National Democratic Party of Germany
|National Democratic Party of Germany|
|Party leader||Frank Franz|
|Secretary General||Alexander Neidlein|
Thorsten Heise ,
Udo Voigt ,
|Federal Managing Director||Klaus Beier|
|Federal Treasurer||Stefan Köster|
|Honorary Chairman||Walter Bachmann († 2002)|
|founding||November 28, 1964|
|Place of foundation||Hanover|
|Youth organization||Young nationalists|
Right-wing extremism ,
ethnic nationalism ,
|Seats in state parliaments||
|Government grants||878,325.19 euros (2018)
(as of April 15, 2019)
|Number of members||3600 (as of December 2019)|
|Average age||37 years|
|Proportion of women||27 percent|
|European party||Alliance for Peace and Freedom|
The National Democratic Party of Germany (short name: NPD ) is a small right-wing extremist party founded in 1964 that is not represented in any national parliament. In the opinion of numerous political scientists, historians and the Federal Constitutional Court , it has a programmatic and linguistic proximity to the NSDAP and represents a völkisch-nationalist and revanchist ideology. At the European level, it is a member of the Alliance for Peace and Freedom .
Prohibition proceedings against the party ran before the Federal Constitutional Court according to Article 21 of the Basic Law . The ban application was rejected as unfounded in January 2017. The NPD is clearly anti-constitutional , related in nature to historical National Socialism and wants to “ replace the existing constitutional order with an authoritarian nation-state based on the ethnically defined ' national community ' ”, but in view of its insignificance in political events it does not currently pose a concrete threat to the free democratic basic order represent.
The NPD pursues the idea of a homogeneous national community , which it sees as a counter-model to the liberal democracy of the western world . Belonging to this ethnic community is defined by her according to racial and eugenic criteria. According to the party, “true” democracy must be conceived as “German people's rule” (hence the self-designation “national democratic ”), from which it derives numerous other demands.
According to the Federal Constitutional Protection Report 2012, the objectives of the NPD due to their “anti pluralistic , marginalizing and anti- egalitarian characteristics” are incompatible “with the democratic and constitutional characteristics of the Basic Law ”. The party's ideological positions are "an expression of a cohesive right-wing extremist worldview."
The NPD propagates a völkisch nationalism , which is already expressed in the basic program. There human dignity is linked to belonging to a people. This people, not the individual, puts the NPD at the center of its politics and thus differs from democratic parties. The state has the task of taking responsibility for the people. The NPD sees the people as an ethnically and racially homogeneous unit, according to which a German is only German ( Volksdeutscher ) because of his German descent and not solely because of his German citizenship ( Passport German ). According to the party's political lexicon, non-whites cannot become Germans, but exceptions can be made for Europeans (e.g. French , Italian , British , Poles ). In party platforms as well as public statements of its members and elected representatives can be both ethnopluralistische and biologistically -rassistische arguments notice.
The party derives its concrete political demands from these principles. This includes the demand to differentiate Germany from “negative influences from abroad ”. All areas of life, be it in business, politics or culture, should be exclusively national. “Multi-ethnic excesses to which the German people are currently exposed” and “ foreign infiltration ” must be prevented. Accordingly, the NPD wants to push through the expulsion of the non-German population from the Federal Republic, the reintroduction of the German mark and Germany's withdrawal from international alliances such as NATO and the EU . The United States' armed forces stationed in Germany since the end of World War II are to be withdrawn. In general, anti-Americanism has meanwhile become a formative element of the ideology of this party. The NPD is also calling for the right to asylum to be abolished and has declared war on an alleged “ Islamization ” of Germany. The NPD criticizes Germany's high net payments to the European Union and is against Turkey's accession to the EU . Anti-Semitic positions are deeply anchored in the ideology of the NPD, some of which are revealed in the use of anti-Semitic ciphers, but others are also revealed. Furthermore, both latent and open hostility to the State of Israel can be ascertained in the NPD, which is reflected in anti-Zionist- motivated expressions of solidarity, e.g. B. towards the Iranian and Venezuelan governments . Furthermore, the NPD Federal Association commented on the 70th anniversary of the founding of the State of Israel on May 14, 2018 on Twitter with the sentence "Israel is and remains the enemy of all peoples who struggle for national and social liberation." The party opposes a possible one Military intervention in Syria , also rejects the intervention missions in Iraq and Afghanistan .
The NPD advocates an authoritarian state that is supposed to enforce the “will of the national community ”. The program of the NPD takes up various nationalist and anti-capitalist aspects. This recalls the opinion of historians from the parlance ago at the National Socialism . For example, the “German family”, in which the woman is primarily supposed to be a housewife and mother, is presented as the best model of life. In return, housewife should be legally recognized as a profession. Abortions are rejected, as is "all other forms of life [except the family]". In the field of education policy , the party opposes what it sees as egalitarianism , with which a “new society” is to be created, and calls for talent and performance-related support. In economic policy slogans such as “The economy must serve the German people” or “The entire land is the property of the people” are used. The NPD calls for a referendum on the reintroduction of the death penalty "in the case of repeated sexual, child , robbery and mass murder and in the most serious cases of drug trafficking " . Strengthened the party also operated ecological issues, it is in favor of organic farming and against nuclear power , genetic engineering , overfishing , invasive species , factory farming and animal testing from. However, this is done under nationalist, racist and “ folk hygienic ” points of view.
Due to the mixture of radical xenophobia , homophobia , anti-Semitism , hostility towards the disabled , nationalist social model, populist - anti-capitalist slogans and the belief in authoritarian leadership, experts see similarities between the program of the NPD and that of the NSDAP of the 1920s and early 1930s. Like this, the party not only wants to enforce certain political goals, but also to eliminate the current system of democratic rule of law and constitution, which is why the NPD is classified as anti-constitutional . Correspondingly, in the 1998 report for the protection of the constitution of the state of Baden-Württemberg there is an excerpt from the opening speech of the 1st day of the national resistance by Holger Apfel , in which he portrays the NPD as the only organized party, “which takes the political system in the FRG to the root fights, also the root decreases. Yes, dear friends, we are proud of the fact that we appear in the Federal German constitutional reports every year and that we are named there as hostile, unconstitutional and directed against this system. Yes, we are unconstitutional. ”On its website, the party describes the Basic Law as a“ dictate of the western victorious powers ”and, with reference to Article 146 of the Basic Law, demands that it be replaced by a new constitution . In this state then "should, according to their referendums anchored a national elected President with strong powers institutionalized" and of her as harmful classified Party influence be curtailed. At the same time, however, it states that it wants to protect individual constitutional articles that it classifies as positive in order to use them against the EU , for example .
The NPD calls for the German-Polish border to be moved back and for Germany's state borders to be restored to the state of the end of 1937 . According to their will, Silesia , East Pomerania , East Brandenburg , West Prussia and East Prussia are to be reintegrated into the (newly created) “Reich”.
The NPD is also striving for a comprehensive revision of the historiography of the time of National Socialism . On NPD websites it is alleged that the Allies were to blame for the outbreak of the Second World War , that Germany was not liberated in 1945 and that it has been under foreign rule since the defeat . The NPD does not accept the historical guilt of the Nazi perpetrators, war criminals in the SS and Wehrmacht, as well as the millions of followers who made the crimes of National Socialism possible, if at all, without reference to the German victims of the Second World War. Holger Apfel makes it clear that the party “will not participate in unilateral confessions of atonement”. The decision of the Saxon NPD parliamentary group not to attend the minute's silence for "all victims" held on January 21, 2005 - they only wanted to commemorate the "German victims of the Allied bombing raid on Dresden" developed into an incident that was regarded as scandalous by the media . In addition, the NPD uses the broad social discussion about coming to terms with the past and remembering the Holocaust to spread anti-Semitic propaganda . In a press release by the party on June 6, 2002, it is said that free thinking and acting in Germany are only possible “if the influence and power of the Central Council of Jews is broken”. The party can build on a public political discourse in which an alleged excess of "accusations of anti-Semitism" and not anti-Semitism is problematized.
In addition, in the current basic program, decided on their federal party conference on 4th / 5th June 2010 in Bamberg, the party took over with the slogans “Work. Family. Fatherland . ”The slogan Travail, Famille, Patrie des Vichy regime .
The foreign policy principles of the NPD go back to the principles of isolationism and neutralism . It rejects foreign missions of the Bundeswehr in general and adherence to loyalty to NATO in particular. The NPD describes the legality of Germany's borders with its direct neighbors as being imposed by the allies at the time and is striving to revise the territorial decisions made in the Potsdam Agreement .
The NPD rejects Turkey's accession to the EU as not belonging to Europe and emphasizes the diplomatic compromise with Russia. It also calls for the so-called enemy state clause to be deleted without replacement , which was already declared "obsolete" by the UN General Assembly on December 9, 1994 in resolution 49/58 .
The NPD is directed against federalism in the education system and calls for this to be centralized at the federal level. The party is committed to the multi-tier school system, which is supposed to reflect different levels of performance of the students. Differences in performance due to social differences should be reduced by setting up a preschool . In higher education, the party rejects the Bologna Process and calls for a free first degree. The universities are financed exclusively from state funds.
The NPD is for segregation or so-called racial segregation in education. It also calls for the spelling reform to be reversed and for the protection of the German language to be elevated to constitutional status. In its educational policy, the NPD is also directed against the German coming to terms with the past .
The central goals of the NPD's energy policy are security of supply, environmental compatibility and economic efficiency. By strengthening domestic energy producers and renewable energies, independence from the transnational energy market is to be achieved. In addition, in terms of a target are energy self-sufficiency , the raw material reserves to be expanded. The NPD emphasizes the strategic energy trade with Russia as an important foundation in this concept.
Based on Charles de Gaulle's saying “ Europe of the Fatherlands ”, the NPD calls for a “Europe of the peoples” based on ethnic affiliation. For reasons of national sovereignty , the NPD is also demanding that no further sovereign rights be ceded to the EU and that any delegations of authority that have already been carried out should be reversed.
The family policy of the NPD is directed against gender equality and emphasizes the importance of the heterosexual family as a means against an aging society . In order to relieve and support families, the NPD is demanding a baby welcome allowance , a mother's salary and a family loan for (German) families to supplement child benefit . Maternity should be counted towards the old-age pension . The party is also directed against spouse splitting .
The NPD sees current society in a pre- civil war scenario and therefore calls for the elimination of social and ethnic hot spots in urban centers. Border controls are also to be reintroduced in Germany and the Schengen Agreement is to be unilaterally terminated. In addition, the party would like a restriction on the exchange of data and information with foreign security authorities. Furthermore, the NPD is pursuing the dissolution of the protection of the constitution and harsher penalties for violations of the Narcotics Act and in cases of child pornography and pedophilia . Members of the NPD are unreliable in terms of the Weapons Act .
The NPD is calling for its own " social legislation for foreigners" to be financed by employees with a migration background and their employers . She opposes the social reform of Agenda 2010 and calls for a contribution-based unemployment benefit and a related restriction of the low-wage sector .
The NPD sees companies as having a social obligation within a (new) solidarity-based economic order. State intervention is intended to protect small and medium-sized companies on or from the global market. According to the will of the NPD, monopolies are to be suppressed and public services of general interest are to remain completely in state hands. The NPD is directed against speculation in the financial markets and demands u. a. a ban on hedge funds .
According to Fabian Fischer, the NPD was not an anti-capitalist party for most of its history. It was only under the aegis of Udo Voigt and Jürgen Gansel that anti-capitalist patterns of interpretation increased and with it an ideological reorientation of the party.
Constitutional evaluation of the content by the Federal Constitutional Court
In the course of the prohibition proceedings, the Federal Constitutional Court issued a negative judgment, which resulted from the lack of probability of the party's success in achieving its goals. The goals pursued by the party, however, were classified as unconstitutional. In particular, it is judged that the aim of the NPD is to eliminate the free, democratic basic order of Germany and that the NPD represents an image of man that violates human dignity, since the policy "focuses on the exclusion, contempt and largely defying social groups ( Foreigners, migrants, religious and other minorities) ". The NPD also disregards the basic order from a democratic point of view. Overall, there is a "kinship" with National Socialism , which z. B. results from the glorification of Nazi leadership figures and from anti-Semitic statements.
In November 2006, the so-called "Dresden School" was presented for the first time at an NPD press conference in the Saxon state parliament . This is intended to serve as a “ think tank ” for the NPD and sees itself as a contrast to the Frankfurt School around Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno . It "declares the political war on the multiculturalists and indigenous peoples " in order to establish a revisionist understanding of history that should make it possible to let the Germans recover mentally as a "guilt complex-laden people". The political scientist Richard Stöss describes this approach - like other attempts to intellectualize the extreme right (e.g. Thule seminar ) - as "ultimately failed."
Relationship to the comradeships
For some time, groups that were strictly Nazi-minded kept their distance from the NPD because it seemed too bourgeois to them. On the other hand, at the NPD party congress in Leinefelde, Thuringia in October 2004, the militant neo-Nazi Thorsten Heise, who had several criminal records, was elected to the NPD federal executive committee. This again shows the party's connections with the so-called “ free comradeships ”. The NPD hopes, with the help of Heise, to be able to include around 170 free comradeships, to which around 3000 members are assigned, in their political work in the long term.
According to the 2004 report for the protection of the constitution , a rapprochement between the NPD and stronger national extremist forces has been observed since the beginning of the same year. With its concept of a “German Popular Front”, the party had become the center of unification efforts in the right-wing extremist camp. In an interview with the newspaper Junge Freiheit in 2004, the then federal chairman Udo Voigt formulated this goal as follows: “Of course, National Socialism is still a trend in Germany today. It is not relevant for the NPD, but we are trying to integrate the National Socialist currents alongside the National Liberals and National Conservatives, since delimitation only helps the political opponent. "
Numerous members of the forbidden, violent comradeship Skinheads Saxon Switzerland are now active in the NPD, including the former head of the group, Thomas Sattelberg, who was convicted of founding a criminal organization, and another convicted co-founder, Thomas Rackow.
|vice-chairman||Thorsten Heise , Udo Voigt , Ronny Zasowk|
|Federal head of organization||Sebastian Schmidtke|
|Further members of the executive committee||Klaus Beier (Federal Managing Director and Press Spokesman), Alexander Neidlein (General Secretary), Peter Richter (Legal Office), Peter Schreiber (Public Relations)|
|Assessor||Daniel Lachmann , Stefan Lux, Ricarda Riefling , Sascha Roßmüller , Ingo Helge, Ariane Meise, Axel Michaelis, Mark Proch, Paul Rzehaczek|
|Members by virtue of office||Hartmut Krien (Chairman of the KPV), Antje Menzel (Chairman RNF)|
|State chairmen without voting rights||Claus Cremer , Manfred Dammann, Horst Görmann, Peter Marx , Andreas Käfer, Janus Nowak, Ingo Stawitz , Henry Lippold, Lennart Schwarzbach , Patrick Weber, Markus Walter|
Data from the regional associations
The party is organized in all 16 federal states.
||Number of members||Result of the last election of the state parliament||Result of the 2017 federal election|
|Baden-Württemberg||Janus Nowak||390||0.4% ( 2016 )||0.3%|
|Bavaria||Sascha Rossmüller||700||not run ( 2018 )||0.3%|
|Berlin||Andreas Beetle||230||0.6% ( 2016 )||not started|
|Brandenburg||Klaus Beier||290||not started ( 2019 )||0.9%|
|Bremen||Horst Goermann||25th||not started ( 2019 )||0.3%|
|Hamburg||Lennart Schwarzbach||100||not started ( 2020 )||0.2%|
|Hesse||Daniel Lachmann||250||0.2% ( 2018 )||0.4%|
|Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania||Stefan Köster||340||3.0% ( 2016 )||1.1%|
|Lower Saxony||Manfred Dammann||350||not run ( 2017 )||0.3%|
|North Rhine-Westphalia||Claus Cremer||450||0.3% ( 2017 )||0.2%|
|Rhineland-Palatinate||Markus Walter||200||0.5% ( 2016 )||0.3%|
|Saarland||Peter Marx||100||0.7% ( 2017 )||0.5%|
|Saxony||Peter Schreiber||400||0.6% ( 2019 )||1.1%|
|Saxony-Anhalt||Henry Lippold||220||1.9% ( 2016 )||0.8%|
|Schleswig-Holstein||Ingo Stawitz||125||not run ( 2017 )||0.2%|
|Thuringia||Patrick Weber||220||0.5% ( 2019 )||1.2%|
The youth organization of the party are the Young Nationalists , which has around 350 members. The NPD is the only right-wing extremist party in Germany that has its own youth organization. The JN are an integral part of the NPD and anchored there in their statutes. Holger Apfel , the then national chairman of the JN, declared at the JN state congress in Baden-Württemberg in 1998 that “only the Wehrmacht and the soldiers of the Waffen SS ” counted as role models for the JN . The current chairman is Paul Rzehaczek . The federal chairman of the JN is by virtue of his office a member of the party's federal executive committee.
From the 1960s to the 90s, the NPD's university organization was the National Democratic University Association . Today the JN sub-organization National Education Group is responsible for the university policy of the NPD.
In mid-September 2006 the NPD founded the Ring Nationaler Frauen (RNF), a nationwide women's organization. As an NPD sub-organization, this should “serve as a mouthpiece for women in the NPD” and also be a point of contact for “nationally thinking, non-party women”. The federal chairwoman has been Antje Mentzel since the end of May 2017 .
Local Political Association
The NPD's Local Political Association (KPV) was founded in 2003. It brings together the party's MPs in the local parliaments, gathers their experience and coordinates their activities. It is an integral part of the NPD and anchored there in its statutes. According to their self-image, their goals are to collect municipal electoral successes and to defend and expand existing mandates. It also represents the interests of the elected representatives within the party. The chairman of the KPV is the Dresden city councilor Hartmut Krien . By virtue of his office he is a member of the National Board of the NPD.
Press organ and other party newspapers
The NPD has had various newspapers in its history. The official press organ was initially the German news . After a merger with Deutsche Wochen-Zeitung (DWZ) , bought in 1986 by the publisher and DVU chairman Gerhard Frey , it was renamed Deutsche Wochen-Zeitung - Deutscher Anzeiger . In 1999 it was merged with the National-Zeitung , also published by Frey .
The party's current press organ is the German Voice , which has appeared since 1976 and currently has a monthly circulation of 10,000. There are also regional and local publications such as the Saxony Voice .
|NPD income in 2013||EUR||proportion of|
|Donations from natural persons||803,057.16||26.98%|
|Income from events, distribution of pamphlets and
publications and other income-related activities
|Mandate holder contributions and similar regular contributions||110,758.21||3.72%|
|Donations from legal entities||909.00||0.03%|
|Income from other property||604.45||0.02%|
|Income from business activities and investments||0||0.00%|
The party assets of the NPD are only small. At the end of 2005, real estate worth around 700,000 euros faced a loan, guarantee and credit burden of around one million euros.
The NPD has a 100 percent stake in the German Voice Publishing Company in Riesa . The publisher, originally based in Bavaria, publishes the NPD newspaper Deutsche Voice as its main product .
The party is dependent on donations due to its limited financial reserves. Your premium income is only half a million euros. She receives around one million through donations and mandate contributions . In 2005 the party received seven donations of more than 10,000 euros, mainly from its own MPs.
At the end of 2006 it became known that the Bundestag administration is demanding back around 870,000 euros in political party funding from the NPD, since in the Thuringia regional association in the years after 1996 a large number of false donation receipts were issued, a. has led to higher party funding. In 1997, these irregularities accounted for six percent of the party's total donation, and in 1998 ten percent. For this reason, the Bundestag administration regards the annual reports for the years in question as being largely incorrect, which leads to a complete reclamation of all party funding for these years. As a result of this financial misery, the party has already dismissed ten of the twelve employees of the federal office. In addition, it has been reported that large parts of the NPD's real estate assets are already encumbered with mortgages and thus may not be available as collateral for further payment of the party financing.
Due to the inaccuracies it criticized in the NPD's annual reports for 1997, 1998 and 1999, the Bundestag administration only allocates funds for state party financing in return for security deposits. A constitutional complaint filed by lawyer Jürgen Rieger for the NPD because of an alleged violation of their rights according to Art. 3 Para. 3 and Art. 21 of the Basic Law was not accepted for decision by the Federal Constitutional Court on October 8, 2007 due to inadmissibility. The court found that the complainant had not exhausted her legal remedies in the previous administrative court proceedings. Furthermore, it should not be overlooked that the payments made only to a limited extent since the fourth quarter of 2006 in the context of party financing could lead to financial difficulties for her, but without (unsuccessful) explanations of the further financial position of the NPD, their claims in this regard could not be made as necessary Dimensions can be traced.
On February 7, 2008, the NPD Federal Headquarters in Berlin and the “German Voice” publishing house in Riesa were searched by the public prosecutor's office and the criminal police. The background to the raid was a procedure for breach of trust at the expense of the NPD against the federal treasurer Erwin Kemna . In this case, an arrest warrant issued by the Münster District Court was executed. Since the beginning of 2004, Kemna is said to have diverted around 627,000 euros from the NPD to his kitchen company in at least 65 cases.
In a judgment of May 20, 2008, the competent Berlin Administrative Court ruled that the Bundestag administration's reclaim of EUR 869,353.89 was lawful. The accounts of the NPD in the years 1997 and 1998 would be inaccurate in essential respects, since these donations would have wrongly shown a considerable amount. The NPD therefore lost all of its entitlement to partial state funding in 1998 and 1999.
Real estate assets
In 2005, the real estate assets of the NPD consisted of the federal office in Berlin-Köpenick - the Carl-Arthur-Bühring-Haus, a gift from a son of the architect Carl James Bühring - and of two undeveloped properties in Derschen .
The NPD acquires real estate for its own use. In one case in Meßstetten in Baden-Württemberg, due to the high bid and the subsequent withdrawal, it was speculated that it was a sham sale to initiate a preventive purchase by a third party. However, there are also real estate purchases, especially in regions in which the NPD has a certain influx, for example a building as a clubhouse in Eisenach , which the city could not prevent. The NPD receives property inheritances from deceased supporters on a regular basis.
Founding and moving into state parliaments (1964–1967)
The NPD was founded on November 28, 1964 and essentially emerged from the German Reich Party (DRP) (1950–1965). But members and later functionaries of the NPD also came from other parties and groups, such as the German Party (DP) and several small groups such as the Fatherland Union . The former national liberal wing of the FDP also provided some NPD functionaries, for example the later Hessian NPD state chairman Heinrich Fassbender , who in the meantime had newly founded the DNVP . The four MPs elected for the DP in the Bremen citizenship also took part in the founding of the party, which means that the NPD was already represented in a state parliament at the time it was founded. The member of parliament Friedrich Thielen became the first national chairman of the NPD. In an interview with Der Spiegel , he distanced himself from National Socialism and when asked whether a Jew could become a member of the NPD, he replied: “Certainly. Anyone can become a member, regardless of whether they are Christian, Muslim or Jewish. He must be a good German . "
As early as the 1965 federal election , the party won 2.0 percent. A year later, the NPD succeeded in entering the state parliaments of Hesse and Bavaria. In 1967 she moved into the state parliaments of Bremen, Rhineland-Palatinate, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein. Decisive reasons for the NPD's electoral successes during this time were, among other things, that from mid-1966 the first economic recession after the years of the so-called economic miracle and thus an economic crisis occurred. In addition, a grand coalition ruled in the federal government from 1966 to 1969 : society became partially polarized. On the one hand, the left - wing extra-parliamentary opposition was active; on the other, former conservatives were radicalized or reactionaries and neo-Nazis reappeared. They were either disappointed with the Union or had supported the national liberal wing of the FDP. The FDP, however, had partially reoriented itself in 1968 with the transition from Mende to Scheel . Many observers compared the current economic and political situation with the Great Depression of the 1930s and the resulting election successes of the NSDAP. Sometimes there was even fear of the end of the Federal Republic.
On May 9, 1967, Thielen resigned from his position as federal chairman and left the party. The reason was massive tensions in the leadership between the old DRP members (especially Adolf von Thadden and Otto Hess ) and the group around Friedrich Thielen. The occasion was the election of Adolf von Thadden on February 5, 1967 as Lower Saxony's state chairman, contrary to the previous agreement with Thielen. Subsequently, on March 10, 1967, Friedrich Thielen excluded Adolf von Thadden, Otto Hess and the six Lower Saxon officials Wolf Dietrich Kauffmann, Heinz Rudolph , Ekkehard Stuhldreher , Hermann Ebeling , Helmut Koch and Hans Jähde from the NPD. On the same evening, the regional association of Bremen ordered Thielen to be excluded from the party. On March 11, 1967, the party executive annulled all party exclusions and elected Wilhelm Gutmann as interim chairman. After several legal proceedings, Thielen finally gave up. He then tried in vain to reactivate the DP. His successor was Thadden from Lower Saxony. At the same time, a party program was adopted that was nationalist and revisionist.
In the Baden-Wuerttemberg state election on April 28, 1968 , the NPD succeeded in moving into the state parliament with 9.8 percent, which was the party’s most successful result so far in a national election in the Federal Republic. The information on the number of members at that time fluctuates. The number of members rose rapidly up to 1969, but fell again in the following years. Most figures assume 28,000 supporters in 1969, some sources report up to 50,000 members in 1969. During this time, the party also joined prominent figures; including the rower and Olympic champion Frank Schepke and the physicist and rocket pioneer Hermann Oberth . The majority of the NPD voters at that time were medium-sized; Lawyers and medical professionals were also represented above average among the supporters compared to other parties. Contemporary surveys show that several positions of the NPD, such as the view that National Socialism had "its good sides" and that "at least order and cleanliness" prevailed at the time, were also shared by a majority of the voters of the parties represented in the Bundestag. The same applied to the demand for the reintroduction of the death penalty, although the support for this was even slightly higher among CDU and FDP voters.
In 1966, the grand coalition of the Union and the SPD originally agreed to introduce majority voting. This was a demand made by the Union, which promised greater electoral success. For the SPD it was partly attractive because in this way the NPD could be defended from the parliaments. In fact, it was generally assumed at the time that the party would make the leap into the Bundestag in 1969. Finally, however, the SPD party congress of 1968 postponed the introduction of a new right to vote until later. In the SPD, there were fears that majority voting would result in a structural majority in the Union.
The major parties, associations, trade unions and numerous private initiatives began increasingly to fight the NPD. Leading SPD politicians and trade unions have tried since 1967 to win the federal government over to an NPD ban application, whereas the CDU and CSU favored a political dispute with the party. In the spring of 1968 it became known that the Federal Interior Minister Ernst Benda (CDU) had collected incriminating material for an application for a ban. The legal opinion he commissioned named as possible reasons for prohibition that the NPD was far removed from the idea of international understanding, that state rights and the exercise of state power were given absolute priority over civil rights, that the Federal President should be given almost dictatorial powers and that racist ideas were circulating within the party. Their party program at the time, however, offered hardly any legal points of attack. She openly committed to the free and democratic basic order , but called for a federal president directly elected by the people with far-reaching powers and the introduction of referendums at the federal level. She justified this with the thesis that real democracy had never been realized in the Federal Republic, "because the masses of the people naturally lacked the knowledge required to govern, the overview of political events and the necessary prudence," which is why this, in indirect democracy of the Federal Republic, are at the mercy of professional parliamentarians who are viewed by the party as remote from the people. Therefore, she advocated a mixture of direct democracy and greater state leadership powers. The party's “Political Lexicon”, which was largely written by the journalist Dieter Vollmer, offered a particularly high number of points of attack because it used a language reminiscent of National Socialism and fundamentally refused to mix up “ human races ”. The “racial principle” was also referred to as the “key to world history” based on a quote from the British statesman Benjamin Disraeli , and a conscious “racial policy” was called for. According to an assessment by the CDU-affiliated Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung at the time, the lexicon testifies to a "right-wing, anti-parliamentary and anti-liberal ideology" which, since it is "not only represented by right-wing groups", "but also among right-wing conservative politicians from other parties" that all the more must be countered by “targeted political public relations”. The demand of the NPD for referendums and the direct election of the Federal President is also a “demand for the elimination of the current stability of democracy in the Federal Republic”, since this could have been achieved by dispensing with such direct democratic elements. In addition, she accused the party of destroying the liberal character of the statutory pension insurance by calling for a minimum pension and thus wanting to open up the “path to a totalitarian pension system”, since this would devalue the benefit-relatedness of the personal pension amount. However, the federal government waived the ban application because, among other things, the incriminating material collected by Benda was insufficiently valid, a ban procedure would not have come about before the 1969 elections and it was feared that the party could be strengthened by a failed ban application.
However, the high in Baden-Württemberg also meant a radical change: In the next three and a half decades, the NPD was no longer able to cross the five percent hurdle above the municipal level , for example when it failed to enter the German Bundestag in the year 1969 with just 4.3 percent. The party then got into wing battles and, as a result, in a steady downward spiral.
At the federal party conference in 1971 in Holzminden , the then federal chairman Adolf von Thadden did not stand for election and was replaced by Martin Mußgnug , who continued von Thadden's national-conservative course. Von Thadden had called the party "impracticable" after militant groups had gained significant influence in the party. The NPD was unable to re-enter any state parliament or, in some cases, did not even run for elections, for example in 1972 in Baden-Württemberg, the last state parliament in which it was still represented. The NPD justified its approach with the fact that it did not endanger a possible absolute majority in the CDU and wanted to ensure that the Eastern Treaties did not receive a majority in the Federal Council. In the early federal election in 1972 , the NPD only received 0.6 percent of the vote.
In the years that followed, the NPD no longer had any domestic political significance in the 1970s and 1980s. In the late 1970s, the party often did not stand for election at all. When the right-wing extremist association Deutsche Volksunion e. V. (DVU) of the publisher Gerhard Frey converted into a party in 1987, the NPD entered into electoral alliances with the DVU from then on. Due to a peculiarity in Bremen's electoral law, the DVU succeeded in moving into the local citizenship with one member. In return, however, the NPD only managed to achieve a significant result in the state elections in Baden-Württemberg in 1988 with 2.1 percent. Mußgnug, the then national chairman of the NPD, also came under increasing criticism for his national-conservative course. In 1990 he and other party officials tried to gradually dissolve the NPD in favor of the German Alliance they founded, later the German League for People and Homeland (DLVH) , but this failed. Mußgnug was then deposed as party leader and resigned from the NPD. He then tried to turn the DLVH into a reservoir for disappointed former members of various right-wing parties, which also failed.
Ideological radicalization (1991–1996)
After Mußgnug, Walter Bachmann was acting federal chairman for three quarters of a year. On August 8, 1991, the former deputy federal chairman Günter Deckert , who had since left the party and had only recently become a party member again, became the new federal chairman of the NPD. Deckert undertook a substantive and strategic repositioning of the party by openly anchoring National Socialist elements in the NPD and publicly denying the Holocaust . He was then in 1992, by a large Criminal Court of Mannheim, for sedition sentenced to one year suspended sentence and a fine of $ 10,000, he whereas revision lodged, which, with the result that the conviction was overturned in March 1994 by the Federal Court because, according to this, the offense of sedition through Holocaust denial has not yet been sufficiently fulfilled. This decision was viewed as a scandal by the German public and the Central Council of Jews called for a change in the law that makes Holocaust denial a criminal offense. The federal government responded to this demand by expanding the offense of sedition to include denial of the Holocaust on December 1, 1994, so that in 1995 Deckert could be sentenced to imprisonment.
Despite the emerging right-wing extremism in the early 1990s and the emerging asylum debate , the NPD was unable to convert these two factors into electoral successes because it was unable to break through the right-wing hegemony of Republicans and DVU that was ruling at the time . The alliance with the DVU, which has been practiced since the late 1980s, did not bring the NPD any electoral successes, unlike its ally; In the 1991 parliamentary elections in Bremen, in which the DVU moved into the local parliament with 6.2 percent and six members, there were, however, two NPD members among the newly elected members ( Karl-Heinz Vorsatz and Hans-Otto Weidenbach ) who ran for candidates on the DVU lists there and became members of the DVU parliamentary group. While intent, who was already a member of the NPD from 1967 to 1971, died in 1992, Weidenbach joined the DVU during the legislative period. At about the same time, the alliance with the DVU disintegrated, as personal resistance to DVU chairman Frey had increased in the NPD.
Consolidation and election successes in East Germany (1996-2008)
Although Deckert could not be present at the federal party congress on March 23, 1996 in Bad Dürkheim due to his imprisonment , he again stood there for the post of federal chairman, but was defeated by Udo Voigt with 86:88 votes , who thus became his successor. In the following years, Deckert tried to recapture the office, but Voigt was able to prevail with a clear majority.
Voigt continued on the course of strategic repositioning and tried to strengthen the party's links with neo-Nazi groups. For this, he repealed all incompatibility resolutions of the NPD. As a result, elements of “ national socialism ” gained in importance, although this was not expressed in the program. It should also be noted that the NPD has made some cross-front attempts .
The prohibition proceedings initiated by the Federal Government , Bundestag and Bundesrat in 2001 before the Federal Constitutional Court failed in 2003 due to procedural errors. According to the blocking minority of the constitutional judges, the procedural obstacle was the penetration of the NPD by V-persons of the constitution protection . Due to the fact that essential quotes incriminating the party came from employees of the Office for the Protection of the Constitution, who in particular had almost dominated the North Rhine-Westphalian state association of the NPD in the leadership, this procedure was finally discontinued. However, the termination of the proceedings for the formal reasons mentioned did not rule out a later prohibition procedure and did not certify that the party was in compliance with the constitution.
In June 2004 the NPD achieved notable successes in the European and local elections in Saxony . In the state elections in Saarland on September 5, 2004, the NPD achieved four percent. In the state elections in Saxony on September 19, 2004 , the NPD was finally able to move into a state parliament for the first time since 1968. She received 9.2 percent of the vote. The parliamentary group leader was Holger Apfel. In addition to its opposition to Hartz IV , one reason for the party's success was that it was the only right-wing extremist party to run. In an agreement with the DVU , the two parties agreed that in the state elections taking place in Brandenburg and Saxony at the same time, the NPD would only run in Saxony and the DVU only in Brandenburg in order not to compete with each other. The REP did not run in this state election because their state chairman Kerstin Lorenz, contrary to the instructions of the federal executive committee, did not submit the necessary documents for participation in the election. Lorenz joined the NPD the day before the election.
In certain regions of East Saxony, especially in Saxon Switzerland , the NPD achieved up to 20 percent of the votes cast in some small towns. The NPD achieved a disproportionate share of the vote, especially in the group of 18 to 24-year-old male first-time voters.
After the NPD moved into the Saxon state parliament , the majority of the remaining MPs tried to isolate the NPD parliamentary group . However, Uwe Leichsenring , member of the state parliament , who was nominated by the NPD as a candidate for the election of the prime minister, received two votes more than the NPD had seats. The NPD candidate also received two more votes in the election of the foreigners commissioner. The assumption was that the dissenters could have been CDU MPs who wanted to demonstrate their rejection of Prime Minister Georg Milbradt .
In October 2004, the NPD and DVU announced in the so-called “ Germany Pact ” that they would no longer run against each other in any future elections. Both the NPD and the DVU had individually appealed to Republicans to work with them. The leadership of the Republicans refused to work with the NPD, which is why members of the REP converted to the NPD in a number of times. At the beginning of 2005, for example, the Hamburg regional executive board of the REP switched to the NPD.
In the state elections in Schleswig-Holstein and North Rhine-Westphalia in 2005, only the NPD competed, where it did not go beyond results of 1.9 percent (Schleswig-Holstein) and 0.9 percent (North Rhine-Westphalia). In the 2005 Bundestag elections , the NPD and DVU formed an alliance in which DVU candidates stood on the NPD's lists and in which the NPD achieved its best Bundestag election result since 1969 with 1.6 percent. The Dresden NPD candidate Kerstin Lorenz died a few days before the general election after a stroke that she suffered during an NPD election campaign. Therefore, a by-election had to take place in this constituency , in which the NPD nominated the former REP federal chairman Schönhuber as a substitute candidate, although he was not a member of the NPD.
In September 2006 the NPD achieved 7.3 percent of the vote in the state elections in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and was thus able to move into another state parliament. Udo Pastörs took over the chairmanship of the parliamentary group .
The NPD had around 7,200 party members in 2007 and was therefore considered to be the group with the largest number of members on the right.
In May 2008, the Berlin Administrative Court rejected a lawsuit by the party following irregularities in party financing and confirmed the repayment of a sum of almost 870,000 euros to the Bundestag administration, which it had received as state party financing at the end of the 1990s.
The NPD excluded several journalists from the ARD at their federal party conference in Bamberg at the end of May 2008 because, in their opinion, they cling to the “anti-democratic fantasies of the FRG authorities”. Independent observers also expected fierce controversy due to the unsuccessful elections in the western federal states, the unresolved party funding, the question of violence and the continued existence of the "Germany Pact". There were also disputes about the relationship with party-affiliated organizations such as the “ Autonomous Nationalists ”. Voigt was confirmed as chairman with 199 votes.
An attempted murder of the head of the Passau police force, Alois Mannichl in front of his house in Fürstenzell , sparked a new debate in December 2008 about the ban on the NPD. The reason for this was a testimony of the perpetrator attested to by the victim during the attack, which referred to the funeral of the NPD member Friedhelm Busse , at which Thomas Wulff had unveiled a war flag with a swastika on his coffin. Mannichl had the grave reopened and the flag confiscated. Since several high NPD functionaries were also present, the perpetrator was suspected to be in the party's environment . However, other possible groups of perpetrators were soon taken into account in the investigation, as there were no further indications of a right-wing extremist act.
Financing gap and renewed ban action (2009-2017)
In April 2009 the Bundestag administration imposed a fine of 1.7 million euros on the NPD due to serious deficiencies in the statement of accounts for 2007. Udo Pastörs , NPD parliamentary group leader in the state parliament of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, spoke of an “existential crisis” in connection with the party's financial problems. One day after the million dollar fine was announced, the NPD's treasurer filed a voluntary disclosure . Also in 2006 there were irregularities in the NPD's balance sheet amounting to 900,000 euros.
In May 2009, interior ministers and interior senators from some federal states presented documentation on the NPD and its activities, which (according to the information provided by these interior ministers) was created without the intervention of informants. This documentation is intended to prepare another complaint for unconstitutionality and prohibition by the party. The opposition of the NPD and its supporters to the essential constitutional principles is not just part of a theoretically abstract dispute, but is expressed in the active fight against the constitutional order, according to the current documentation. “The NPD pursues its goals in a way that goes far beyond an original role as an electoral party in a democratic representative system. It is not about reforms that are common and necessary for political life, but systematically and continuously pursues the elimination of the free democratic basic order. This particularly applies to their relationship to violence. "
In the 2009 European elections , the NPD decided not to vote in favor of the DVU in accordance with the agreements made in the German Pact. After the result of 0.4%, however, the NPD announced the alliance and, contrary to previous agreements, it would run for the state elections in Thuringia and Brandenburg. In the state elections on August 30, 2009, the NPD Saxony had to accept a loss of votes, but again jumped the five percent hurdle required for entry into the state parliament . This is the first time the party has been able to return to a state parliament since it was founded. In Thuringia , the party failed despite clear gains in the vote at the 5 percent hurdle. During the election campaign, the party carried out a campaign that was also directed against individuals, for example in Thuringia against the CDU politician Zeca Schall and in Saxony against the SPD state parliament candidate Henning Homann . On the occasion of the attacks on Schall, the Bavarian Interior Minister Joachim Herrmann announced a new prohibition procedure for 2010. The NPD also failed on September 27, 2009 in the state elections in Brandenburg because of the 5 percent hurdle. In the Bundestag election that took place at the same time , the party achieved 1.5%.
The intention of federal chairman Udo Voigt to give the party a more modern image through a new program was highly controversial at the 2010 federal party conference in Bamberg. In particular, the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania regional association under Udo Pastörs and the Eichsfeld regional association under Thorsten Heise and Thomas Wulff presented their own draft programs that were directed against that of the federal executive committee and called for a radical and militant course on the part of the party.
In November and December 2010, respectively, party congresses of the NPD and DVU resolved to merge the parties, 95.2% of the members in the NPD's survey and around 87.5% of the members in the DVU's survey in favor of the merger. On December 29, 2010, the two party leaders Voigt and Faust signed the merger agreement. The party merged on January 1, 2011 is called National Democratic Party of Germany - Die Volksunion (NPD - Die Volksunion) . The merger was stopped by the Regional Court of Munich I in January 2011 as legally ineffective. The request from four regional associations of the DVU for an injunction was accepted because there were significant deficiencies in the ballot in the DVU. The four regional associations withdrew their lawsuit on May 26, 2012 and declared the DVU no longer to exist. Some of the functionaries called for support for the pro-movement , and a group led by Christian Worch founded the successor party, Dierechte . In August 2012, the Berlin Administrative Court ruled that the NPD is not the legal successor to the DVU.
In the state elections in Saxony-Anhalt in March 2011, described by the NPD state chairman Matthias Heyder as the “fateful choice for the entire national movement in Germany”, the right-wing extremist party failed with 4.6% of the vote at the 5 percent hurdle.
In 2012, research by the ARD policy magazine Report Mainz revealed that around 110 NPD officials and elected officials had committed or were accused of 120 crimes during the previous ten years. Around 35 belonged to a state or federal executive. Investigations, penalty orders and judgments were evaluated. The crimes included assault , deprivation of liberty , illegal possession of weapons and explosives, and robbery and extortion . Propaganda offenses were not counted . According to constitutional lawyer Jörn Ipsen , the violent crimes committed by functionaries in particular suggest that "these [...] are to a large extent attributable to the party".
In February 2013, the German Bundestag stopped its payments to the NPD as part of state party funding . A spokeswoman for the Bundestag justified this step with the fact that the party had not paid a fine of 1.27 million euros, which the Federal Administrative Court had sentenced it to due to incorrect information in the statement of accounts. The Bundestag also asked the state parliaments to withhold their payments. As a result, at the beginning of April 2013, the party had to announce the termination of their seven full-time employees at the party headquarters in Berlin, which should take effect two to three months later. According to the party, these terminations should be withdrawn if the financial situation has been clarified by then. In May 2013, the Federal Constitutional Court appealed to by the party decided that until a decision in the main proceedings at least the two advance payments due up to the Bundestag election in September 2013 should not be offset against the repayment claims, as otherwise the party's chances in the Bundestag elections would be "impermissibly reduced" would. Thus, the NPD will continue to receive state party support for the time being.
At the federal party conference in 2013 in Weinheim - Sulzbach (the start on April 20, Hitler's date of birth, was, according to the party, a "coincidence" because an appointment planned two weeks earlier at another location had to be canceled), which was almost completely shielded from the Took place in public, apple was re-elected party chairman against the opposing candidate Uwe Meenen with 122 of 172 votes cast.
In the run-up to the Hessian state elections in 2013 and the federal elections in 2013 , NPD election posters were removed by the city administrations in municipalities such as Hanau and Bad Hersfeld after a set deadline had passed. Inscriptions such as “Maria instead of Sharia ” or “Money for Grandma, instead of for Sinti and Roma ”, in the opinion of the municipalities, violate public security and order or constitute an act of sedition . After the party sued against this, local authorities were sometimes legally obliged to hang up the posters again, since, according to the Kassel Administrative Court, there are also conceivable possible interpretations that are “not punishable”. The appropriation of the Erzgebirge local poet Anton Günther by the Saxon NPD in the election campaign for the 2013 federal election was criticized by biographers, relatives of the poet and the Erzgebirgsverein . In addition, Helene Fischer's lawyers requested the Thuringian NPD to stop using the song “Atemlos” in the election campaign for the 2014 state elections in Thuringia . The band Wir sind Helden also obtained an injunction against the use of one of their songs by the NPD in the Thuringian state election campaign, for the same reason the Cologne band Höhner hired their lawyer to take legal action against the party. Manuela Schwesig said in an interview on the Thuringian state election campaign as follows: “The number one goal must be that the NPD does not make it into the state parliament.” A complaint by the NPD against Schwesig at the constitutional court for violating the party-political duty of neutrality failed. For the state elections in Saxony in 2014 , the party in Lusatia also turned to the Sorbian minority for the first time by using the slogan “Protect your home” in the Sorbian language and a horse decorated for the Sorbian custom of Easter riding as a motif in its election advertising.
At the end of December 2013 it became known that due to the party's ongoing financial difficulties, all full-time employees at the party headquarters in Berlin had received their notice, as the NPD could no longer guarantee that their salaries would be paid. At a crisis meeting in Frankfurt, it was also decided that after the resignation of party chairman Holger Apfel, Udo Pastörs should initially take over the chairmanship on a provisional basis. A new federal chairman should only be officially appointed in late summer 2014. In fact, on January 10, 2014, Udo Pastörs was elected as the new chairman by the NPD board in Dresden.
In June 2014 NDR Info reported that the party's entire (non-full-time) employees dismissed her Berlin party headquarters, since that time as collateral for a loan Juergen Rieger in these flared and now after repayment of returned the loan mortgage letter is untraceable . This letter could have been offered to the Bundestag administration as security for outstanding claims in order to receive part of the party funding.
At the federal party conference in Weinheim on November 1, 2014, Frank Franz was elected as the new party chairman. He prevailed against the Saarland regional chief Peter Marx and Sigrid Schüßler from Bavaria.
A second prohibition procedure against the NPD initiated by the federal states was rejected as unfounded by the Federal Constitutional Court on January 17, 2017, because the party is anti-constitutional, but currently does not pose a threat to the free democratic basic order. At the 2017 federal party conference in Saarbrücken on March 11, the previous party chairman Frank Franz was re-elected with a clear majority in a vote against Thorsten Heise, who represented a more radical line.
In the 2017 federal election campaign , the party used a picture of the reformer Martin Luther on one of its election posters with the inscription “I would vote for the NPD. I couldn't help it. ”, Which met with heavy criticism. The Luther Memorials Foundation in Saxony-Anhalt then announced an action for cease and desist due to copyright infringement on the picture and also sent an out-of-court request for cease and desist to the party. However, both the request and the announcement had no consequences, and the party used the picture for the 2019 European elections again for election campaign purposes.
Development since 2018
At the beginning of 2018, the NPD deputy and Thuringian state chairman Thorsten Heise initiated the “Völkischer Flügel” campaign, which, according to its own definition, is a “nationalist and völkisch- oriented alliance within the NPD”, “which also involves cross-party cooperation with other like-minded organizations and people. ”In the proclamation published on January 30th (the anniversary of the National Socialist“ seizure of power ”), the aim is to align the NPD as a party of“ ethnic Germans ”with the“ true image of man ”. According to the Frankfurter Rundschau , possible addressees are the free comradeship scene and neo-Nazi parties such as Der III. Way or The Right . The aim is to shape the NPD "into a real world-view organization and movement [...] instead of leaving it to [...] system-savvy political jugglers." The goal is to make the party a pool of radical forces that are "long-term, timeless and as possible existential campaigns and topics in the struggle for survival of our people ”. According to observers, this is aimed at further radicalization, with which the first signatories (in addition to Heise, two other board members and six chairmen of West German regional associations) want to distance themselves from the line of the federal board in the internal power struggle.
In July 2018, the party called for the formation of vigilante groups nationwide in social networks and on a website. A picture published by the Berlin state chairman Andreas Käfer on Facebook showed an NPD vigilante group in Berlin. The accompanying slogan is "creating protection zones", an abbreviation loud taz not accidental SS . The newspaper evaluates this action as an attempt "by an NPD made superfluous by the AfD " to win back attention. Already in June, a YouTube video by the NPD press organ German Voice showed NPD members on patrol in a Berlin S-Bahn . The concept, which copied the anti-racist action Noteingang , also provides facilities that are supposed to give Germans refuge from supposed “imported crime” on the part of migrants, against which the state cannot or does not want to protect, according to the NPD. The Berlin police could not see any criminal acts in the video, but emphasized that they strictly reject civil defense structures. The S-Bahn Berlin also distanced itself from the video and confirmed that DB Sicherheit and the Federal Police would investigate such information. In addition, since the video was made without a filming permit, it violated the house rules.
In November 2018, the NPD federal party conference took place in Büdingen, Hesse (where the NPD achieved ten percent in the Hessian municipal elections in 2016 - the AfD did not run there). The chairman Franz announced that they only wanted to run in local elections in West Germany. One will profile oneself more strongly as a "world view party". Around 300 people demonstrated against the event. The city had tried to deny the party the hall and failed in court.
After the Administrative Court of Mainz and the Higher Administrative Court of Koblenz had given the ZDF right, which had rejected a European election commercial for the NPD, the Federal Constitutional Court also ruled in favor of the station at the end of April 2019 after an urgent motion by the party. The spot claimed that Germans have been "victims of foreign knife men almost every day" since 2015 "and the uncontrolled mass immigration since then". It is therefore important "to act to create protection zones for our security". The Koblenz Higher Administrative Court had already determined that the contribution made “foreigners living in Germany maliciously contemptuous in a way that attacks their human dignity and is likely to disturb the public peace”. The Berlin Administrative Court also rejected a lawsuit by the NPD at the beginning of May 2019 after the RBB , which is acting on behalf of the ARD in campaigning for the European elections, refused to broadcast an election commercial. In the grounds of the court it was said that the NPD was attacking the migrants and thus part of the population "by presenting those affected as unworthy and unworthy of the citizens' respect for reprehensible reasons". This election campaign alleges that migrants are generally socially intolerable behaviors and characteristics. Unlike the ZDF, the RBB was obliged by the Federal Constitutional Court to broadcast the spot. In contrast to the first version available to ZDF, the revised version omitted the term foreign knife men and blood was no longer shown. The court now found that the only threats mentioned here were the opening of the border and the alleged mass immigration, which, however, did not constitute an attack on human dignity.
At the beginning of December 2019, considerations on the part of the NPD became known to change the party name. A decision on this should be made on March 31, 2020 at the federal party conference.
In a text published on the Federal Party's homepage in March 2020, “ Corona proves: Globalization is extremely dangerous!”, A national economy was propagated as a counter-concept.
At the state level, the NPD was represented in up to seven state parliaments of the Federal Republic of Germany between the late 1960s and the early 1970s . In 2004 she was elected to the Saxon state parliament. She was always in the opposition because she couldn't raise her own majority and no other party wanted to form a coalition with her. The NPD was therefore not yet involved in a government at any political level (compare Political System of the Federal Republic of Germany ) .
Between 2006 and 2016 the NPD was represented in the state parliament of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . After the result of 6.0% in the state elections on September 4, 2011, the NPD provided a parliamentary group of five members in the state parliament. This parliamentary group was entitled to group funds totaling 600,000 euros annually.
In the context of the demonstrations around the G8 summit in Heiligendamm in 2007 there were indications that the NPD parliamentary group was active as a notifier of meetings. In two cases she was considered by the Higher Administrative Court as the applicant with regard to the demonstrations in question and the related litigation. As a result, the SPD parliamentary group chairman raised the charge in a state parliament session in June 2007 that the NPD parliamentary group had used parliamentary group funds in this matter in an inadmissible manner and, at the same time, operated illegal party funding together with the party . The NPD parliamentary group denied this allegation. The responsible president of the state parliament of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania handed over the collected documents on possible violations of the NPD parliamentary group against the party law on June 18, 2007 in Düsseldorf to the Bundestag president responsible for matters of party financing together with a request for examination. On September 4, 2007, the President of the Bundestag stated that for the time being there were no investigations against the NPD for illegal party funding, as the Saarland Court of Auditors had not yet provided any indications of the inappropriate use of parliamentary group funds.
Today the NPD is represented with around 360 seats in the municipal parliaments of 14 countries (all except Bavaria and Hamburg). She holds most of the political mandates in Saxony , where she has been represented in all district assemblies and several municipal councils (above all in Saxon Switzerland ) since the local elections in 2008 and has a total of 74 mandates.
At the federal party conference in 1996, a so-called “three-pillar concept” was adopted, which includes the “fight for the streets”, the “fight for parliaments” and the “fight for heads”. Due to this strategy, the NPD is also very active at the extra-parliamentary level and, for example, very often initiates demonstrations and other extra-parliamentary activities. It is not uncommon for these undertakings to result in media reports about NPD members who are prepared to use violence.
A practical example of how the NPD linked the “struggle for the street” with the “struggle for parliaments” was given during the municipal elections in Brandenburg in 2008. Alexander Bode, the main perpetrator of the hunt in Guben , in 1999 a 28-year-old died, both for the election to the Guben city council and for the district council in the Spree-Neisse district for the NPD.
In August 2009, the ARD magazine fact reported that the NPD was calling on its members to run for lay judges and thus to influence the jurisprudence in order, for example, to enforce higher sentences for foreigners. According to the report, the party had succeeded in placing a district council candidate in the Riesa district court as a lay judge.
The association Bildungswerk für Heimat und national identity , founded in 2005, serves as a party-affiliated foundation for the Saxon state association of the party.
The NPD is a member of the Alliance for Peace and Freedom and maintains contacts with other radical and extremist parties. But only a few of them are successful in elections. Only the Hungarian Jobbik and the Greek Chrysi Avgi are or were represented in national parliaments. Until the Crimean crisis , the NPD maintained contacts with Ukrainian nationalists such as the UNA-UNSO or the Svoboda party , but these are now considered tense. Since then, the NPD has tried to maintain a good relationship with Russia .
Some civil society alliances have emerged against the NPD . So reports about the NPD's blog , one of Patrick Gensing supervised since 2005 Watch blog regularly critical of activities of the NPD. The NPD ban now campaign has launched a Germany-wide signature campaign to campaign for a ban on the NPD. 175,445 signatures were collected. The campaign received prominent support from Hannelore Elsner , Frank Werneke and the executive committee of 1. FC Nürnberg .
The satirical association Front Deutscher Äpfel has been taking up various organizational features and behavior of the NPD across Germany since 2004 and parodies them.
In addition, numerous citizens' initiatives are active against the activities of the NPD. As staged as the "Action Group for Goerlitz" to the Saxony state election, 2009 media attention the installation of 600 billboards with the inscription "Goerlitz says No! to the NPD ”. The facade of the party headquarters in Berlin-Köpenick has been the target of paint attacks and political graffiti several times since the NPD moved into the building and is therefore guarded by the police.
The information and participation campaign Endstation Rechts , as an initiative of the Jusos in the SPD, is a daily updated information portal and provides information about right-wing extremist and right-wing conservative developments in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Saxony . The aim is to prevent the NPD from re-entering the parliaments of both federal states. Endstation Rechts founded the fashion label Storch Heinar as a satirical confrontation with the clothing brand Thor Steinar , which is particularly popular in the right-wing extremist scene . Thereupon Thor Steinar led a legal dispute against Mathias Brodkorb , one of the initiators of the projects Endstation Rechts and Storch Heinar. Thor Steinar lost the trial in 2010 in the so-called "Nuremberg Fashion Criminal Trial".
In 2001, the federal government under Gerhard Schröder submitted an application to the Federal Constitutional Court with the aim of having the NPD banned because it was unconstitutional; The Bundestag and Bundesrat introduced their own bans. The Federal Constitutional Court closed the proceedings on March 18, 2003 for procedural reasons after it became known that V-people of the constitution protection were active in the ranks of the NPD . The constitutionality of the party was not checked.
As a result, the question of a possible ban on the NPD was discussed controversially in politics. The Bavarian Interior Minister Joachim Herrmann (politician, 1956) announced a new ban procedure in September 2009 in cooperation with the Prime Ministers of the SPD- governed federal states and contrary to the opinion of Interior Minister Wolfgang Schäuble . He commented on his plan with the words: "Bavaria does not want to watch the activities of the NPD until these constitutional enemies have established themselves in the republic."
In 2012, the CDU and CSU-led federal states decided that they were now ready to withdraw the “V-people” from the party, which makes a new trial more likely. The interior ministers of the federal states as well as the interior ministers of the federal government decided to press ahead with the ban procedure.
In the course of the public debate about a ban on the NPD, the latter brought an organ charge before the Federal Constitutional Court, in which it requested "to determine that the applicant is not unconstitutional within the meaning of Article 21 (2) of the Basic Law". This and other petitions by the NPD on the matter were rejected in the decision of the 2nd Senate of the Federal Constitutional Court of February 20, 2013 (2 BvE 11/12).
The starting point of the argument of the Federal Constitutional Court was its view that political parties are "free to exercise their rights" as long as the Federal Constitutional Court has not determined that they are unconstitutional, and therefore "must not be hindered by administrative intervention based on the assertion of their unconstitutionality" .
Furthermore, the Federal Constitutional Court ruled that political parties "in accordance with their task of participating in the formation of the political will of the people (Art. 21.1 sentence 1 GG), the public debate" and: "Part of the public debate are statements to assess a political party as unconstitutional, provided they comply with the law. Such statements can and must be countered by the party concerned by means of an opinion struggle. "
After the beginning of a ban proceedings against the NPD failed in 2003, a new round of banning the party began in 2015, and the first three days of negotiations by the Federal Constitutional Court took place in March 2016 . On January 17, 2017, the application was rejected by the Federal Constitutional Court as unfounded. The NPD is anti-constitutional, but currently no threat to the free and democratic basic order.
|Bundestag election results|
|year||Number of votes||Share of votes||Mandates|
|1994||n / A.||n / A.||-|
European election results
|European election results|
|year||Number of votes||Share of votes||Mandates|
|1979||n / A||n / A||-|
|1989||n / A||n / A||-|
|2009||n / A||n / A||-|
- Note: The 2014 European elections were the first European elections in which there was no longer a threshold clause in Germany after the Federal Constitutional Court declared the three percent hurdle and previously the five percent hurdle to be inadmissible. A move into the EU Parliament was already possible with around 0.5% of the vote, Udo Voigt was elected. The same regulation applied in 2019, but the NPD did not receive enough votes to move in again.
|State election results 1965 to 1989 (in percent)|
|1965||n / A|
|1966||7.4||3.9||7.9||n / A|
|1967||n / A||8.8||7.0||6.9||5.8|
|1971||n / A||2.8||2.7||1.3|
|1972||n / A|
|1975||n / A||1.1||0.4||1.1||0.7||0.5|
|1979||n / A||0.4||0.7||0.2|
|1980||0.1||n / A||n / A|
|1981||n / A|
|1982||0.6||n / A||n / A||n / A|
|1983||n / A||n / A||0.1||n / A|
|1984||n / A|
|1985||n / A||n / A||0.7|
|1986||0.5||n / A||n / A|
|1987||n / A||n / A||n / A||0.8||n / A|
|1989||n / A|
|State election results from 1990 (in percent)|
|1990||n / A||n / A||0.1||0.2||0.2||0.0||0.2||0.7||0.1||0.2|
|1991||n / A||n / A||n / A||n / A|
|1992||0.9||n / A|
|1993||n / A|
|1994||0.1||n / A||0.1||0.2||n / A||n / A||n / A||n / A|
|1995||n / A||0.1||0.3||n / A|
|1996||n / A||0.4||n / A|
|1998||0.2||1.1||n / A||n / A|
|1999||0.8||0.7||0.3||0.2||n / A||1.4||0.2|
|2001||0.2||0.9||n / A||0.5|
|2002||0.8||n / A|
|2003||n / A||n / A||n / A||n / A|
|2004||n / A||0.3||4.0||9.2||1.6|
|2006||0.7||2.6||7.3||1.2||n / A|
|2007||n / A|
|2008||1.2||n / A||0.9||1.5|
|2017||n / A||0.3||0.7||n / A|
|2018||n / A||0.2|
|2019||n / A||n / A||0.6||0.5|
|Entry into the state parliament|
|highest result in the individual federal states, without entering the state parliament|
|na : not started|
- From 2004 to 2009 the Germany Pact was in effect between the NPD and DVU. Therefore, the NPD did not take part in the states of Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg and Saxony-Anhalt. In Thuringia a waiver by the NPD was also planned, but the agreement was reversed here. As of the state elections in Brandenburg in 2009, the German Pact has been revoked.
Federal chairperson and honorary chairperson
|Surname||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires|
|Adolf von Thadden||1967||1971|
|Surname||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires|
|Walter Bachmann||1991||† March 1, 2002|
|November 28, 1964||Hanover (founding meeting)|
|1.||7th-9th May 1965||Hanover|
|2.||17th-19th June 1966||Karlsruhe|
|3.||10-12 November 1967||Hanover|
|22nd February 1969||Schwabach (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|4th||13-15 February 1970||Wertheim|
|5.||19. – 21. November 1971||Holzminden|
|6th||October 21, 1972||Dusseldorf|
|7th||12-14 October 1973||Dusseldorf|
|8th.||12./13. October 1974||Munich|
|9.||18./19. October 1975||Ketch|
|10.||November 14, 1976||Frankfurt am Main|
|11.||26./27. March 1977||Hanover|
|12.||18./19. November 1978||Arolsen|
|13.||8/9 December 1979||Ketch|
|14th||22./23. November 1980||augsburg|
|15th||24./25. October 1981||Völklingen|
|16.||26./27. June 1982||Germersheim|
|17th||1./2. October 1983||Fallingbostel|
|18th||3rd / 4th November 1984||Munich|
|19th||14./15. September 1985||Neustadt an der Weinstrasse|
|20th||8/9 November 1986||Willingen|
|21st||13-15 November 1987||Uehlfeld and Höchstadt|
|June 26, 1988||Feucht (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|22nd||11./12. February 1989||Rahden|
|23.||19./20. May 1990||Helmstedt|
|October 7, 1990||Erfurt (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|24.||8/9 June 1991||Herzogenaurach|
|25th||August 18, 1993||Coppenbrugge|
|January 15, 1994||Ehringshausen (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|26th||10/11 June 1995||Arnstorf|
|23/24 March 1996||Bad Dürkheim (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|7th / 8th December 1996||Ohrel (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|27.||10/11 November 1998||Stavenhagen|
|28.||23/24 January 1999||Mulda|
|29||18./19. March 2000||Mühlhausen (Upper Palatinate)|
|16./17. March 2002||Königslutter|
|3rd / 4th October 2003||Saarbrücken (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|29./30. October 2004||Leinefelde|
|31.||11./12. November 2006||Berlin|
|32.||24./25. May 2008||Bamberg|
|4th / 5th April 2009||Berlin|
|4th / 5th June 2010||Bamberg (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|November 6, 2010||Hohenmölsen (Extraordinary Federal Party Congress)|
|12./13. November 2011||Neuruppin|
|33.||26./27. May 2012||Bamberg|
|34.||20./21. April 2013||Weinheim|
|35.||1./2. November 2014||Weinheim|
|36.||21./22. November 2015||Weinheim|
|37.||11./12. March 2017||Saarbrücken|
|38.||November 30th / December 1st, 2019||Riesa|
- Category: NPD member
- " National Liberated Zone " ( Unword of the year 2000)
- Right-wing extremist networks
- Robert Ackermann: Why the NPD cannot be successful - organization, program and communication of a right-wing extremist party. Budrich, Opladen 2012, ISBN 978-3-86388-012-5 .
- Marc Brandstetter: The "new" NPD: Between hostility to the system and a bourgeois facade . Party monitor from the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung . Bonn 2012; kas.de (PDF)
- Marc Brandstetter: The NPD under Udo Voigt. Organization. Ideology. Strategy (= extremism and democracy . Vol. 25). Nomos Verlag, Baden-Baden 2013, ISBN 978-3-383-29708-3 .
- Jan-Ole Prasse: The NPD's brief soaring. Right-wing extremist electoral successes in the 1960s. Tectum-Verlag, Marburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8288-2282-5 .
- Christoph Ruf, Olaf Sundermeyer: In the NPD: Travel to the National Liberated Zone. Munich 2009.
- Robert Philippsberg: The NPD Strategy: Regional Implementation in East and West Germany. Baden-Baden 2009.
- Armin Pfahl-Traughber : The “second spring” of the NPD: Development, ideology, organization and strategy of a right-wing extremist party . Policy Future Forum, Vol. 92, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, 2008
- Fabian Virchow, Christian Dornbusch (Ed.): 88 questions and answers about the NPD. Worldview, strategy and appearance of a right-wing party - and what democrats can do about it. Wochenschau-Verlag, Schwalbach / Taunus 2008, ISBN 978-3-89974-365-4 .
- apabiz e. V .: The NPD - A handout on the program, structure, staff and background. Second, updated edition. 2008. (online) (PDF; 671 kB)
- Uwe Backes and Henrik Steglich (eds.): The NPD: Success conditions of a right-wing extremist party. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2007, ISBN 978-3-8329-3122-3 .
- Marc Brandstetter: The NPD in the 21st century: an analysis of its current situation, its conditions for success and prospects. Marburg 2006.
- Toralf Staud : Modern Nazis. The new right and the rise of the NPD. Cologne 2005, ISBN 3-462-03638-6 ; netz-gegen-nazis.de (PDF; 1.4 MB)
- Martin Dietzsch : On the recent development of the NPD. In: Heiko Kauffmann, Helmut Kellershohn, Jobst Paul (eds.): Völkische Bande. Decadence and Rebirth - Analyzes of Right Ideology. Münster 2005, ISBN 3-89771-737-9 .
- Heinz Lynen von Berg, Hans-Jochen Tschiche (Hrsg.): NPD - Challenge for Democracy? Metropol, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-932482-53-0 .
- Uwe Hoffmann: The NPD. Development, ideology and structure. Frankfurt 1999, ISBN 3-631-35439-8 .
- Fred H. Richards: The NPD - Alternative or Return? Munich 1967.
- Yves Müller: »Fascist Basic Structure«. Lutz Niethammer's Analysis of the Extreme Right (1969) . In: Zeithistorische Forschungen 16 (2019), pp. 197–205.
- Official website
- Current party program (PDF)
- Dossier on the NPD ban by the Federal Agency for Civic Education from October / November 2013.
- Dossier on the NPD of Spiegel
- ↑ Der Tagesspiegel: Number of right-wing extremists rises by a third , published on December 16, 2019
- ↑ General overview of the determination of state funds for 2018 (PDF), as of April 15, 2019
- ↑ n.v. (2008): Between embarrassing and outrageous. Debate about NPD prohibition proceedings, in tagesschau online: tagesschau.de ( Memento from December 2, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ According to Peter Marx (see Federal Agency for Civic Education )
- ↑ Uwe Jun : Small parties on the rise: to change the German party landscape . Campus-Verlag , 2006, p. 226
- ↑ Steffen Kailitz : The National Socialist Ideology of the NPD. In: Uwe Backes , Henrik Steglich (ed.): The NPD. Conditions for success of a right-wing extremist party, Baden-Baden 2007, pp. 337–354. “The NPD is by no means just a party that builds bridges across the National Socialist spectrum, it is itself an originally National Socialist party. […] Above all, the classification does not mean that there are no significant differences between the historical NSDAP and the NPD. ”P. 337, Kailitz tries to prove in his article that“ […] NPD and NSDAP prove to be closely related parties in terms of program [...]. "P. 337. In his conclusion he does not confirm this literally, but it comes to the conclusion:" The ideology propagated by the NPD can be described as a National Socialist variant of völkisch thought. It shows an ideological cohesion that goes well beyond the variant of National Socialism propagated by the NSDAP. ”, P. 352.
- ↑ australiafirstparty.net
- ↑ Monika Pilath: Federal Constitutional Court: NPD is not prohibited . Zeit Online , January 17, 2017, accessed September 5, 2017.
- ↑ Fabian Virchow: What does the NPD think? bpb, accessed March 9, 2020 .
- ↑ a b c d Report on the Protection of the Constitution 2012 ( Memento from December 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ; PDF) Editor: Federal Ministry of the Interior, as of September 2013, pp. 79–98.
- ^ On the dissecting table: The NPD basic program , on netz-gegen-nazis.de
- ^ Office for the Protection of the Constitution of Saxony
- ↑ Political Lexicon - npd-niedersachsen.de ( Memento from December 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Patrick Gensing : What exactly is right-wing extremism? tagesschau.de, April 28, 2013
- ↑ Mathias Brodkorb : “Between Hitlerism and Ethnopluralism. A slightly different view of German right-wing extremism. ”In: Hartmut Brenneisen, Dirk Staack, Susanne Kischewski (ed.): 60 Years of the Basic Law. (Vol. 6) LIT Verlag, Münster 2010, pp. 257 ff. ISBN 978-3-643-10636-0
- ↑ Party program of the NPD ( Memento from February 6, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
- ↑ Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution “Situation Report Antisemitism” (July 2020), p. 25 f.
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report Bavaria 2018, p. 111
- ↑ npd.de ( Memento from September 8, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
- ^ The NPD party program. ( Memento from July 17, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (denktag-archiv.de)
- ↑ npd.de: Topic Interior (accessed on November 25, 2014)
- ↑ Toralf Staud: Brown Green. Well camouflaged to catch votes. as well as Nils M. Franke: The Neobiota discussion as a gateway for right-wing extremists. Against the foreign, not just in the garden. In: Ecology from the right. Brown environmentalists to catch votes . oekom-Verlag, Munich 2012, pp. 18 ff. and 78 ff.
- ↑ Bavaria: NPD attacks gays , on queer.de
- ↑ Annett Meiritz: Protocols of the NPD hate speech: Brown rabble in parliament. In: Spiegel Online . December 11, 2012, accessed October 7, 2018 .
- ↑ a b Patrick Gensing: Federal states present documentation: The NPD actively fights the constitutional order. (No longer available online.) In: tagesschau.de. May 4, 2009, archived from the original on May 5, 2009 ; Retrieved May 4, 2009 .
- ^ Steffen Kailitz: Proud Constitutional Enemies - The NPD: Parliamentary work with National Socialist programs ; November 7, 2005
- ↑ a b c What is the NPD's position on the Basic Law? ( Memento from October 23, 2014 in the web archive archive.today )
- ^ NPD on the "Nuremberg War Guilt Lie " ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ NPD: "Why we don't go to Auschwitz"; January 10, 2006
- ^ Plenary minutes of the Saxon state parliament of the 8th session of the 4th electoral term; January 21, 2005 ( Memento from January 31, 2012 in the Internet Archive ; PDF; 470 kB)
- ^ After an uproar in the Saxon state parliament, the public prosecutor's office does not investigate the NPD . ( Memento from December 2, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau Online
- ↑ taz: "The silence of men"; August 1, 2005
- ^ Lars Rensmann : Democracy and the image of the Jews: Anti-Semitism in the political culture of the Federal Republic of Germany . VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2004, ISBN 978-3-531-14006-3 , Chapter 6: Political anti-Semitism of the extreme right and in the extreme left , p. 259 ff .
- ↑ Fabian Fischer: The constructed danger. Enemy images in political extremism . 1st edition. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2018, p. 213 ff .
- ↑ No ban on the NPD due to a lack of evidence for a successful implementation of its anti-constitutional goals.Press release of the Federal Constitutional Court: January 17, 2017.
- ↑ Nature and intentions of the "Dresden School" . npd.de; Declaration by the Saxon NPD member of the state parliament, Jürgen Gansel, dated May 3, 2005
- ↑ Interview with sueddeutsche.de , May 24, 2008.
- ↑ taz: “NPD is bringing home hit neo-Nazis”; December 27, 2004
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report 2005 ( Memento from September 29, 2007 in the Internet Archive ; PDF)
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report BW 2004 ( Memento from December 2, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Ex-Skinheads in the NPD - From thugs to squads Spiegel online, November 25, 2011
- ^ People - National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD). Retrieved January 14, 2020 (German).
- ↑ Overview of the board members, statutes and program of the NPD. ( Memento from June 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ; PDF; 1.9 MB)
- ^ State elections in Germany. election.de
- ↑ Overview of the elections since 1946 on wahl.tagesschau.de. (Old versions: Landtag elections and Bundesrat. ( Memento from August 5, 2012 in the Internet Archive )) stat.tagesschau.de
- ↑ 2017 Bundestag election . Final result. (No longer available online.) Federal Returning Officer , archived from the original on November 24, 2017 ; accessed on May 1, 2020 .
- ↑ npd.de
- ↑ Baden-Württemberg Constitutional Protection Report 2016 (PDF; 3.8 MB)
- ^ Regional Association of Bavaria. Retrieved January 14, 2020 .
- ↑ Constitutional Protection Report Bavaria 2016 (PDF; 3.6 MB)
- ↑ Constitutional Protection Report Berlin 2016 (PDF; 6.2 MB)
- ↑ Brandenburg Constitutional Protection Report 2015 (PDF)
- ↑ Constitutional Protection Report Free Hanseatic City of Bremen 2015 (PDF; 3.4 MB)
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report Hamburg 2015, page 157 ( Memento from August 22, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report Hesse 2015, page 36 (PDF)
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2015, page 20
- ^ Lower Saxony Ministry of the Interior and Sport - Publications
- ↑ Protection of the Constitution of North Rhine-Westphalia (PDF)
- ^ Right-wing extremist parties. (PDF) Ministry of the Interior of Rhineland-Palatinate - Protection of the Constitution
- ↑ own information on the state election 2012
- ^ Peter Schreiber: Peter Schreiber takes over state chairmanship of the Saxon NPD. NPD Saxony, September 25, 2019, accessed on January 14, 2020 .
- ↑ Sächsischer Verfassungsschutzbericht 2017. (PDF) In: verfassungsschutz.sachsen.de. State Ministry of the Inner Free State of Saxony, 2017, accessed on November 1, 2018 .
- ^ People - National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD). Retrieved January 14, 2020 (German).
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report Saxony-Anhalt 2016 (PDF), p. 22.
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report Schleswig-Holstein 2016 (PDF)
- ↑ State Board. In: NPD - Regional Association of Thuringia. November 25, 2018, accessed on January 14, 2020 (German).
- ↑ Constitutional Protection Report Thuringia 2014/2015 (PDF) p. 23.
- ^ Anne Longrich, Michael Bergmann: One year NPD in the Saxon state parliament . dash.org, February 17, 2006
- ↑ Facts and arguments on the NPD ban, Part 3: "Free comradeships, other neo-Nazis and NPD / JN" ( Memento from September 7, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) haGalil.com
- ↑ people. National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD), accessed on January 14, 2020 .
- ↑ Mitteldeutsche Zeitung: "NPD women establish a network in Saxony-Anhalt"
- ↑ apabiz.de - Profile: Local Political Association (KPV) of the NPD
- ^ Website of the local political association
- ↑ a b c Bundestag printed matter 16/5230: Statutory reports of political parties 2005 (PDF; 29.4 MB)
- ↑ Bundestag wants 870,000 euros back from NPD (tagesschau.de archive) tagesschau.de (2006)
- ↑ German Bundestag: NPD receives advance payment only against security. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on April 23, 2007 ; accessed on February 28, 2015 .
- ↑ Patrick Gensing: NPD leadership alone at home. Clear cut after donation affair . (tagesschau.de archive) tagesschau.de (2006)
- ↑ Raid on NPD headquarters - treasurer arrested . Spiegel Online , February 7, 2008
- ↑ tagesschau.de ( Memento from December 2, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Treasurer for infidelity in custody, Party on the Abyss ( Memento of February 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), redok of February 7, 2008
- ↑ Senate Department for Justice, Berlin: NPD has to repay state funds , May 20, 2008
- ↑ Linderhof
- ↑ A businessman from Dannenberg bequeathed his fortune to the NPD. November 7, 2017, accessed January 14, 2020 .
- ^ Horst W. Schmollinger, Richard Stöss, The parties and the press of the parties and trade unions in the Federal Republic of Germany 1945–1974 , Westdeutscher Verlag 1975, p. 187
- ↑ If Germany's Chancellor Thielen were called… In: Der Spiegel . No. 15 , 1966 ( online ).
- ^ Wotan's voters . In: Der Spiegel . No. 15 , 1966 ( online ).
- ↑ Harald Schmid: “You can vote again!” Rise and fall of the NPD 1964-1969 . In: Germany Archive . tape 40 , q, 2007, p. , Pp. 122-130 .
- ↑ a b c hdg.de
- ↑ Uwe Hoffmann: The NPD - Development, Ideology and Structure. Frankfurt a. M. 1999, p. 87 ff.
- ^ NPD: German news . In: Der Spiegel . No. 12 , 1967 ( online ).
- ^ O. V .: The first appearance of the NPD in the 1960s and its status today
- ↑ Stefan Mannes: The NPD in the 60's history and ideology. (No longer available online.) In: shoa.de. 2005, archived from the original on December 4, 2008 ; accessed on January 9, 2017 .
- ^ History and development of the NPD. (No longer available online.) In: verassungsschutz.niedersachsen.de. Archived from the original on May 3, 2009 ; accessed on January 9, 2017 .
- ↑ a b c NPD voters: own value . In: Der Spiegel . No. 52 , 1968 ( online ).
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i Stefan Mannes: The NPD in the 60's history and ideology . Shoa.de, 2005.
- ↑ Bernhard Gebauer (ed.), Analyzes and documents on the discussion with the NPD, Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, 1969, p. 13.
- ↑ Gebauer (Ed.), Analyzes and Documents on the Confrontation with the NPD, p. 17.
- ↑ Gebauer (Ed.), Analyzes and Documents on the Confrontation with the NPD, p. 20.
- ↑ A party moves into the Bremen citizenship even if it overcomes the five percent hurdle in only one of the two cities - Bremen or (in this specific case) Bremerhaven.
- ↑ terra.es: Leaders of Germany
- ↑ From the grounds of the Mannheim judgment against Günter Deckert in: Die Zeit, August 19, 1994.
- ^ Jews demand a change in the law in: FAZ, March 21, 1994.
- ↑ Toralf Staud : Bald with parting , Zeit Online , December 16, 2004.
- ↑ http://www.nadir.org/nadir/periodika/jungle_world/_2002/40/12b.htm ( Memento from November 8, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ BVerfG, 2 BvB 1/01 of March 18, 2003: Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court on the 2003 NPD ban
- ↑ Olaf Meyer: Right structure east - NPD in the Saxon state parliament . In: Telepolis , September 20, 2004
- ^ Süddeutsche Zeitung: "Saxony - The humiliating choice of Georg Milbradt", November 10, 2004
- ↑ see e.g. B. No brown popular front! rep.de ( Memento of August 15, 2007 in the Internet Archive ; PDF) The republicans believe that the "option of rapprochement or cooperation with the NPD does not exist at all for republicans", since the NPD's goals are overthrow and revolution while the Republicans subscribe to the Basic Law and the Constitution.
- ↑ Thorsten Stegemann: Stumbling blocks on the way to the fourth empire . Telepolis , November 6, 2004
- ^ National Fraud , Die Zeit, February 7, 2008
- ↑ NPD has to repay state subsidies , Spiegel Online from May 20, 2008
- ↑ NPD bans unwelcome journalists from Spiegel Online from May 23, 2008
- ↑ Lousy record puts NPD boss in distress , Spiegel Online from May 23, 2008
- ↑ Wing fights and mud battles . ( Memento from December 2, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau, May 24, 2008
- ↑ Financial affair divides NPD . ( Memento from September 15, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau, May 24, 2008
- ↑ New debate on NPD ban , Focus from December 15, 2008.
- ↑ Justice has swastika flag fetched from fresh grave , Spiegel Online from July 30, 2008
- ↑ Protection of the Constitution: No evidence of a right-wing attack on Mannichl ( memento from January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), Die Zeit from January 10, 2009
- ↑ NPD to pay a fine of millions, bankruptcy threatens , Spiegel Online , April 2, 2009
- ^ NPD is sinking into financial chaos , Mitteldeutsche Zeitung , April 2, 2009
- ^ Bernhard Honnigfort: Saxony's NPD sticks more posters than the SPD and the Left , Badische Zeitung , August 20, 2009
- ↑ Dagmar Dehmer: Zeca Schall: Be ready for everything , Tagesspiegel , August 17, 2009
- ↑ The new course divides the NPD Die Zeit from June 5, 2010
- ↑ Say goodbye as you say goodbye: DVU decides on its own end
- ↑ tagesschau.de Merger with reservation ( Memento from December 31, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Merger of DVU and NPD is legally ineffective Tagesspiegel of January 27, 2011
- ↑ Party funding: NPD is not the legal successor to DVU . German Bundestag
- ↑ NPD in Saxony-Anhalt - bankruptcy in the choice of fate Spiegel Online on March 21, 2011
- ↑ Over 120 criminal proceedings in the past 10 years. swr.de, March 6, 2012
- ↑ Dispute over a fine of millions: Bundestag stops all payments to the NPD. Spiegel Online , February 23, 2013, accessed February 24, 2013 .
- ↑ No money for the NPD. the daily newspaper , February 23, 2013, accessed on February 24, 2013 .
- ^ Lack of money: NPD resigns from all employees at the Berlin party headquarters. faz.net, April 4, 2013.
- ↑ Judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court: Bundestag has to pay out money to NPD . Spiegel Online , May 14, 2013
- ↑ Tanjev Schultz: Party leader Apple survives the rebellion . sueddeutsche.de, April 20, 2013
- ↑ Cities remove NPD posters. fr-online.de, September 6, 2013, accessed on September 7, 2013.
- ↑ Christina Hebel, Dietmar Hipp: The terrible lawyer . In: Der Spiegel . No. 8 , 2014, p. 50 ( online ).
- ↑ How the NPD is catching votes with Anton Günther. Freiepresse.de, September 6, 2013.
- ↑ Pop star Helene Fischer takes action against NPD. endstation-rechts.de, August 16, 2014
- ↑ Hit abuse: We are heroes fight back against NPD. spiegel.de, September 1, 2014
- ↑ Cologne band Höhner wants to take action against NPD. spiegel.de, September 7, 2014
- ^ Judgment of the Constitutional Court: NPD fails with muzzle demand for Schwesig , Spiegel Online, December 16, 2014
- ^ Tilman Steffen: The AfD is pressing the NPD in the east . Zeit Online , August 13, 2014
- ↑ Stefan Schölermann: NPD headquarters quit employees. ( Memento from December 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) tagesschau.de, December 23, 2013
- ↑ Christina Hebel: Right-wing extremists in crisis: Hardliner Pastörs is the new NPD boss. spiegel.de, January 10, 2014
- ↑ Stefan Schölermann: Paper messed up, jobs gone. ( Memento from June 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) tagesschau.de, June 1, 2014
- ↑ New NPD boss Frank Franz: Pastörs' legacy prevails . Spiegel Online, November 1, 2014, accessed on the same day
- ↑ Press release of the Federal Constitutional Court No. 4/2017 of January 17, 2017
- ↑ a b Federal Constitutional Court: NPD is not prohibited. Die Zeit , January 17, 2017, accessed on January 17, 2017 .
- ↑ Frank Franz remains NPD boss. Spiegel Online, March 12, 2017
- ↑ Luther Foundation defends itself against NPD posters. ( Memento from October 6, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) mdr.de, September 14, 2017
- ↑ FOCUS Online: Lutherstadt Wittenberg: Election campaign with Cranach portrait: Brown Luther annoyed foundation. Retrieved July 11, 2019 .
- ^ Power struggle in the NPD. Frankfurter Rundschau , February 28, 2018
- ^ Constitutional Protection Report Bavaria 2018, p. 142
- ^ Vigilante of the NPD: Right, two, three, four! taz , July 15, 2018
- ↑ Martin Steinhagen: NPD positions itself for the European election campaign. Frankfurter Rundschau , November 18, 2018
- ↑ Kurt Sagatz: "Suitable to disturb the public peace": Federal Constitutional Court stops NPD election advertising. tagesspiegel.de, April 28, 2019
- ↑ Joachim Huber: Decision of the Berlin Administrative Court: ARD does not have to broadcast NPD election advertising. tagesspiegel.de, May 3, 2019
- ↑ Gigi Deppe: Federal Constitutional Court: NPD election commercial must be broadcast. tagesschau.de, May 15, 2019
- ^ Right-wing extremism: NPD wants to rename itself. tagesschau.de , December 4, 2019, accessed December 5, 2019 .
- ↑ Lucius Teidelbaum: Right reactions to Corona . hagalil.com, March 24, 2020
- ↑ Local parliaments : NPD represented in 14 of 16 countries ( Memento from January 13, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), on NPD.BLOG-INFO
- ↑ Brown traveling preacher at the KPV of the NPD ( Memento from January 27, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), on NPD.BLOG-INFO
- ↑ tagesschau.de
- ^ The National Democratic Party of Germany. ( Memento from August 29, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Verassungsschutzgegenrechtsextremismus.de
- ↑ Violent offenders as candidates? Election campaign of the NPD in Schleswig-Holstein . NDR, January 6, 2004
- ^ Convicted violent offender running for elections , Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (rbb), September 5, 2008
- ↑ Local elections in Brandenburg: Hetzer von Guben wants to join the city parliament for the NPD . Spiegel Online , September 25, 2008; accessed on July 18, 2018
- ↑ Fact: NPD is pushing for lay judges' offices ( Memento from August 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ NPD calls on members to run as lay judges . Focus Online , August 10, 2009
- ^ Robert Ackermann: Leader without a people. In: the daily newspaper, taz. August 23, 2012, accessed May 10, 2013 .
- ↑ The Crimean crisis divides Europe's nationalists ( Memento from August 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) on publikative.org
- ^ How Putin courted the right-wing parties in Germany ( Memento from August 11, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ NPD poster wave makes Poles and Germans angry Spiegel Online from August 21, 2009
- ↑ Swastikas sprayed on NPD headquarters , article in the Berliner Zeitung
- ↑ terminus Rechts.de: NPD Candidates: The men sect shall, after
- ↑ Stork Heinar
- ↑ Martin Otto: Antifascism can be so intelligent. In: FAZ online. August 11, 2010, accessed August 15, 2010 .
- ^ Victory for the satire stork in SPON; Retrieved April 20, 2012
- ↑ Storch heinar can make fun of Thor Steinar in RP Online; Retrieved April 20, 2012
- ↑ Bavaria wants to ban the NPD . Spiegel Online , September 10, 2009
- ↑ Bavaria provokes CDU protest . Spiegel Online , September 10, 2009
- ↑ The political long-running ban on the NPD. ( Memento from March 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau.de
- ↑ No more informers in the NPD leadership. ( Memento from March 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Tagesschau.de
- ↑ NPD has their loyalty to the constitution checked by a court . Spiegel Online , November 13, 2012
- ↑ BVerfG, 2 BvE 11/12 of February 20, 2013, paragraph no. (1–31)
- ↑ New main proceedings against the NPD opened at the Federal Constitutional Court in December 2015
- ↑ Press release of the Federal Constitutional Court No. 4/2017 of January 17, 2017
- ↑ Results of the Bundestag elections ( Memento of the original from July 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ↑ Results of the European elections ( Memento of the original from July 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- ^ Results of the state elections in Baden-Württemberg
- ^ Results of the state elections in Bavaria
- ↑ Results of the House of Representatives elections in Berlin (until 1989 West Berlin)
- ^ Results of the citizenship elections in Bremen
- ^ Results of the state elections in Hamburg
- ^ Results of the state elections in Hesse
- ^ Results of the state elections in Lower Saxony
- ^ Results of the state elections in North Rhine-Westphalia
- ^ Results of the state elections in Rhineland-Palatinate
- ^ Results of the state elections in Saarland
- ^ Results of the state elections in Schleswig-Holstein
- ^ Results of the state elections in Brandenburg
- ^ Results of the state elections in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania
- ^ Results of the state elections in Saxony
- ^ Results of the state elections in Saxony-Anhalt
- ^ Results of the state elections in Thuringia
- ↑ Marc Brandstetter: The self-tearing of the NPD . In: Blätter für German and international politics , 2/09, p. 15 ff.
- ↑ Klaus Beier: NPD Federal Party Congress 2019 in Riesa: Frank Franz remains party chairman and a concept for the future of the NPD is being developed - National Democratic Party of Germany (NPD). Retrieved January 14, 2020 (German).