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About this picture
Coordinates 53 ° 33 '30 "  N , 9 ° 48' 40"  E Coordinates: 53 ° 33 '30 "  N , 9 ° 48' 40"  E
surface 8.3 km²
Residents 13,730 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density 1654 inhabitants / km²
Post Code 22587
prefix 040
district Altona district
Transport links
S-Bahn Hamburg S1Hamburg S1.svg S11Hamburg S11.svg
HVV bus 1 22nd 36 189 286 488 588 601 621
Source: Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein

Blankenese is a western part of Hamburg in the Altona district and is one of the Elbe suburbs ; it was the seat of the local office of the same name , to which the districts of Nienstedten , Osdorf , Lurup , Iserbrook , Sülldorf and Rissen also belonged.

Origin of name

Historical postcard from Brück & Sohn , 1898

Blankenese is located on a Geest slope on the inland delta of the Elbe , in an area where numerous sandbanks and Elbe islands formerly formed, mostly called pig sand . The place name was derived from one of these sand raised areas: the Low German word blank stands for “uncovered, smooth, shiny”, Nes, Nees, Nääs in turn for “nose”. This shiny nose denoted a headland that jutted into the river from the northern bank of the Elbe and was regularly washed over by the tides , so that its sand shone in the sun, as it was probably completely bare of vegetation. However, this headland was washed away by the Burchardi flood in 1634 .

The similarity with the Low German “blanke nees” can also be found in other languages, French with “nez blanc”, Swedish with “blank näsa”, Danish with “bare næse” or also Dutch with “kale neus”. A less well-represented interpretation of the origin of the name Blankenese relates to the striking Süllberg , whose previously undeveloped summit was clearly visible.

Another interpretation leads the name back from the Low German word Ness to "nest", meaning a land located deep or in a bay. This explanation also has its equivalent in the local conditions, because Blankenese is still today in a visible hollow of the Geesthang .


Geographical location

Blankenese from the air
The stairs district on the Elbe around the Süllberg in Blankenese
At the beach
Blankenese in winter (2010)

Blankenese lies on the northern ridge of the Geest on the Lower Elbe , which forms a steep bank in the center of the village. Its most famous elevation is the Süllberg (74.7 m), a popular restaurant on its slope and a hotel with restaurants on its hilltop; The highest elevation is the Baurs Berg with 91.6 m with the striking tower of the Altona waterworks , it is the second highest elevation in Hamburg .


Blankenese, seen from the Elbe

Blankenese is built up the steep southern slope of the Geest ; in the south on the other side of the Elbe lies the Elbmarsch (more precisely: the " old country ").

Neighboring districts

Neighboring districts are Nienstedten in the east, Iserbrook and Sülldorf in the north and Rissen in the west, whereby Blankenese and Rissen are separated from each other by a wooded area ( Falkenstein ).


View from Süllberg to Blankenese around 1895
Blankeneser Elbstrand 1827 with a view of the striking Süllberg

Blankenese is a former fishing village that was first mentioned in a document in 1301. In the Latin document, the knights of Raboisen were given the income from the ferry connection to the other side of the Elbe by Count Adolf VI. awarded.

The castle on the Süllberg and a provost's office on the Süllberg, which Archbishop Adalbert von Bremen had built around 1060 , already existed before . The castle served to secure the ferry connection across the Elbe. When the northern Albians destroyed the castle, the archbishop excommunicated them in 1070. In 1258 a second - this time a count - castle was built on the Süllberg, which was also built by the brothers Johann I and Gerhard I (Schauenburg counts) to secure the ferry . After protests by the Hamburgers, it had to be torn down again in 1262 because it disrupted their interests.

The Breckwoldt family was part of Blankenese's history at an early age. Viet Breckwoldt, born in 1490, was the first of this line of ancestors. At the beginning of the 16th century he received the Blankeneser Elbe ferry as a fiefdom, plus the ferry jug with the right to drink, brew and distill.

The Süllberg , restaurant with a lookout tower

Blankenese first belonged to the Schauenburg county of Holstein-Pinneberg , then to the Duchy of Holstein , which was ruled by the Danish kings from 1460 in personal union, and fell to Prussia in 1866. That is why the memorial stone for the Schleswig-Holstein elevation was erected on a green area in Mühlenberger Weg . Afterwards SB (for " Schleswig-Holstein Blankenese") was written on the sails of the Ewer and Kutter , Low German as rope carefully! (= sail carefully! ) laid out.

In 1919 the Pinneberg rural community expanded through the merger with the neighboring, up-and-coming farming village of Dockenhuden (where there was more space for villa complexes) to form 'Neu-Blankenese' including Mühlenberg, Hirschpark and Iserbrook. In 1927, against the will of many Blankenese residents, Blankenese became a suburb of the city of Altona / Elbe through the Groß-Altona law, and in 1938 it merged with Altona in Hamburg. Between 1919 and 1939, today's district of Mühlenberg also belonged entirely to Blankenese for the first time, then the eastern part was added to Nienstedten. Originally, Mühlenberg was built around the Dockenhudens landing site. The former northern part of Dockenhuden with additional parts of Sülldorf and Osdorf became the Iserbrook district from 1951 .

Blankenese, originally a pretty hillside village where captains and pilots spent their retirement years, developed over time into an upper-class villa district whose population was (and is) not as homogeneous as it appears: in 1924, for example, there were 18 members of the local council in addition to 18 members of the bourgeois parties also 5 representatives of the SPD and one KPD representative.

From January 1946 to April 1948, the Warburg Children's Health Home was located in Blankenese on the property of the Warburg family am Kösterberg . This was a unique facility in Germany for Jewish orphans who had survived the Holocaust . Most of them came from Hungary and Poland and then moved to Palestine. The importance of the home for the Jewish children, for whom Blankenese became a lasting memory, contrasts strongly with the fact that the Blankenese population knew and knows very little about it.


  • Minor quota: 18.4% [Hamburg average: 16.3% (2017)].
  • Elderly rate: 27.6% [Hamburg average: 18.2% (2017)].
  • Proportion of foreigners: 8.3% [Hamburg average: 17.1% (2017)].
  • Unemployment rate: 1.7% [Hamburg average: 5.2% (2017)].

Blankenese is one of the richest districts of Hamburg. The average income here is 117,139 euros annually (2013) and is therefore around three times as high as the overall average in Hamburg.


For citizenship elections , Blankenese belongs to the Blankenese constituency . In 2011, the SPD became the strongest party for the first time in the bourgeois district.

Election results

SPD Green 1) CDU FDP Left 2) AfD Rest
Citizenship election 2020 35.4% 22.5% 19.4% 12.1% 03.7% 03.6% 04.4%
Citizenship election 2015 35.9% 12.4% 20.4% 19.6% 03.6% 05.5% 02.6%
State election 2011 36.4% 10.5% 29.0% 18.2% 02.6% - 03.3%
2008 general election 20.8% 09.3% 57.4% 09.1% 02.4% - 00.9%
2004 general election 16.7% 11.7% 63.7% 05.2% - - 02.7%
2001 general election 22.4% 08.7% 36.9% 15.1% 00.1% - 16.8% 3)
Citizenship election 1997 21.2% 12.5% 45.8% 09.0% 00.3% - 11.2% 4)
Citizenship election 1993 23.1% 15.3% 38.3% 09.0% - - 14.3% 5)
Citizenship election 1991 26.5% 07.9% 51.4% 12.3% 00.3% - 01.6%
Citizenship election 1987 26.6% 06.5% 52.9% 13.5% - - 00.5%
State election 1986 22.7% 09.8% 55.2% 11.7% - - 00.6%
State election December 1982 27.6% 06.9% 58.0% 07.2% - - 00.3%
May 1982 general election 22.1% 08.4% 62.0% 06.5% - - 01.0%
Citizenship election 1978 26.9% 04.8% 57.9% 07.7% - - 02.7%
State election 1974 22.0% - 59.9% 15.0% - - 03.1%
State election 1970 32.4% - 49.5% 13.2% - - 04.9%
City elections 1966 34.9% - 47.8% 11.6% - - 05.7% 6)
1)1978 as a colorful list - defend yourself , 1982 to 2011 as Greens / GAL.
2)1991 and 1997 as PDS / Linke Liste, 2001 as PDS.
3)Including 14.3% for the Schill party .
4)Including 6.3% for the Statt Party .
5) Including 9.1% for the Statt Party.
6)Including 5.4% for the NPD .

Culture and sights

The stair quarter

The staircase district , which formerly formed the village center of the old Blankenese, is worth seeing . This district is located on the steep slope of the Elbe; Winding stairs and narrow alleys with many variations lead from the street at Goßlers Park above Am Kiekeberg down to the Strandweg street below on the Elbe, where the pier, the so-called Bull'n , is also to be found. Below the stairs there are Charitas-Bischoff-stairs , Lesemann's stairs and the long beach stairs with 170 steps. The accompanying, mostly closely spaced building stock is characterized by small-scale houses, some of which are roofed with thatch .


Three Easter fires

Easter fire : four bonfires with the names Viereck , Knüll , Osten and Mühlenberg are lit on the Blankeneser Elbe beach at Easter . Two previous fires, Harmstorf and Övelgönne , have been banned and will no longer be ignited. The Knüll fire was extinguished by the fire brigade in 2016 and 2017. While the rivalry between those who set up the individual fires could lead to physical confrontations well into the 1960s, today, with the cultivated rivalry, there is cross-camp solidarity against official efforts to limit, hinder or completely prevent the rest of the Easter fires.

Rummelpottlauf : On New Year's Eve, children from Blankenese knock in disguise on front doors to ask for goodies. They make noise with pots and spoons and sing.

Kreekfahren : Only in Blankenese there are these wide and flat box sledges that are steered with the help of a long bar. The last time there was enough snow for the practice of this sport was in the winter of 2009/2010.


Beach hotel , built in 1902

In Blankenese there are some beautiful country houses or mansions that are embedded in parks, but not always visible from the adjacent streets. They come from Hamburg or Altona merchants and were built in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in the classicist style. These include the Katharinenhof , built between 1829 and 1836 by GF Baur (Mühlenberger Weg 33), the Landhaus Klünder Hessehaus (Oesterleystraße 20) , which is currently under renovation, and the Landhaus Warburg (Kösterbergstraße 60). Some were built according to plans by the Danish architect Christian Frederik Hansen ; These include, for example, the P. Godeffroy country house known as the White House (Elbchaussee 547), the JC Godeffroy country house known as the Hirschpark House and the Blacker country house, which was expanded after 1890, now known as the Goßlerhaus (Blankeneser Landstrasse 34). It was the seat of the local office until the end of 2004 and has been owned by a foundation since 2007. It is used by the Bucerius Law School and the Horst Janssen Library.

At Sülldorfer Kirchenweg 71 there is a villa that was built in 1906/07 for the businessman Hermann JW Boy according to plans by the Hamburg architect Fritz Höger . The good state of preservation of this early Höger building is remarkable. Apart from a few insignificant changes, the original shape has been preserved both inside and out, right down to the details (for example on the doors and door handles, built-in cupboards and the dining elevator, as well as the simple stucco structure of the ceilings typical of that time and the completely tiled kitchen in the basement); the building therefore documents the building and living of the early 20th century particularly vividly.

Numerous historic fishermen's houses from the 18th and 19th centuries can be discovered in the stairs district around the Süllberg. These are often small, simple brick buildings, but sometimes also lavishly designed, thatched half-timbered buildings, which suggest a certain prosperity of the former owners. At the eastern end of the beach path is the listed beach hotel, an elegant Art Nouveau building built in 1902.


In addition to the Blankenese church (church on the market) of the Evangelical Lutheran parish of Blankenese, built in 1896 in the municipality of Dockenhuden , with windows by Siegfried Assmann, the Catholic church Maria Grün near the Elbchaussee, built by Clemens Holzmeister between 1929 and 1930, is worth mentioning, the windows by Heinrich Campendonk having.

Parks and museums

Open-air theater in the Roman Garden (July 2008)

Numerous large estates owned by shipowners and merchants with old trees and handsome villas are now publicly owned parks. These include Baurs Park at the Mühlenberg yacht harbor , the Hessepark at the former tax office, the former Blankenese local office, Goßlers Park at the Blankeneser train station and Schinckels Park on Blankeneser Landstrasse.

At the western end of Blankenese lies the Roman Garden , hidden on a southern slope high above the Elbe . In the southern European garden tradition, the garden was laid out on several levels. In summer, performances take place here in a small natural theater. After the Second World War, the Roman Garden was donated to the city of Hamburg by the Warburg family.

The Falkenstein is a nature reserve on the Geest slope of the Lower Elbe . In addition to the Tafelberg Falkenstein forest park , the Sven-Simon-Park can be found here. It is an Axel Springer foundation . The name is said to be in memory of his son Axel, who used the name Sven Simon as a pseudonym for his work as a photographer. The mansions of the property now house the oldest German sailing club, the Rhe sailing club , and the Falkenstein doll museum in the Michaelsen country house . Since May 1986 the private collection of around 300 dolls has been exhibited in the villa built by Karl Schneider in 1923 .


In Blankenese, two grammar schools - the grammar school Blankenese on Oesterleystrasse and the Marion-Dönhoff grammar school (Willhöden) - as well as the district school Blankenese on Frahmstrasse offer the possibility of graduation. The renowned Institute for Peace Research and Security Policy at the University of Hamburg (IFSH) resided on Falkenstein until 2007 , while the Bundeswehr leadership academy , which is often attributed to Blankenese, is located in neighboring Nienstedten.

History processing

Around 150 Jews lived in Blankenese at the beginning of the 1930s. Most of them managed to escape. 16 were in concentration camps killed eight committed before their imminent deportation suicide .

The association for research into the history of the Jews in Blankenese was founded in 2003 by citizens of Blankenese. The aim of the association is not to let the history of the Jews who were almost completely expelled or killed during National Socialism be forgotten. Research into the fate of the Jewish residents serves this purpose. The history of the schools and clubs in Blankenese is also explored. The association organizes exhibitions, lectures and readings, the laying of stumbling blocks and an annual commemorative event in memory of the Judenhaus on Grotiusweg (formerly Steubenweg) 36. From there, the last transport went to Theresienstadt on July 19, 1942 .

In 2004/05, the historian Hannes Heer , the art historian Petra Bopp and the designer Peter Schmidt presented an exhibition on the life of Jewish citizens in Blankenese in the parish hall of the Evangelical Congregation of Blankenese and in the Hamburg Chamber of Commerce .

2005 and 2006, the association invited a group of Jewish "Children of Blankenese", the childhood persecution of Jews in the Nazi era had survived. As children , they had been prepared for their departure to Palestine in the Warburg Children's Health Home on the Kösterberg. The association has published their memories in German translation under the title “Cherries on the Elbe”.


In the Blankeneser Bahnhofstrasse is Blankeneser cinema one of the few cinemas in Hamburg with a sophisticated film program.


The marina on the Mühlenberg , on the opposite side of the Elbe, is the Mühlenberger Loch

The sports club Spielvereinigung Blankenese from 1903 has occasionally played a respectable role in the lower divisions (e.g. in football); The Blankenese Chess Association from 1923 was even stronger . Another local sports club is the FTSV Komet Blankenese from 1907, a former workers' sports club ; also the Blankeneser Segel-Club (BSC), which with over 800 members is one of the largest and most active sailing clubs in Germany and was the first sailing club directly on the Elbe, and the Mühlenberger Segel-Club (MSC). The North German Regatta Club has a club house on the Elbe. The canoeing club Ring der Einzelpaddler is also located nearby.

As part of the annual Vattenfall Cyclassics cycle race, there is a key point on the Waseberg . The 700 meter long ascent from the banks of the Elbe up to the center of Blankenese has an almost continuous gradient of 15 percent and is driven through several times. On the occasion of this cycling race, the Blankenese cycling community was founded in 2000 , and with 130 members it is one of the strongest cycling clubs in Hamburg.

The bathing establishments, which are often attributed to Blankenese, are actually in neighboring districts: the Marienhöhe outdoor pool in Sülldorf, the indoor pool on Simrockstrasse in Iserbrook.

Economy and Infrastructure


Shipping pier in Blankenese
The Blankeneser Bahnhof 2012
Exit from the train station

The Hamburg-Blankenese station of the Hamburg S-Bahn is a terminus on the Altona-Blankeneser Eisenbahn at the foot of the Krähenberg . The station building erected between 1864 and 1867 in Dockenhudener municipality is one of the oldest in Hamburg; This is where the branches from Altona and Wedel (lines S1 and S11) meet. In 1908 the Poppenbüttel - Blankenese section served as a test route for the first electrically operated S-Bahn. Between 2007 and 2012, considerable modernization work was carried out on the station and redesign of the entire area around the station.

Between 1901 and 1921 there was a single-track tram between Altona and Blankenese. The terminus was still in Dockenhuden area in front of the Hotel Zur Johannisburg on the Elbchaussee at the corner of Mühlenberger Weg. From 1911 to 1914 the Gleislose Bahn Blankenese – Marienhöhe , a former trolleybus operation, which consisted of just two vehicles and was intended to develop the Marienhöhe villa colony, also operated in Blankenese . Bus traffic has been characterized since 1959 by the particularly small and manoeuvrable buses of the Blankeneser line 488 , which can also run in the narrow and steep streets of the stairs and are therefore called "mountain goats" by the Blankenese people.

Blankenese is connected to the districts of Cranz and Neuenfelde on the other side of the Elbe by a ferry ( HADAG's Elbe ferry line ).

The Elbchaussee (formerly: Flottbecker Chaussee ) that begins in Ottensen ends in Blankenese . In addition, there is another road connection running from east to west, the B 431 (Osdorfer Landstrasse) north of Blankenese, which ensures that the center of Hamburg and the Pinneberg district can be reached.

Public facilities

The Blankenese volunteer fire brigade was founded on September 10, 1878. The fire station is located at Blankeneser Landstrasse 41. On September 10, 2005, the Blankenese Youth Fire Brigade was founded. In addition to the focus on fire protection and technical assistance, the voluntary fire brigade has had the special component “Feel and Measure” since the beginning of 2002, which deals with nuclear, biological and chemical hazards. The branch office of the Osdorf fire and rescue station with an ambulance on Blankeneser Landstrasse moved to Rissen in early 2007 .

The district court of Hamburg- Blankenese is located in Blankenese and is also responsible for the surrounding districts.

The Tabea Hospital is located on the Elbe slope near the waterworks in Kösterbergstrasse. It used to belong to the Diakonisches Werk , since 2002 it has belonged to the Artemed clinic network.


Sons and daughters of Blankenese

Other important residents

  • Carl Oesterley junior (1839–1930) landscape painter of Naturalism and Impressionism, who lived in the Oesterleystrasse named after him until his death.
  • Alma del Banco (1863–1943), painter, lived and worked in Blankenese since 1938 and died there by suicide
  • Sophie Jansen (1862–1942), b. Schlossmann, author and poor carer, lived in Blankenese since 1912 and died here by suicide
  • Richard Dehmel (1863–1920), poet, from 1912 until his death in Blankenese
  • Gustav Frenssen (1863-1945), völkisch nationalistic narrator and novelist, lived and worked from 1906 to 1919 in Blankenese
  • Ida Dehmel (1870–1942), b. Coblenz, lived in Blankenese since 1901 and died here by suicide
  • Betty Levi (1882 – after 1942), Altona citizen of the Jewish faith. Victims of National Socialism, Rissener Landstrasse 127 (residential address in Blankenese), namesake for: Betty-Levi-Passage.
  • Else Hoffa (1885–1964), gardener, first woman in Germany to work as head gardener, Kösterbergstrasse 42, where she worked with the Warburg family.
  • Bruno Tesch (1890–1946), entrepreneur and chemist, lived in Blankenese until the Curiohaus trial and his execution
  • Hans Leip (1893–1983), writer, wrote the text of the famous song Lili Marleen
  • Hans Henny Jahnn (1894–1959), poet, lived in Blankenese from 1951
  • Rudolf Schleier (1899–1959), businessman, Nazi functionary and diplomat; lived in Blankenese
  • Eduard Bargheer (1901–1979), painter and graphic artist who lived in Blankenese until his death
  • Grete Nevermann (1907–1973), chairwoman of the Blankenese local committee, Rissener Landstrasse 17 (residential address in Blankenese), named after Grete-Nevermann-Weg.
  • Marion Gräfin Dönhoff (1909–2002), publicist and former co-editor of the weekly newspaper Die Zeit
  • Carl-Friedrich Fischer (1909–2001), architect, lived in Blankenese until his death
  • Heinz Haber (1913–1990), professor, German physicist, aerospace specialist, writer and television presenter
  • Felicitas Kukuck (1914–2001), composer, lived and worked in Blankenese from 1948 until her death
  • KRH Sonderborg (1923–2008), painter, lived in Blankenese from 1949 to 1958 and again from 1998 until his death
  • Horst Janssen (1929–1995), draftsman and graphic artist, lived and worked in Blankenese from 1967 until his death
  • Ulrike Meinhof (1934–1976), journalist, later a terrorist, lived with her husband Klaus Rainer Röhl from 1961 to 1967 in Blankenese
  • Jürgen Flimm (* 1941), director, former director of the Thalia Theater Hamburg , university professor.
  • Marion Maerz (* 1943), singer, lives in Blankenese
  • Stefan Aust (* 1946), journalist and former editor-in-chief of the German news magazine Der Spiegel , lives in Blankenese
  • Rolf Zuckowski (* 1947), singer, lives and works in Blankenese
  • Otto Waalkes (* 1948), comedian, lives in Blankenese
  • Frank Ulrich Montgomery (* 1952), German medical officer, lives in Blankenese
  • Walter Scheuerl (* 1961), lawyer and politician, lives in Blankenese
  • Kai-Oliver Knops (* 1966), legal scholar, lives in Blankenese


See also

Web links

Commons : Hamburg-Blankenese  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Daniel Tilgner (Red.): Hamburg from Altona to Zollenspieker. The Haspa manual for all districts of the Hanseatic city. Hoffmann and Campe, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-455-11333-8 .
  2. ^ Horst Beckershaus: The names of the Hamburg districts. Where do they come from and what they mean. 2nd Edition. Die Hanse, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-434-52545-9 , p. 25.
  3. Joachim W. Frank (Red.): Above or above - Elbe crossings - yesterday and today. Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg - State Archives, Hamburg, ISBN 3-89907-016-X , p. 10.
  4. Ina Lorenz: A home for Jewish orphans. AJDC Warburg Children Health Home Blankenese. In: Marion Kaplan, Beate Meyer (ed.): Jüdische Welten. Jews in Germany from the 18th century to the present (= Hamburg Contributions to the History of German Jews. Vol. 27). Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-888-4 , pp. 336-358.
  5. ^ Association for research into the history of the Jews in Blankenese (ed.): Cherries on the Elbe. Memories of the Blankenese Jewish Children's Home 1946–1948. Foreword: Martin Schmidt . Verlag Klaus Schümann, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 3-9810907-5-6 ; see. also: Martin Schmidt on the opening of the exhibition " Four times life - Jewish fate in Blankenese " (PDF; 75 kB).
  6. ↑ Quota of minors in the Hamburg districts in 2017
  7. Proportion of 65-year-olds and older in the Hamburg districts in 2017
  8. ↑ Proportion of foreigners in the Hamburg districts in 2017
  9. Unemployment rate in the Hamburg districts in 2017
  10. Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein (ed.): Hamburg District Profile 2016 (=  NORD.regional . Volume 19 ). 2018, ISSN  1863-9518 ( Online PDF 6.6 MB [accessed February 12, 2018]).
  11. 2009: Authority removes piles of wood
  12. 2017: Demonstration, negotiations and fire-fighting operations
  13. In the form of a novel on the subject: Joachim Stave: Rummelpottlaufen. Children's stories from Blankenese (= Deutsches Lesewerk. H. 48, ZDB -ID 1182693-9 ). Westermann, Braunschweig a. a. 1950.
  14. ^ Spiegel Online: Wintersport Kreekfahren
  16. Evangelical Lutheran Church Community Blankenese, Winfried Grützner, Malve Lehmann-Stäcker, Helmut Plank (ed.): The Blankeneser Church. Blankenese parish life since 1060. On the occasion of the centenary of the church, 1896–1996. Festschrift. Petersen, Hamburg 1996, ISBN 3-931040-02-X .
  19. Hannes Heer: How can you tell the story of the Holocaust and the war of extermination? About memory politics in a memory-resistant society. In: Hannes Obermair , Sabrina Michielli (ed.): Cultures of remembrance of the 20th century in comparison - Culture della memoria del Novecento al confronto. (= Booklets on the history of Bolzano / Quaderni di storia cittadina 7). Bozen, City of Bozen 2014, ISBN 978-88-907060-9-7 , pp. 115–153, here pp. 126–136.
  20. ^ During the Second World War and until 1946 SG Blankenese-Wedel .
  21. Archive link ( Memento from December 22, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  22. history of the hospital Tabea. Retrieved June 2, 2020 .
  23. Gisela Reiners: The great Karl is already 80 . In: Welt am Sonntag . No. 27 , July 7, 2013, p. 7 ( online ).
  24. Source: Hamburg women's biographies database