Lower Elbe

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Run of the Lower Elbe
Shipping traffic on the Lower Elbe near Hamburg
Queen Mary 2 on the Lower Elbe near Glückstadt
The Kugelbake near Cuxhaven marks the mouth of the Elbe into the North Sea.

The approximately 140 km long section of the Elbe between the Geesthacht barrage (km 586) and the Kugelbake in Cuxhaven (km 727.73) is referred to as the Lower Elbe or Lower Elbe (more rarely also Tideelbe , Tidenelbe or Gezeitenelbe ) . The elongated estuary ( estuary ) is subject to the tides ebb and flow , and the marshes on either side of the lower Elbe can of storm surges of the North Sea are affected.

The Lower Elbe is of great importance for international shipping , especially as an approach to the Port of Hamburg , but also to the Kiel Canal and thus to the Baltic Sea . According to the Federal Waterways Act , it is considered an inland waterway for its entire course before it becomes a sea ​​waterway as the Outer Elbe . In terms of shipping law , however, it is only an inland waterway from Geesthacht to Oortkaten (km 607.50) . As a so-called delegation route, it is then subject to Hamburg's responsibility ; from km 638.98 ( Tinsdal lighthouse ) it is then a maritime shipping route .

Names and delimitation

The terms Lower Elbe and Lower Elbe are generally used synonymously, with Niederelbe being the older, regionally ancestral name (analogous to Low German or Lower Saxony ), while Lower Elbe has only come into use since the 19th century. The demarcation to the upper reaches of the Elbe is highly inconsistent: For example, the mouth of the Alster in Hamburg or later the Hamburg Elbe bridges were used as the border between the Lower and Upper Elbe; Nowadays, the Bunthausspitze , the Köhlbrand estuary or the Mühlenberger Loch are sometimes seen as the beginning of the Lower Elbe and Lower Elbe.

In order to avoid these contradicting boundaries, terms such as tide (n) elbe , tidal elbe or Elbe estuary are preferred in the specialist literature , which refer to the influence of the tides as a distinguishing criterion. This has been clearly defined spatially since the construction of the Geesthacht barrage in 1960, but previously extended significantly further upstream to the area around Lauenburg .


Geographical location

In the 17th century, the inland delta of the Elbe extended from the Vierlanden to Finkenwerder.
High bank of the Elbe near Blankenese

The entire length of the Lower Elbe follows the Ice Age Elbe glacial valley , which is lined on both sides by geest slopes up to 50 meters high . In between, an elongated inland delta had formed in the flat marshland , which originally began shortly after Geesthacht at Drage and also included the Vier- und Marschlande , which belonged to Hamburg . However, these were gradually diked in as early as the 12th century and the tributaries Dove Elbe and Gose Elbe separated from the remaining main stream. This is also known as the "Upper Tidal Elbe" and separates the Vier- und Marschlande from the Lower Saxony Elbmarschen in the Harburg district .

Today's inland delta begins around 17 km downstream at the Bunthäuser Spitze , where the Elbe divides for around 15 kilometers into the North and South Elbe and encloses the "Elbe Island" Wilhelmsburg , which in fact consists of several smaller islands . As it continues, the Süderelbe merges into the Köhlbrand , which reunites with the Norderelbe opposite the Altona balcony . The original estuary of the Alte Süderelbe has become a standing body of water when it was dyed in 1963 .

From the confluence of the North and South Elbe rivers, the Lower Elbe runs through Hamburg's urban area between the northern Elbe suburbs and the districts of Waltershof and Finkenwerder to the Mühlenberger Loch . Until 1963 the Süderelbe joined the Norderelbe here.

This is where the last section of the river begins, which is characterized by a large number of smaller inland islands along the banks and in the middle of the river (e.g. Hahnöfersand , Lühesand , Pagensand , Rhinplate ). In addition to the side arms formed by the islands, there are a number of side arms in the Elbe foreland to the right and left, such as the Wischhafener Süderelbe on the left , which flows into the Elbe at Wischhafen .

The Elbe near Cuxhaven is around 18 kilometers wide. The river is around 108 kilometers long from Hamburg to the mouth.


Right tributaries in the direction of the river:

Left tributaries in the direction of the river:


The only economically important canal that branches off from the Lower Elbe is the Kiel Canal . In addition, the Hadelner Canal as a section of the Elbe-Weser shipping route and the Altenbrucher Canal south-east of Cuxhaven are also important for recreational shipping . The Ilmenau Canal in the course of the Ilmenau also belongs to this category today; it was important for the economic and urban development of Lüneburg until the Elbe canal was built .

Riverside landscapes

The Lower Elbe is in its genesis since the Vistula Ice Age through the glacial valley molded the Elbe. As the names of the adjacent landscapes suggest, this area is largely characterized by marshland . Only a few places or districts in Hamburg's urban area up to and including the city of Wedel are on terminal moraines .

On the right side of the Elbe are the Vier- und Marschlande , which belong to Hamburg, and the Elbe islands of the Hamburg Inland Delta. The Schleswig-Holstein marshlands following from Wedel are all separated by rivers / canals: The Haseldorfer Marsch begins at the Geestrand near Wedel ; the eastern end here is the Wedeler Au . The Seestermüher Marsch then begins west of the Pinnau and extends as far as the Krückau . Upstream of it is the Kremper Marsch to the northwest . Beyond the Stör , the Wilstermarsch finally begins , which extends to the Kiel Canal or the Burger Au . Finally, the marshland of the southern district of Dithmarschen follow .

On the left (Lower Saxony) side of the Elbe, the marsh lands accompany the entire Lower Elbe, starting with the Lüneburg and Winsener Elbmarsch, as well as the former Harburg Elbmarschen. This is followed by the Alte Land between Süderelbe and Schwinge , the Land Kehdingen between Schwinge and Oste and the Land Hadeln between the Oste and the Wurster Heide .

Stretches of beach

Elbe beach Övelgönne

Along the Lower Elbe there are some sandy beaches that are also used as bathing areas, for example in Hamburg near Övelgönne and Wittenbergen , in Schleswig-Holstein in Brokdorf . The beach at Duhnen at the mouth of the Elbe just touches the course of the Lower Elbe with its eastern end at the Cuxhaven Kugelbake ; At four kilometers, it would be the longest sandy beach along this river.

Geology of the estuary

Although the estuary is up to 18 km wide, there is only a relatively narrow channel for shipping . the rest is taken up by broad mud flats like the medem sand . The narrowest and deepest point at over 30 m is in front of the Glameyer Stack not far from Cuxhaven , which is also considered to be the decisive weak point in the course of the dike . If the dike were to break there, large areas of Hadeln would be flooded .

The area where it flows into the North Sea is called the Helgoland Bay . This in turn is part of the German Bight .

National borders

In the course of the Lower Elbe (including the mouth of the Elbe) the course of the borders between the states of Schleswig-Holstein , Lower Saxony and Hamburg has not yet been clarified . Various administrative and judicial responsibilities are clarified by various administrative agreements and international treaties of the federal states involved, but not the territorial sovereignty .


There are several important cities along the Lower Elbe. First and foremost, the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg should be mentioned as the center of the Hamburg metropolitan region of the same name.

On the Schleswig-Holstein side, Brunsbüttel with the entrance to the Kiel Canal and the neighboring industrial plants, Glückstadt and, above Hamburg, Geesthacht are among them.

On the Lower Saxony side, Stade and Cuxhaven are particularly important.


Early history

Around 12 BC the Romans reached the mouth of the Elbe. They named the river Albis and the area on both sides of the Lower Elbe Albingia . How far they drove up the Elbe is not known. At the beginning of the 9th century AD, Charlemagne penetrated as far as the Elbe in the Saxon Wars . The Christianization of the north began. In 817, the Hammaburg , the nucleus of Hamburg , was founded in the mouth of the Alster .

Around 845 numerous settlements along the Lower Elbe as far as the Hammaburg were attacked by Vikings , in 915/916 Wends and Danes attacked the Hamburg district together. Wends under the Christian Abodrite prince Mistewoi burned Hamburg and devastated Stormarn and Holstein . In 1032 the Wends attacked Stormarn and Holstein again under their Prince Gottschalk .

Archbishop Adalbert fortified the Süllberg in Blankenese around 1060 . Adalbert was  overthrown in 1066 - mainly at the urging of the Billunger . Nordalbier then destroyed his castle on the Süllberg . In 1142 the parish of Bishorst was founded.

High and late Middle Ages

The 12th century was also marked by land reclamation and destruction. In 1148 the Dutch began to dike the Haseldorfer Marsch . In 1164 the Julian flood devastated the Lower Elbe region as far as Wedel , around 20,000 people and many thousands of livestock died.

A treaty, which is of outstanding importance for the development of the economic center, also dates from this period. In 1189 the big city received a charter from Friedrich "Barbarossa" . It is controversial whether this really guaranteed the hamburgers the important stacking right .

The 13th century was marked by the " First Marcellus Flood " in 1219 and another storm surge before 1236. The latter separated Finkenwerder and Gorieswerder from Dradenau . The Allerkind flood in 1248 also caused severe devastation. It flooded the Elbe region and divided the historic Elbe island of Gorieswerder into several parts. In 1297, Harburg , located on the southern Elbrand, was granted city rights.

Hamburg extended its sphere of influence to the Elbe estuary, initially by acquiring rights to the island of Neuwerk from the Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg .

The 14th century began with the second battle near Uetersen . In 1310 Hamburg completed the 35 meter high Neuwerker tower as a navigation mark and outpost against the North Sea ( pirates ) and wreckers in the area around Scharhörn . In 1314 the Hatzburg near Wedel was expanded by the Counts of Schauenburg. Later the Elbe island Gorieswerder was torn apart; Among other things, the Elbe island Veddel was created here . After an alliance agreement with the Wurtfriesen of the Marsch Land Wursten in 1316, the century ended with another success in favor of the city of Hamburg, in 1394 they acquired a knighthood from the Lappes at the mouth of the Elbe. From then on, Hamburg protected the mouth of the Elbe from the newly founded Hamburg office of Ritzebüttel , from which Cuxhaven later emerged and exercised increasing economic influence on the Lower Elbe, at the expense of the then still more important port cities such as Stade . A year later the city acquired the inland islands of Ochsenwerder and Moorwerder . The aim was to control the entrance to the Norderelbe.

Early modern age

Altona was founded after 1500 . In 1543 the first settlement construction began in the previously acquired Ritzebüttel office . The Dikshave settlement (today: Cuxhaven) was created as a small dyke row settlement.

Lower Elbe from Lauenburg to Wilstermarsch 1650

In the 17th century. the Hamburg ramparts were built . As a result, a new Elbe port was built at the mouth of the Alster , in front of the Baumall . In 1617 Christian IV. , King of Denmark and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein, founded Glückstadt in competition with Hamburg . In 1627 the All Saints flood (November 7th) struck the area of ​​the Lower Elbe and flooded large marsh lands. During the Thirty Years' War , Stade first came into imperial-Catholic hands from Tilly , and a little later in Swedish hands for the first time. In 1634 the Great Flood came (October 11th and 12th). After the Peace of Westphalia which passed Elbe-Weser triangle as duchies of Bremen and Verden in Swedish ownership within the Holy Roman Empire . In 1658, Swedish troops set fire to Uetersen . In the following year, the Danish fortress Hetlinger Schanze was built on the Elbe bank of the Haseldorfer Marsch and further strengthened in 1672. In 1664 Frederick III awarded , King of Denmark and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein, Altona the city charter.

The Great Northern War broke out between 1700 and 1721 .

In 1717 one of the worst storm surges occurred on the North Sea coast. In the area of ​​the Lower Elbe, the Uetersen , the Haseldorfer- and Seestermüher Marsch as far as Elmshorn were flooded. Altona later developed into the leading port city on the Lower Elbe. In the second half of the 18th century, the city temporarily had more tonnage under sail than neighboring Hamburg. From 1726 to 1736 there was a trade ban between Holstein and Hamburg. In 1731 the Great Fire of Wedel (May 16) destroyed a large part of the settlement.

There were several storm surges in the second half of the 18th century. In 1751 the village of Bishorst was finally wiped out in this way. In 1756 another major storm surge occurred that killed several hundred people. In 1764 the Hetlinger Schanze fortress was demolished. In 1768 Hamburg peacefully gained areas of great importance for the future of its ports; from Hanover it acquired all of the Elbe islands between Billwerder and Finkenwerder.

In the 19th century

The 19th century brought serious changes in the Lower Elbe region.

During the Napoleonic Wars , Hamburg was occupied by the French in 1806 and the north-west German lowlands from the Lower Rhine to Lübeck were annexed by France. The ports had to take part in the continental blockade. The French period in Hamburg lasted until 1814. The population experienced a particularly difficult time in the wars of liberation in the winter of 1813/14. In the so-called Cossack winter there were several pillages and pillages in the area of ​​the Pinneberg rule.

However, some industrial innovations that had an impact in the Elbe region were also of particular importance. After the great fire of 1842, the Hamburg-Bergedorfer Railway went into operation ahead of schedule . In the years that followed, various railway lines to and from Hamburg and Altona were completed, in chronological order: Kiel – Altona , Berlin-Hamburg and Hanover – Harburg . The construction of the latter route was responsible for the fact that the previously insignificant city of Harburg became the most important port in Hanover. Later, in 1872, the railway jumped over the Elbe. The railway connection from Hamburg to Harburg was the first complete bridging of the Elbe near Hamburg. After another decade, the Blankenese - Wedel railway connection was built in 1883 . Another important traffic innovation in the Hamburg area took place in 1899. In the course of the construction of further Hamburg Elbe bridges , the first road link was built over the Elbe.

Around the middle of the century, a series of three wars began, only the first of which lasted several years, but the two short wars radically changed the political geography of the region. The Schleswig-Holstein War of 1848-1851 was basically an uprising of Schleswig-Holstein against Denmark, initially successful with the support of the North German Confederation , but then defeated after this support ended. The German-Danish War in 1864 also spread to the southern parts of the Duchy of Holstein as a state bordering the Lower Elbe region. After Denmark lost this war, the Holstein territories came first to Austria. After the victory of the Kingdom of Prussia over the German Confederation in the German War in 1866, the Holstein areas as well as the Kingdom of Hanover bordering on the south side of the Elbe were annexed by Prussia.

Economic milestones were a. the changes in customs borders. This included the formation of one in 1852 between Altona and the rest of Holstein. During the Franco-Prussian War , Hamburg also became part of the newly founded German Empire , but initially remained a foreign country. Efforts by Reich Chancellor Bismarck to win Hamburg over to join the German Customs Union resulted in expanded territorial rights for the growing metropolis in the area between Lauenburg and the mouth of the Elbe in 1880 . From 1883, the Speicherstadt was also built on Grasbrook ; nearly 40,000 people were relocated. It was part of the free zone until 2003. In 1888 all internal customs borders were finally abolished. In that year Hamburg also joined the German Customs Union . In the following period only the free port was customs abroad.

From the 20th century

The 20th century was characterized by the increasing economization of the Lower Elbe region. The development of Hamburg into the economic center of today's eponymous European metropolitan region as an economic and political center on the Lower Elbe was characteristic of this.

Characteristic for this development were, among other things, large-scale changes in the area around Hamburg. Of particular importance in this context was the incorporation of the Pinneberg Elbe communities of Othmarschen , Klein- and Groß Flottbek , Blankenese and Rissen to Altona in 1927. But this also includes the new municipal changes of the 1930s. On the basis of the Greater Hamburg Act from 1937, the previously independent cities of Altona, Harburg and Wandsbek were incorporated into the city of Hamburg a year later . In return, the grown city had to give up areas on the Lower Elbe. In this way, Cuxhaven, which had become a city in 1907, and Geesthacht became Prussian. Later in 1969, however, the islands of Neuwerk and Scharhörn were sold again to the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (State Treaty with Lower Saxony ).

Altenwerder container terminal

In line with its growing economic importance, there were also improvements in traffic engineering, especially in Hamburg. These included the Port of Hamburg , which was continually expanded and modernized, which is now a highly modern and high-performance container port of world class. For the time being, the last major project in this sense was the construction of the Altenwerder container terminal . This was put into operation in 2004. However, investments in the accessibility of the transport system were also necessary for the growing port. In 1911, the St. Pauli Elbe Tunnel established a permanent connection between the city center of Hamburg on the north side of the Elbe and the Steinwerder island . This was only replaced in 1975 by the opening of the New Elbe Tunnel on the A7 as the main traffic connection. The latter was initially carried out in three tunnels. However, the increasing number of traffic soon made an expansion necessary. Traffic has also been flowing through the fourth tube since 2002. In 1974 the old trajectory over the Köhlbrand was replaced by the Köhlbrandbrücke to improve the flow of traffic within the port area .

Damage from the 1962 storm surge in Wilhelmsburg

But also catastrophes that were destructive to civilization occurred in the 20th century. The Second World War meant serious cuts for Hamburg . Much of the city of Hamburg was destroyed by Operation Gomorrah , a series of air raids by the British Royal Air Force in July / August 1943 (see History of Hamburg ). Storm surges in the 1960s and 70s formed further setbacks for the Lower Elbe. The storm surge in 1962 with its extensive destruction on the entire German North Sea coast is still of nationwide importance . In Hamburg, large parts of the Wilhelmsburg district were flooded. During the subsequent dike reinforcement, the lower southern Elbe was sealed off. Since then, the upper southern Elbe has been flowing through the Köhlbrand . In the period that followed, several coastal protection structures were erected along the Lower Elbe (e.g. the Pinnau and Krückaus barriers were built in 1965–68 ). These, as well as numerous other dyke construction projects on the Lower Elbe side of Schleswig-Holstein (e.g. pre-dike construction of the Wedeler and Haseldorfer Marsch, which created the Haseldorfer Inner Elbe nature reserve with the Elbe foreland ), were part of the general plan for coastal protection that was subsequently decided by the responsible state government in the following period was continuously updated and adapted. On the Lower Saxony side, there were comparable investment measures. In January 1976 there were two more severe storm surge events . The first one broke the Elbe dike near Hetlingen and the Haseldorfer Marsch was flooded. There were also dike breaches at the sea dike under construction in Kehdingen.

Environment and nature protection

Shelduck - protected breeding grounds in the Wadden Sea

The Lower Elbe is particularly important as a breeding area for rare bird species. In order to protect nature from human interference, various nature reserves are designated on the Lower Elbe . Which includes:

Lower Elbe economic area

Large container ships on the Lower Elbe

The Lower Elbe region is one of the most economically prosperous regions in northern Germany. Despite the sometimes extremely rural character of the neighboring regions, there are strong economic influencing factors starting from the city of Hamburg and the surrounding metropolitan region. The area of ​​this has meanwhile expanded so far that the entire Lower Elbe divides the metropolitan region into a northern and southern area.

The metropolitan region thus largely determines the economic structure of the Lower Elbe. The strongest clusters are the port industry and logistics industry around the Port of Hamburg, as well as the aviation industry around the Airbus group based in Hamburg-Finkenwerder and Stade, along with the many medium-sized suppliers in the area.

In addition, very rural areas also shape the image of the Lower Elbe region. The Alte Land on the Lower Saxony side is one of the world's largest contiguous fruit-growing areas. On the opposite side of the Niederelbe in the Pinneberg district, a cluster in the field of horticulture (especially tree nurseries) has formed, which is unique. With their urban yet rural structure, both areas are popular local recreation areas for the urban population.

A public-private initiative strengthening the economic structure is, for example, the Süderelbe growth initiative as a regional economic development agency in the areas of logistics and ports , the food industry and aviation . Further focal points are in the areas of location management, innovation and qualification.

Another funding agency that strengthens the economic structure is the Projektgesellschaft (PG) Norderelbe . As a regional economic development institution, it is responsible for the implementation of the future economy program in the Schleswig-Holstein districts of Pinneberg, Steinburg and Dithmarschen bordering the Lower Elbe.

A joint position paper by the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce , the Stade Chamber of Commerce for the Elbe-Weser region and the Schleswig-Holstein Chamber of Commerce shows proposals for the economic development of the Lower Elbe region.


Traffic significance of the Elbe estuary

Elbe ferry Cuxhaven – Brunsbüttel
Lock of the Kiel Canal in Brunsbüttel

The mouth of the Elbe is of great importance for maritime shipping : on the one hand, the funnel is the access to the port of Hamburg , and on the other hand, the access to the Kiel Canal is located in the mouth on the north side . The lower part of the Elbe estuary is therefore one of the busiest waterways in Europe. The so-called Outer Elbe is located upstream of the Lower Elbe , and in the physiognomic sense no longer a river section . It is the part of the Elbe estuary leading through the Wadden Sea. Due to the narrow navigable channel in the area of ​​the Wadden Sea areas of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (both are now designated as national parks according to the Federal Nature Conservation Act), shipping has to be guided to the estuary well off the coast using aids. For this reason, three up to 45 meter high lightships marked the fairway from the open sea until the 1970s . Of these, the lightship Elbe 2 was replaced in 1974 by the lighthouse on the Großer Vogelsand , Elbe 3 was decommissioned in 1977, and the last one to be replaced by a light barrel in early 2000 was Elbe 1 .

Today navigation on the Lower Elbe is carried out using modern radar technology. Corresponding buildings extend on both banks. The larger ships are also guided into the port of Hamburg by pilots.


Brunsbüttel oil port

In addition to the Port of Hamburg, there are other ports of economic importance on the Lower Elbe . These include the Stade seaport in the Bützfleth district of Stad and the port facilities in Brunsbüttel in Schleswig-Holstein and Cuxhaven in Lower Saxony .

The Amerikahafen with the Steubenhöft in Cuxhaven was also historically significant for transatlantic passenger traffic until the 1970s . Today, mostly only seaside resorts leave from him.

There are also marinas in many places on the Lower Elbe. These include the ports in Freiburg / Elbe , Wischhafen , Glückstadt and the Hamburg marina in front of Wedel. While the latter is located directly in the Elbe river, the first three can be reached via elongated priel courses or they are located on one of the numerous tributaries of the Elbe.


Lower Elbe cultural area

The area on the Lower Elbe is also a cultural area. In several places along the Lower Elbe, tourists can find out more about the origins, structure and current life in this coastal region in various facilities. Which includes:

Integrated station Lower Elbe

The integrated Lower Elbe station is an adventure and information center in Haseldorf . Visitors can see an exhibition about the natural and cultural landscape of the Elbe Marshes and find out about leisure and recreational opportunities along the Elbe. It is located on the grounds of the Haseldorf estate.

Natureum Niederelbe

Natureum Niederelbe

The Natureum Niederelbe is an open-air museum between Balje and Neuhaus (Oste) . It is located on an island by the eastern barrier .


  • Hans-Eckhard Dannenberg, Norbert Fischer , Franklin Kopitzsch (eds.): Land on the river. Contributions to the regional history of the Lower Elbe (= series of publications by the Regional Association of the Former Duchies of Bremen and Verden. Vol. 25). Landscape Association of the Former Duchies of Bremen and Verden, Stade 2006, ISBN 3-931879-20-8 .
  • Brigitte Kronauer : The Lower Elbe. In: Thomas Steinfeld (Ed.): German landscapes. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-10-070404-5 , p. 62ff. (An essay).
  • Peter von Allwörden, Nikolaus Ruhl, Christian C. Schmidt: Experience the Elbe. A journey of discovery through the maritime landscape from Hamburg to Helgoland. MCE - MedienContorElbe, Drochtersen 2004, ISBN 3-938097-00-0 .
  • Eigel Wiese: The Lower Elbe. Lifeline, country and people . Koehlers Verlagsgesellschaft Hamburg 2016. ISBN 978-3-7822-1261-8 .
  • Richard Linde : The Lower Elbe . In: Land and people: monographs on geography . tape 28 . Velhagen & Klasing, Bielefeld & Leipzig 1908 ( archive.org [accessed October 4, 2019]).

See also

Web links

Commons : Elbe  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ J. Rommel: Course of the German Elbe as far as Geesthacht since about 1600 . Ed .: on behalf of the Federal Institute for Hydrology. Aachen 2000, p. 6 ( [1] [PDF]).
  2. Responsibilities and abbreviations for federal inland waterways, WSV (link no longer available)
  3. a b Richard Linde: The Lower Elbe . In: Country and People. Geography monographs . tape 28 . Belhagen & Klasing, Bielefeld 1913, p. 4 ( archive.org [accessed January 10, 2020]).
  4. Andreas Schöl, Werner Blohm, Annette Becker & Helmut Fischer: Investigations on the decline of high algal biomass in the limnic section of the Tidal Elbe . Extended summaries of the 2008 annual conference (Konstanz). Hardegsen 2009, p. 1 ( [2] [PDF]).
  5. Maja Fickert & Thomas Strotmann: Hydrodynamic development of the tidal Elbe . Extended summaries of the 2008 annual conference (Konstanz). In: "Hamburg Port Authority - HPA" (Ed.): "Coastline Reports 9" . 2007, ISBN 978-3-9811839-1-7 , ISSN  0928-2734 , pp. 60 ( [3] [PDF]).
  6. Holger Weilbeer: Sediment transport and sediment management in the Elbe estuary . In: The Coast, Issue 86 . 2018, p. 445 ( [4] [PDF]).
  7. J. Kappenberg & H.-U. Fanger: Sediment transport in the tidal Elbe, the German Bight and in the North Sea . Ed .: "GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH". 2007, ISSN  0344-9629 , p. 21 ( [5] [PDF]).
  8. Ulla Gerversmann & Nicole Winter: Maintenance and development plan for the nature reserve Auenlandschaft Obere Tideelbe . Ed .: Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg - Office for Nature Conservation, Green Planning and Energy. Hardegsen December 2018, p. 126 ( [6] [PDF]).
  9. Working group pollutants / sediment management: Proposals for good sediment management practice in the Elbe area in order to achieve supra-regional action goals . Sediment management concept of the FGG Elbe. Ed .: Elbe River Basin Community. 2013, p. 132 ( [7] [PDF]).
  10. Andreas Schöl, Werner Blohm, Annette Becker & Helmut Fischer: Investigations on the decline of high algal biomass in the limnic section of the Tidal Elbe . Extended summaries of the 2008 annual conference (Konstanz). Hardegsen 2009, p. 1 ( [8] [PDF]).
  11. http://unser-altona.de/elbstrand-hamburg/
  12. For the legal and historical aspects, see Rainer Lagoni : Land borders in the Elbe estuary and the German Bight , Berlin 1982. ISBN 3-428-05240-4
  13. Examples of such contracts are the (administrative) agreement on water protection police responsibilities on the Elbe between the states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg from 1974, the State Treaty between the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg and the states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein on jurisdiction in inland waterway matters from 1983 or the State Treaty between the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg and the states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein on the regulation of jurisdiction of the coastal waters of the North Sea and the Elbe estuary from 2001
  14. Pliny the Elder (23 AD – 25 August 79): NATURALIS HISTORIA (Lat.)
  15. Publius Cornelius Tacitus : DE ORIGINE ET SITV GERMANORVM (Lat.)
  16. Klaudios Ptolemaios : Geographike Hyphegesis [9] (Gr./Lat./Engl.)
  17. a b History of Hamburg # Schauenburger time
  18. ^ History of Neuwerk on Stadtwiki Cuxhaven
  19. Position paper of the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce, the Stade Chamber of Commerce and the Schleswig-Holstein Chamber of Commerce, accessed on May 15, 2012 ( PDF )