMM Megamax-24 )||399.9||61.4||16.5||23,964||223.930||Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME), South Korea||Hyundai Merchant Marine / KR|
|2019||MSC Gülsün (MSC Megamax-24)||399.9||61.5||16.5||23,756||232.618||197,500||Samsung Heavy Industries, South Korea||MSC / CH|
CMA CGM Antoine de Saint-Exupéry
CMA CGM Jean Mermoz
CMA CGM Louis Bleriot
|400||59||16||20,776||207,673||202.684||Hanjin Heavy Industries and Construction Philippines , Philippines||CMA CGM / FR|
|May 2017||OOCL Hong Kong||399.87||58.8||16||21,413||210,890||191,317||Samsung Heavy Industries , South Korea||OOCL / HK|
|April 2017||Madrid Mærsk||399||58.6||16.5||20,586||214.286||210.019||Daewoo Shipbuilding , South Korea||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|March 2017||MOL triumph||400||58.8||16||20,170||199,000||192.672||Samsung Heavy Industries, South Korea||Mitsui OSK Lines (MOL) / JP|
|May 2016||MSC Jade||398.45||59.07||16||19,437||194,308||200,148||Daewoo Shipbuilding, South Korea||MSC / CH|
|May 2015||Barzan||400||58.6||16||18,800||195,636||199,744||Hyundai, South Korea||UASC / AE|
|Dec 2014||MSC Oscar||395.4||59||16||19,224||192.237||199.273||Daewoo Shipbuilding, South Korea||MSC / CH|
|Nov 2014||CSCL Globe||399.67||58.6||16||19,000||187,541||184,320||Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan||CSCL / CN|
|July 2013||Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller||399||59||15.5||18,270||194,849||194.153||Daewoo Shipbuilding||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|Nov 2012||CMA CGM Marco Polo||396||53.6||16||16,020||175.343||187.625||Daewoo Shipbuilding||CMA CGM / FR|
|Sept 2006||Emma Mærsk||397.7 / 398.9 **||56.4||15.5||(11,000) 15,500 * / 17,816 **||151,687||156.907 / 174.239 **||Odense||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|July 2006||Xin Los Angeles||336.7||45.6||14.5||9580||107,800||111,889||Samsung, bunk||CSCL / CN|
|Feb 2006||Cosco Guangzhou||350.56||42.8||14.5||9469||109,149||107.277||Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan||COSCO / CN|
|July 2005||MSC Pamela||336.7||45.6||15th||9178||107,849||110,592||Samsung, bunk||MSC / CH|
|June 2005||Gudrun Mærsk||367.28||42.8||15.5||(7500) 9074 *||97.933||115,700||Odense||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|March 2005||Colombo Express||335.07||42.87||14.6||8749||93,750||104,400||Hyundai Heavy Industries, Ulsan||Hapag-Lloyd / DE|
|Dec 2004||P&O Nedlloyd Mondriaan||335||42.8||??||8450||94,724||97.612||IHI, Kure||P&O Nedlloyd / GB-NL|
|July 2004||CSCL Asia||334||42.8||14.5||8498||90,496||105,000||Samsung, bunk||CSCL / CN|
|May 2003||OOCL Shenzhen||322.97||42.8||13||8063||89.097||99,518||Samsung, bunk||OOCL / HK|
|March 2003||Axel Mærsk||352.1||42.8||15th||(6600) 8272 *||93,496||109,000||Odense||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|Sept 1997||Sovereign Mærsk||346.98||42.8||14.5||(6600) 8160 *||91,500||104,886||Odense||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|Jan 1996||Regina Mærsk||318.24||42.8||14.5||(6000) ~ 7000 *||81,488||90,456||Odense||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|Aug 1995||OOCL California||276.02||40||12.2||4960||66,046||67,756||Mitsubishi, Nagasaki||OOCL / HK|
|Dec 1994||NYK Altair||299.85||37.1||1?,?||4743||60.117||63.179||IHI, Kure||NYK / JP|
|Feb 1991||Hanover Express||294||32.3||11.4||4639||53,783||67,680||Samsung, bunk||Hapag-Lloyd / DE|
|Apr 1988||Fairy tale Mærsk||294.12||32.22||13.52||(3500) ~ 4500 *||52.191||60,639||Odense||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|June 1984||American New York||290||32.3||?||4400||57.075||58,870||Daewoo Shipbuilding, Okpo||United States Lines / US|
|March 1984||Louis Mærsk||270||32.3||13||(3390) ~ 3700 *||43,332||53,325||Odense||Mærsk-Line / DK|
|June 1981||Frankfurt Express||287.73||32.28||?||3430||57,540||51,540||HDW, Kiel||Hapag-Lloyd / DE|
|July 1972||Hamburg Express||287.7||32.27||?||3010||58,088||48,453||Blohm & Voss, Hamburg||Hapag-Lloyd / DE|
|March 1972||Liverpool Bay||289.55||32.26||10.79||2987||58,889||48,542||HDW, Hamburg||OCL, then P&O / GB|
|Nov 1971||Kamakura Maru||261.2||32.2||?||1838||50,159||35,405||Mitsubishi, Kobe||NYK / JP|
|Sept 1970||Sydney Express||217||30.58||11.8||1665||27,407 GRT||33,330||Blohm & Voss, Hamburg||HAPAG, Hapag-Lloyd / DE|
|Feb 1969||Encounter Bay||227.31||30.56||?||1572||27,835 GRT||29,260||Germany||OCL, then P&O / GB|
|Aug 1968||Hakone Maru||187||26th||?||752||16,240 GRT||14,745||Mitsubishi, Kobe||NYK, Showa / JP|
|May 1964||Kooringa||126.3||19.1||7.6||483 ***||5825 GRT||6753||New South Wales State Dockyard||Associated Steamships, McIlwraith, McEacharn & Co / AU|
|Nov 1955||Clifford J. Rogers||102.24||14.33||5.58||210 ****||2983 GRT||4000||Canadian Vickers, Montréal||White Pass & Yukon Railway / CA|
The largest container ships in the world at the time. In the case of ships of an identical series, only the first ship of the series is listed. Current record holder and the current maximum values in bold
- (*): The size of each container ship is given worldwide in TEU slot capacity . The shipping company Mærsk-Line was an exception for a long time and did not specify the maximum TEU slot capacity of the ship, but the maximum number of loaded TEUs of 14 tons each. This value, see number in brackets, is always lower than the maximum number of parking spaces. Mærsk now also specifies the size of its container ships in maximum TEU.
- (**): after expansion through renovation in 2018
- (***): The Kooringa was set up for the transport of 276 35-foot containers, which corresponds to around 483 TEU.
- (****): The Clifford J. Rogers was set up for the transport of 600 7-foot containers, which corresponds to about 210 TEU.
Reefer container ships
Container ships with more than 50 refrigerated containers were often referred to as refrigerated container ships. The refrigerated container market is growing rapidly and is in serious competition with refrigerated ships. In 1972 United Fruit (now Chiquita ) began shipping bananas in refrigerated containers. One of the reasons for this is that the ship can be unloaded more quickly in port. Portless ships are also used for this, in order to reach the containers directly with a crane. The first hatchless refrigerated container ships were built by HDW in 1999 and offered spaces for 990 TEU refrigerated containers and 33 TEU unrefrigerated containers. These ships are in use for Dole and serve the transport of fruit from Central America to the USA. Today Hamburg Süd is one of the largest shipping companies specializing in the transport of reefer containers to and from South America .
The ships of the “Monte” class with 5500 TEU and “Rio” class with 5905 TEU of Hamburg Süd are the container ships with the largest cooling capacity. They have 1365 connections for reefer containers, that is, spaces for around 2500 TEU reefer containers on and below deck.
Container ships without hatch covers
Container ships without hatches have been built since 1990. These are ships whose holds have no hatch covers (or only on the first and second hold behind the breakwater), which reduces loading and unloading times and saves the weight of the hatch covers. A special bow against high waves and a powerful pumping system are necessary for this. The world's first ship of this type was the Bell Pioneer . The only large container ships of this type to date were operated by Nedlloyd, later Royal P&O Nedlloyd NV , now Mærsk with the five Panamax ships of the Ultimate Container Carrier type built in 1991/1992 , as well as the world's first post - Panamax open-top ships Nedlloyd Hong Kong and Nedlloyd Honshu , built in 1994.
For reasons of the strength of the ship ( torsion ), the ship's safety and economic efficiency, however, there has been a move away from building open-top ships with more than 1000 TEU. Because the hatch covers are missing, higher-strength steel has to be used and the girders have to be stiffened, which is too expensive from an economic point of view. In addition, a high freeboard is necessary to minimize the ingress of sea water. (See the feeder ships of the Sietas shipyard , which only have no covers in the middle hold, but instead have raised hatch rings .)
The container ships of the first and second generation had single screw propulsion ( steam turbine or diesel engine ). The third generation ships (built 1971–1981) were initially designed for 27–28 knots . This required two-screw drives (turbine or diesel) or even three-screw drives with three diesel engines. Another concept that was first implemented in this generation of container ships was the gas turbine ships of the Euroliner type. This drive, previously only known from military ships, quickly turned out to be uneconomical, especially after the oil crisis in the early 1970s. The first large panamax ships with single-screw propulsion were put into service from the end of 1980, when powerful diesel engines with 50,000 hp were available for the first time and the more expensive multi-screw propulsion systems could therefore be dispensed with. Since the end of the 1970s, due to the high price of crude oil and the abandonment of the very high speed of 28 knots, almost all turbine-powered container ships have been converted to diesel engine drives, as they consume significantly less fuel. There were also modifications to drive from 2 turbines / 2 propellers to 1 turbine / 1 propeller, such as the four Hapag-Lloyd ships of the "Hamburg Express" type. The usual service speed of almost all large container ships was then 24, at the end of the 2000s it was 25 knots.
The Mærsk Boston, which was delivered by Volkswerft Stralsund in May 2006, is the lead ship of seven very fast Panamax container ships, has a service speed of 29.2 knots with a twelve-cylinder Sulzer diesel engine and is the fastest container ship in the world.
The largest built-in diesel engines up to 2005 were twelve-cylinder two-stroke in-line engines of the types MAN-B & W 12K98ME / MC with 69.1 MW at 94-104 rpm or from Wärtsilä-Sulzer 12RT-flex96C Common Rail with 68.7 MW 100 / min.
The propulsion system is a problem in realizing the more than 12,000 TEU container ships. Up until the crisis in 2008, the shipowners only wanted container ships with a permanent speed of 25 knots (plus reserves) in order to be able to integrate the ships (especially if they are in liner service ) into existing routes. Instead of the previously widespread twelve-cylinder in-line diesel engine with 90,000 or 93,000 hp, a 14-cylinder diesel engine of the type Wärtsilä / Sulzer 14RT-flex96C with 108,908 hp was installed in the Emma Mærsk class . The propeller has a diameter of around 10.0 m and weighs around 130 tons in order to convert the greater engine power into propulsion at the same engine speed (94-104 / min).
In view of the high fuel costs and a shipping crisis that has persisted since mid-2008 , most ships are now traveling significantly more slowly than before the crisis began (“ slow steaming ”). The largest container ships of the Maersk Line with a capacity of 18,000 TEU, which were recently commissioned, were reduced to 23 knots and a two-screw drive was installed. In the case of ships already in service, it could even be profitable to convert the bulbous bow and replace it with a shape that is optimized for lower speed. The new noses are said to save 1–2% fuel. The ships of the UASC-A19 class , which are among the largest container ships in the world, are designed for an operating speed of just 12 to 18 knots.
Greenhouse gas emissions from shipping in the EU increased by 48 percent between 1990 and 2008, making up around 13 percent of total emissions from transport in the EU in 2015.
It has been criticized that there are driving bans for diesel cars in port cities, while ships in ports with ongoing diesel energy supply pollute the air . A solution is to be offered by a pilot project in which ships are supplied with an external LNG-based generator. The generator has the dimensions of a 40-foot container and can therefore easily be loaded onto a container ship. The problem today is the barely existing LNG infrastructure (comes from NL by truck) and the lack of standardization of the ship connection technology.
Large container ships with over 7000 TEU are built at the following shipyards:
Odense Staalskibsværft (Odense Steel Shipyard), Denmark (closed in 2012)
- Hyundai Heavy Industries , Ulsan / South Korea
- Hyundai Heavy Industries, Samho Yard
- Samsung Heavy Industries , Koje Island / South Korea
- Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering
- Doosan , Okpo Yard / South Korea
- Hanjin Heavy Industries , Busan / South Korea
- IHI , Kure / Japan
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries , Kobe / Japan
- Mitsubishi Heavy Industries , Nagasaki / Japan
- Kawasaki Heavy Industries , Sakaide / Japan
- Koyo Dockyard , Mihara / Japan
- China Shipbuilding Corp. , Kaoshiung / Taiwan
- Nantong COSCO KHI , Nantong / China
- Hudong Shipyard , Shanghai / China
Container ships from German shipyards
In the initial phase of containerization from 1968 to 1977, a considerable number of large 1st to 3rd generation container ships were built by German shipyards, which were then leaders in this sector:
- Blohm + Voss , publisher (repair yard and special and naval shipbuilding)
- AG Weser , Bremen (bankruptcy in the 1980s)
- Bremer Vulkan , Bremen-Vegesack (last (container) ship built in 1997, then bankruptcy)
- Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) , Hamburg-Finkenwerder plant (plant abandoned)
- HDW, Kiel plant (to this day, occasionally builds smaller numbers of container ships)
- Flender shipyard , Lübeck
- North Sea Works , Emden
- Peene-Werft , Wolgast (numerous container ships up to 1800 TEU)
- Meyer-Werft , Papenburg, in 2005 four open-top ships (each 1600 TEU) were built - MS Eilbek, MS Reinbek, MS Flottbek and MS Barmbek
- The largest container ships built to date (5 ships) have a capacity of 5468 TEU and were delivered to P&O Nedlloyd in 1999/2000 by Aker MTW , Wismar and Aker Kvaerner Warnowwerft, Warnemünde .
The largest container ships currently built at a German shipyard were built at Volkswerft Stralsund , Stralsund , starting in autumn 2005 . The lead ship, the Mærsk Boston , was christened on March 24, 2006 and delivered in May 2006. They are of the type VWS4000 and measured 294.1 m in length. and 32.18 m wide with a capacity of 4250 TEU. The drive consists of a Sulzer 12 RTA 96C diesel with 93,400 hp. As a result, a service speed of 29.2 knots is achieved; they are the fastest container ships in the world.
Container ships of size 2500/2700 TEU (type CV 2500/2700) were built by HDW in Kiel, SSW in Bremerhaven, Nordseewerke in Emden, Blohm + Voss in Hamburg, Volkswerft in Stralsund, Aker Werften in Wismar and Rostock-Warnemünde.
For years , the JJ Sietas shipyard in Hamburg has been a leader in the design and construction of container ships up to 1200 TEU in size (feeder ships ) . From the beginning of 2006 this shipyard also built larger container ships, the first 1700 TEU ship was delivered with the Safmarine Mbashe . In the meantime, the construction of container ships there has been stopped. In November 2011 the company had to file for bankruptcy.
The largest container ship shipping companies in the world
As of June 2019
The 20 largest container shipping companies control around 89% of the market.
The German shipping company Hapag-Lloyd AG , which was still the largest container shipping company in the world from 1976 to 1983, has not been among the “Top 10” in the ranking for many years. In August 2005 the takeover of CP Ships by Hapag-Lloyd was announced. This required a capital increase of one billion euros. Hapag-Lloyd thus moved up to 6th place among the major container shipping companies.
On May 11, 2005 it was officially announced that Mærsk-Sealand wanted to take over P&O Nedlloyd for 2.96 billion US dollars (equivalent to 2.3 billion euros) . The P&O Nedlloyd share was valued at US $ 41 on May 10, Mærsk-Sealand offered shareholders US $ 57 per share in a takeover offer scheduled until August 5, 2005. The takeover was completed in mid-August 2005. P&O Nedlloyd ceased to exist in February 2006. It has been fully integrated into the “Mærsk Line”. With the takeover, the market leader Mærsk increased its market share from 12 to 18 percent of world container traffic.
Largest container ship fleets by country
According to the nationality of the owners, the following countries had container ship fleets with more than 1000 GT per ship (number of ships / capacity in a thousand standard containers)
As of December 31, 2009
|country||Ships||in a thousand TEU||in million tdw||TEU share|
|4th||People's Republic of China||313 ships||696||9.4||5.4%|
|9.||South Korea||127 ships||329||4.4||2.6%|
|10.||Hong Kong||57 ships||246||3.0||1.9%|
The UNCTAD report Review of Maritime Transport 2012 (page 42 ff.) Contains the information that proves the proportion of ships in German hands. A distinction must be made between ship owners (= owners) and ship operators (shipping companies). So is z. B. the Maersk shipping company (as of 2009) owns about half of the fleet it operates; she chartered the other half. The large proportion of ships in German hands can be explained by the tax concessions for ship investments (see also the shipping crisis since 2008 ). In 2014, Germany had around 26 percent of the world's container shipping capacities (around 4.8 million TEU) in the container shipping sector.
Liner and container shipping companies: mergers and acquisitions
- September 1, 1970: Hapag and NDL merged retroactively to January 1, 1970 to form Hapag-Lloyd AG, Hamburg / Bremen
- 1971: The four largest Dutch shipping companies merge to form Royal Nedlloyd
- January 1, 1987: P&O took over Overseas Container Limited completely
- 1988: Sealand Corp. took over the bankrupt United States Lines
- 1988: Hanjin Container Lines and Korea Shipping Corp. merged to form Hanjin Shipping
- 1993: Ben Line / Det Østasiatiske Kompagni were taken over by Mærsk Line
- 1994: Senator Lines , Bremen and DSR, Rostock merged
- 1995: CP Ships took over CAST, London
- 1996: Safmarine took over CMBT, Antwerp
- 1996: CMA took over CGM, now CMA CGM
- December 1996: Nedlloyd and P&O Container Line merged to form P&O Nedlloyd
- 1997: CP Ships took over Lykes Lines, Boston and Contship Containerlines , London
- 1997: Hanjin Shipping took over DSR-Senator Line, Bremen
- 1998: Neptune Orient Lines took over the American President Lines
- 1998: CP Ships took over Australia-New Zealand Direct Lines, Wellington
- 1998: CMA-CGM took over the Australian National Line
- 1998: Evergreen Marine took over Lloyd Triestino
- 1998: P&O Nedlloyd took over the Blue Star Line
- 1999: Safmarine Container Line was taken over by Mærsk Line
- November 1999: Sea-Land Corp. was taken over by Mærsk Line
- 2000: CP Ships took over TMM, Mexico
- 2000: P & O Nedlloyd took over Farrell Lines , USA
- 2002: CP Ships took over Italia SAN, Genoa
- August 2005: P&O Nedlloyd was taken over by Mærsk Line
- December 2005: Farrell Lines was taken over by Mærsk Line
- December 15, 2005: CP Ships, Canada were taken over by Hapag-Lloyd
- January 5, 2006: CMA-CGM acquired Delmas
- December 1, 2007: Hamburg Süd took over the liner services of Costa Container Lines SpA (CCL)
- April 2014: The container shipping company Hapag-Lloyd and the Chilean competitor CSAV merged
- 2016: Merger of Hapag-Lloyd with the Arab competitor United Arab Shipping Company
- 2016: Merger of COSCO and China Shipping to form COSCOS
- December 2017: Maersk took over Hamburg Süd
- April 2018: The Japanese shipping companies MOL , K-Line and NYK merged to form Ocean Network Express (ONE)
In 1969, on the route Europe – Australia / New Zealand, the liner service was switched to container traffic with second-generation ships ( ANZECS service). It was established by Hapag-Lloyd , Germany, Overseas Containers Limited (OCL), Great Britain (an amalgamation of five major British liner shipping companies), Associated Container Transportation (ACT), Great Britain, Nedlloyd , Netherlands, the Australian National Line and New Zealand Shipping Company founded.
The most important and heaviest shipping connection is the Europe-Far East route. In 1968 the major liner shipping companies decided to switch to container traffic.
The first major alliance existed here from 1971, the TRIO service (founded by shipping companies from three countries). The conversion to container traffic meant such a large investment volume at the time that no shipping company could or would finance it alone. The largest and fastest container ships of the 3rd generation at the time were put into service here between November 1971 and July 1973. The TRIO service was provided by the shipping companies NYK Line / Japan (3, from 1976 4 ships), Mitsui OSK Lines / Japan (2, from 1977 3 ships), Hapag-Lloyd / Germany (4, from 1981 5 ships), Overseas Container Line (OCL) / Great Britain (5, from 1989 7 ships; was later taken over by P&O) and Ben Line-Ellerman / Great Britain (3 ships). The TRIO service was dissolved at the beginning of 1991, although Hapag-Lloyd AG and NYK Line continue to work with other shipping companies to this day.
The second group was from 1972 the Scandutch Service of the shipping companies Wilh. Wilhelmsen / Norway, Det Østasiatiske Kompagni (EAC) / Denmark, Broström / Sweden and Nedlloyd / Netherlands. CGM / France joined in 1973 and Malaysian Intern. Shipping Co. (MISC) 1977. This alliance was also ended in 1991.
The third alliance was founded in 1975 with the ACE service (Asian Container Europe) of the shipping companies K-Line / Japan, Orient Overseas Container Line (OOCL) / Hong Kong, Neptune Orient Lines (NOL) / Singapore and Compagnie Maritime Belge (CMB) / Belgium.
From 1991 to 1996 there was an alliance between Mærsk Line and P&O. From 1996 on, market leader Mærsk Line worked with the American Sea Land Corp. globally together. The addition was so cheap that Mærsk took over almost all of the US shipping company in 1999.
In 1991 the three Scandinavian shipping companies as well as Ben Line and Ellermann started the BEN-EAC service. The BEN-EAC service was completely taken over by Mærsk-Line in 1993.
In 1977 container traffic began on the Europe – South Africa route , known as the SAECS service, founded by the shipping companies Deutsche Afrika Linien (Hamburg), Compagnie Maritime Belge , Royal Nedlloyd , Overseas Container Line (later P&O) and Safmarine , South Africa. Nine modern 2400 TEU two-screw container ships were used here. This service is still served today by Mærsk Line , Safmarine, CGM (only until the end of the 1990s), and Deutsche Afrika Linie, Mitsui-OSK Lines has been added since February 2006. Modern 4500-5000 TEU ships (Sling 1) and 1,800 TEU ships (Sling 2) are now in use.
Shipping company alliances must be recognized by the American Federal Maritime Commission , and there is also the Singapore Competition Authority.
The three largest alliances were in mid-2017:
- Ocean Alliance of the shipping companies CMA CGM (3), Cosco (4), Evergreen (5) and OOCL (10) with a total of 350 ships, 37% market share
- The Alliance of the shipping companies Hapag-Lloyd (6), “ K Line” (16), MOL (13), NYK Line (9) and Yang Ming (8) with a total of 244 ships
- 2M of the shipping companies Mærsk Line (1), MSC (2), HMM (15, as a strategic partner) with a total of 223 ships (without HMM)
The numbers in brackets indicate the importance of the respective shipping company in the global ranking.
In 2008 (a boom period ended in this year and a shipping crisis of several years began), a container ship was scrapped after an average of 27 years. In 2015, a container ship was scrapped after an average of 22 years.
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