History revisionism

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As historical revisionism is called attempts scientifically, politically and socially accepted view of history to revise that certain events significantly different from the current historiography presented, explained and / or interpreted.

In the German-speaking world, the term refers to deliberate and pseudoscientific historical falsifications . Proponents of these attempts often see themselves as "revisionists" and are also called that. However, the term revisionism originally comes from the history of German social democracy and the criticism of state socialism and is not limited to historical reinterpretation. In the English-speaking world, however, the term is used to reinterpret history on the basis of new empirical data.

Relationship to the science of history

In the German-speaking world, those authors are usually referred to as historical revisionists who try to shake a scientifically proven and thus currently valid historical image and to replace it in the long term in order to gain " interpretative sovereignty " over the past. In doing so, they usually combine their interpretation of history with certain political and ideological goals, even if they do not expressly name them. Since certain historically recognized facts stand in the way of these goals, history revisionists try to reinterpret them or to present them in turn as merely dominant political views. So you see a conflict between your political interests and historical facts.

History revisionists usually claim to scientifically review historical events and to evaluate them critically, as is the task of historical research in a discursive process. This includes the revision of historical perspectives through newly discovered facts according to critical rationalism . Research that initially represents a minority opinion in historical studies, which is then generally accepted on the basis of new, reliable findings, is not called historical revisionism or revisionism in the German-speaking world . Because representatives of revisionism do not as a rule strive for historical objectivity openly, but instead methodically resort to historical falsification or historical misrepresentation for their preconceived goal of attacking and replacing a recognized historical image as a whole.


In relation to German history , history revisionists try above all to reinterpret the causes, courses and consequences of both world wars. They regularly deny any particular responsibility of German governments for this and often re-establish claims on former German territories or great power ambitions. Many of them deny, play down and relativize the crimes of National Socialism and deny or relativize the Holocaust .

To the First World War

During the First World War , the beginning of the war was blamed on Germany's opponents in foreign policy, and the defeat of the war was deliberately blamed on democrats and Jews in domestic policy . The stab-in-the-back legend , which has been widespread since 1919, was intended to deny the actual causes of the war defeat and to revise its consequences: this was usually associated with the rejection of the Weimar Republic and the democratic control of the military and the judiciary .

The contract revisionism wanted in the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 demanded reparations revise and territorial concessions. This was a declared aim of German governments during the Weimar Republic. To this end, the state influenced the debate on the question of war guilt with the deliberate release of documents that exonerate Germany and withholding incriminating documents.

In a historians' dispute over the role of the USA in World War I, US historians Sidney B. Fay , Charles A. Beard and Harry Elmer Barnes attacked the historical image that had been valid in the USA since 1920, according to which the First World War was provoked by Germany during the USA contributed significantly to the end of the war and opened up opportunities for peace for Europe with the League of Nations . This internationalism of Woodrow Wilson was now a "continuation of imperialism judged by other means". Most US historians, on the other hand, had just assessed the US withdrawal from the Versailles negotiations as isolationism with negative consequences.

Barnes visited Germany in 1926 for a lecture tour and found enthusiastic approval for his denial of the German war guilt and his demand that the "shame" of the war guilt paragraph in the Versailles Treaty be lifted. He met with Wilhelm II , who, unlike Barnes, did not blame Great Britain and France , but " World Jewry " and the Freemasons for the outbreak of war in 1914.

The general belief that the Allies were guilty of war and that the German Empire was innocent of war was only gradually questioned and corrected after 1945. History revisionists, however, often fall back on propaganda from the Weimar period or come into contact with it in terms of content. For example, Otto Ernst Remer and Erich Kern tried to blame the collapse of the German Reich on the leaders of the workers' movement , who were portrayed as the "masterminds" of the November Revolution .

To World War II

Since the 1950s, some German authors have tried to rehabilitate National Socialism by denying or relativizing the war-mongering, war-inducing and war-waging policies of the Nazi regime. Hans Grimm undertook this with his books Die Erzbischofschrift. Answer from a German (1950) and why - where from - but where. Before, below and after the historical appearance of Hitler (1954).

Anneliese von Ribbentrop , the widow of Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop , who was executed in 1946, published records from his estate in 1954 under the title Between London and Moscow . In 1958 she published the book Conspiracy Against Peace . Both denied the fault of the government of Adolf Hitler on the Second World War .

In the early 1960s, the books by Erich Kern Von Versailles on Adolf Hitler appeared in quick succession . The terrible peace in Germany (1961), sacrifice of a people. Total War (1962), betrayal of Germany. Spies and saboteurs against their own fatherland (1963), Germany in the abyss (1963) and crimes against the German people (1964). In it, the author presented the Versailles Treaty of 1919 as the cause of National Socialism and the Second World War. For the German defeat in it, he blamed the internal German opponents of the Nazi regime, especially the Red Orchestra and the assassins of July 20, 1944 .

Harry Elmer Barnes advocated radical isolationism as early as the 1940s and accused Franklin Delano Roosevelt of having "lied" to the United States' entry into World War II. After 1945, Barnes gradually approached right-wing extremist positions by blaming the Allies and the "Zionists" for the Second World War and developing into a Holocaust denier. In the 1950s, Barnes was a patron of the young American revisionist historian David L. Hoggan .

In 1948 he had written a little-noticed dissertation on Polish-German relations on the eve of the Second World War, in which he attributed a peace-loving attitude to Hitler, acquitted Germany of its guilt for causing the Second World War and denied the persecution of the Jews and the Holocaust. In the book, Hoggan portrayed the British government and the Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Becks as warmongers. Barnes, who had met Hoggan, supported his views and prompted him to expand and sharpen his dissertation. Since no American or English publisher wanted to publish the book, it was brought out by the German Grabert Verlag . Grabert had the text translated and published in 1961 under the title The Forced War . The cost of this was funded with the help of Barnes. The systematic falsification and distortion of its sources was proven in the 1960s by Hermann Graml and other historians from the Institute for Contemporary History . Nevertheless, German and American right-wing extremists and Holocaust deniers continue to spread Hoggan's theses.

In the early 1970s, Heinz Roth self-published the series In Search of Truth with individual titles such as Why were we fathers criminals? "," What should we fathers have known? or what happened after 1945? In it, he quoted and commented on older historical revisionist literature, making it popular among right-wing extremists.

The Hitler biographer David Irving in his book Hitler's War (1977) denied Hitler's initiative during World War II and blamed Winston Churchill for the main blame. Since 1988 he has also become one of the most famous Holocaust deniers condemned in several European countries .

In many publications, Alfred Schickel blames US President Franklin D. Roosevelt primarily for the Second World War. In his quarantine speech on October 5, 1937, he had already called for the fascist and communist dictatorships to be isolated. It was only under his pressure that the British and French gave up their appeasement policy on March 31, 1939 in favor of a guarantee for Poland's borders. The Poles would have interpreted this as a “blank check” for anti-German “provocations”. They had also considered partitioning plans for Germany and planned to expel the Germans, as happened in 1945. On September 1, 1939, Hitler "forestalled" an impending Polish attack, but on October 5, 1939, he made a "generous offer of peace" to the Western powers. If they had accepted it, the Second World War would have been "avoidable".

In the wake of Ernst Nolte's theses , the former Hitler Youth leader and Wehrmacht officer Max Klüver published his book Preventive Strike 1941. On the prehistory of the Russian campaign in the publishing house of right-wing extremist Gert Sudholt . As a declared representative of “revisionism in contemporary history” (title of paper at the annual congress of the Society for Free Journalism in 1987), he also wrote about Roosevelt or Vansittart? On the war guilt debate of non-conformist historiography. His publications deny the German war guilt and claim with political one-sidedness and unscientific approach that Hitler was willing to peace, while his later opponents drove to war.

The historian Stefan Scheil also puts Hitler's policy of aggression into perspective. This is mostly justified with alleged western or eastern war plans, economic blackmail and provocations against the German Reich before 1939. Since 1998, the former lecturer at the University of the Bundeswehr in Munich , Franz W. Seidler , has published several books that justify the crimes of the Wehrmacht in Eastern Europe as objectively justified defensive measures against partisans . Seidler referred to Wehrmacht propaganda and published his theses in right-wing extremist magazines.

The former major general of the German Armed Forces Gerd Schultze-Rhonhof presented France and Great Britain in his work 1939. The war, which had many fathers as the real culprits in the Second World War, relied on the tracts of David Hoggan and Erich Kern, not on serious ones historical research literature. The historian Christian Hartmann attested Schultze-Rhonhof a "mixture of ignorance, prejudice and ignorance" and interpretations, "which are less in the field of research than in that of ideology and propaganda."

Attempts to relativize the German war guilt also find approval in the New Right .

"Jewish declarations of war"

The reinterpretation of the German war initiative to react to alleged war plans of others was the main motive of the Nazi propaganda . In particular, the assertion of a “Jewish declaration of war” served them to justify their policy of persecution and genocide . So they took an announced boycott call by some London traders as a welcome pretext for the boycott of Jews on April 1, 1933. An article in the British tabloid Daily Express on March 24, 1933 under the misleading headline Judea declares war on Germany (“Judea declares war on Germany “) Reported on a considered call for a boycott by British Jews against German goods and products, which their representatives, however, expressly rejected on March 27, 1933.

History revisionists also interpret a letter from Chaim Weizmann , the then chairman of the Jewish Agency , to British Prime Minister Arthur Neville Chamberlain as a Jewish declaration of war on September 2, 1939. In this letter , Weizmann assured the German attack on Poland that had begun the day before that all Jews would become England Side stand. Ernst Nolte also assessed this expression of solidarity, explicitly following David Irving, as a "declaration of war by the Jews" on the German Reich and presented the Nazi regime's escalating persecution of Jews at the beginning of the war as a "legitimate countermeasure".

Another thesis blames the British and American Jews for the conditions of the Versailles Treaty of 1919 and describes them as the cause of the rise of the National Socialists and thus of the Second World War. This was represented by the French Holocaust denier Paul Rassinier . In a similar way, the Nazi regime interpreted the Morgenthau plan for deindustrialization and demilitarization of Germany after it became known on September 21, 1944 as the “Judas murder plan” for “enslavement of Germany” in order to justify its perseverance propaganda.

Anti-Semitic historical revisionists in particular spread these and other theses in order to pursue perpetrator-victim reversal in the National Socialist tradition and to hold “the Jews” responsible for the Second World War and the Holocaust. The German crimes are supposed to be justified as pure defense and "self-defense" against a conspiracy of an alleged " world Jewry ".

Denial of the Holocaust

Holocaust denial is the main component and the most extreme form of historical revisionism since 1945. It comprises the denial of individual or several essential aspects of the Holocaust under the pretense of scientific working methods:

  • The estimated number of victims of around six million murdered Jews is usually reduced to a few hundred thousand.
  • Epidemics, epidemics, acts of war or individual unauthorized excesses of violence are alleged to be the causes of death; a systematic intention of the Nazi regime to exterminate is denied.
  • The use of poison gas and gas chambers in the extermination camps are either completely disputed or their purpose is reinterpreted: They were only built for pest control and were technically not suitable for killing people. This form of denial used to be misunderstood as the "Auschwitz lie".
  • The Nazi regime had neither intended nor planned the genocide of European Jews, and consequently neither initiated nor carried out it. The starting point for this is the claim that Adolf Hitler had ordered this genocide in writing in the Führer state and that this order should have been found.

Since the 1970s, Holocaust deniers have continued to develop their methods of falsifying history: Pure "experience reports" have been replaced by pseudoscientific publications issued as specialist literature. In order to exploit alleged or real contradictions in witness statements, scientific and technical “expert reports” were used. Institutes were set up to pass off their own forgeries as part of historical research. The different ways of arguing are essentially anti-Semitic: Jews are said to have invented the Holocaust in whole or in part in order to subjugate Germany and to squeeze it financially in favor of the State of Israel . To make this plausible, the Holocaust deniers are dependent on the conspiracy theory of world Jewry . The worldwide research results on the Holocaust, which leave no room for denial, are consequently traced back to a conspiratorial agreement and / or manipulative influence by “the Jews”. As a result, Holocaust deniers declare all essential documents of the Holocaust to be forgeries, such as the construction plans of the extermination camps, statements by camp commandant Rudolf Höß on the number of victims in Auschwitz-Birkenau , the only surviving minutes of the Wannsee Conference , Anne Frank's diary and others.

Centers of their own forgeries are for example the " Zeitgeschichtliche Forschungsstelle Ingolstadt " (ZFI; founded 1981), the Adelaide Institute in Australia , the Institute for Historical Review in California and the Institut Vrij Historisch Onderzoek (VHO) in Belgium . Internationally known Holocaust deniers include Harry Elmer Barnes , David Irving , Fred A. Leuchter , Germar Rudolf , Fredrick Toben and Ernst Zündel . Publications by history revisionists are in part observed by the Office for the Protection of the Constitution , some are prohibited.

Relativizing the Holocaust

The historian Ernst Nolte triggered a West German historians' dispute in 1986 : He interpreted the German war against the Soviet Union 1941–1945 as a preventive measure by the National Socialists against a war of the Soviet Union against Germany feared by them . He also interpreted the establishment of the National Socialist concentration and extermination camps as a reaction to Josef Stalin's gulags . In doing so, he shifted the focus from internal to non-German causes of war crimes and genocide during the Nazi era.

In his work The European Civil War , published in 1987, Nolte relativized the Holocaust in several ways:

  • The National Socialist goal of exterminating the Jews was, as a “punishment and preventive measure”, an “immediate consequence” of the ideological “postulate of class extermination” in the Soviet Union.
  • Anti-Semitism was an “exacerbation of anti-Bolshevism and especially anti-Marxism”, in which communists and Jews were equated.
  • The view of the Jews as a people, not as a denomination, is a consequence of the Jewish self-image: Zionism also regards the Jews as a people.
  • Accordingly, the politics of the people before 1939 should politically enforce this view. State measures such as the boycott of the Jews were a "form of class struggle and class expropriation". The Nuremberg Laws arose out of fear of “decomposition” or “poisoning” of their own people, who were considered to be of higher value.
  • The deportation of Jews from Germany from the end of 1941 responded to an appeal by Soviet Jews to all Jews in the world to support the Allies in the fight against National Socialist Germany : henceforth, German Jews were regarded as a war party. The USA and Canada also interned their own citizens of Japanese origin and German emigrants because they were considered possible allies of their enemies. However, the German designation with the Star of David also made use of medieval methods.
  • The “strong commitment of many Jews to the cause of communism during the war” cannot be denied.
  • The mass shootings of the Einsatzgruppen during the German-Soviet War therefore treated the Jews as the main bearers of the partisan struggle, since both had been identified without verification. The massacre of Babyn Yar was preceded by large attacks by Red Army troops in Kiev .
  • The fact that they tried to kill all Jews was also a reaction to Soviet massacres:

"If the counter-revolutionaries take the revolutionaries as an example, they have to commit far worse, because quantitatively more extensive acts."

Ultimately, the Holocaust is the "biologically remodeled copy of the social original".

In this context, Nolte also sees theses from foreign Holocaust deniers such as Paul Rassinier and the neo-Nazi Robert Faurisson as “serious doubts” that “established literature” must take into account as the “other side”:

In an interview with “ Spiegel ”, Nolte replied to the question of whether he had any doubts about the targeted mass extermination of Jews using gas: “That is a particularly sensitive point. I cannot rule out that most of the victims did not die in the gas chambers, but that the number of those who perished from epidemics or from poor treatment and mass shootings is comparatively greater. I cannot rule out that the examination of the gas chambers for traces of cyanide, which the American engineer Fred Leuchter was the first to do, is important. ”With this, Nolte was referring to the so-called Leuchter Report , a pseudoscientific Holocaust denial disguised as an“ expert opinion ”.

Another form of historical revisionist relativization is the perpetrator-victim reversal, in which it is claimed that Jews were significantly involved in the Nazi crimes. For example, the right-wing Holocaust denier Ingrid Weckert claimed in an indexed book that the “Reichskristallnacht” was started by Zionist organizations.

Historical classification and criticism

Historical revisionism related to German history is considered to be a central and unifying component of right-wing extremism for the German protection of the constitution . For the historian Wolfgang Benz it is an “auxiliary ideology in the service of right-wing extremist goals with the claim to 'decriminalize' history and to improve the image of history through falsification and manipulation.” The “Auschwitz lie” in particular is the central lever with the “Hitler apologists , Old and neo-Nazis and nationalists want to retouch the historical image of National Socialism. "

The Federal Ministry of the Interior defined historical revisionism in 2009 as an endeavor common to all right-wing extremists to show the crimes of National Socialism "in a more favorable light" and to rewrite the view of history from the Nazi era in a benevolent and justifying view. In a broader sense, history revisionists denied the Nazi regime's guilt for the Second World War and its criminal character, in the narrower sense the Holocaust. To do this, under the pretext of reviewing historical facts, they used forged or one-sidedly interpreted documents, withholding evidence of Nazi crimes, overemphasized positive aspects of the Nazi regime, and equated the Holocaust with crimes of the victorious Allied powers.


In France, historical revisionism is mostly aimed at reinterpreting the importance of Napoleon Bonaparte , the colonial past of the country, the role of the Vichy government and involvement in German crimes of the time, as well as negationism by people who were mostly nationally related to the front .

A law passed by the French National Assembly on February 23, 2005 (Article 4 in Law 158), which establishes the "positive role" of colonization in the history of France, can be seen as a form of state-sponsored historical revisionism . Universities and schools are called upon to present French colonialism positively and to preserve an “honorable memory” of the French who died in the colonial wars. An objective discussion of France's role in Algeria, and thus also of the question of possible historical guilt, especially in the Algerian war , is made more difficult.


In Italy one sometimes speaks of historical revisionism in relation to new interpretations of Italian fascism and resistance . For example, some historians accused the fascism researcher Renzo De Felice and his students of doing historical revisionism. Even Roberto Vivarelli is perceived by some authors as revisionist.


In Japan, historical revisionists try to downplay the war crimes of the Japanese Empire, such as the Nanking massacre , and to portray the Japanese invasion of China in World War II as a legitimate reaction against Western imperialism. The First Sino-Japanese War is also sometimes reinterpreted in favor of Japan's role.

In the depiction of Korea under Japanese rule , the kidnapping and rape of so-called Korean comfort women that took place in 1910 is often ignored. The discussion of how past Japanese crimes and how they come to terms with the formation of a "healthy nationalism" ( kenzen na nashonarizumu ) led to several arguments about whether historical revisionist views in school books should be tolerated or removed (see Japanese textbook dispute and Nippon Kaigi ) .


In today's Russia , some historians evaluate the planning and strategy of the Red Army prior to the German invasion of the Soviet Union (June 22, 1941) as preparation for a preemptive strike . Contrary to the sources and the authors' own statements, they believe that a corresponding draft by high-ranking Soviet generals from May 17, 1941, was approved by Josef Stalin and implemented by the army command. History has refuted the preventive war thesis with which Nazi propaganda justified the attack by the Wehrmacht . She will continue to be represented in German-speaking right-wing extremism in particular.

There is also enormous social controversy in Russia over the Stalinist purges . On the one hand, the number of victims is sometimes drastically increased. Not infrequently this happens because of a radical rejection of the Soviet Union and communism. On the other hand, there are attempts to portray the number of victims as significantly lower and the Stalinist purges as a whole as necessary. The thesis that only actual criminals were affected is still very popular and is also supported by politicians of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation . The theses are often similar to Holocaust denial.


The genocide of the Armenians (1915–1917) in the Ottoman Empire is officially contested in what is now Turkey . This also determines the history lessons in schools, also in schools that are predominantly attended by Armenians. Some human rights organizations refer to this state-prescribed view of history as Turkish historical revisionism.

Some Turkish historians have been trying to reverse the state denial of this genocide through their research since the 1990s. Others try to portray the Armenians themselves as the perpetrators of individual Turkish mass murders against them. Both attempts were occasionally referred to as Turkish historical revisionism.

See also

Historical revisionist publications (examples)

  • Harry Elmer Barnes: The Genesis of the World War. An Introduction to the Problem of War Guilt (1st edition: 1926), Kessinger Publishing Co, 2004.
    • German: The German War Guilt Question , Verlag der Deutschen Hochschullehrer-Zeitung (= Grabert), Tübingen 1964.
  • Gerhard Baumfalk: Facts on the War Guilt Question. Diplomacy - Politics - Background 1871–1939. Grabert Verlag , Tübingen 2000, ISBN 3-87847-189-0 .
  • Horst Eckert: War guilt. A German statement. Eckert, Munich 6 1996, ISBN 3-9803416-0-7 .
  • David L. Hoggan: The Forced War. The causes and originators of the Second World War . Translated by Herbert Grabert, Verlag der Hochschullehrerzeitung, Tübingen 1961. (many other editions, the 15th 1997, English edition only 1989)
  • Lutz Huth: The eternal lie about the German guilt: France, imperialist warmonger and robber, has been preventing the Germans' right to self-determination for more than 1000 years. Dieckmann, Hanover 2004.
  • Wolf Kalz: A German Requiem: From the rise of Prussia to the fall of the republic . Lindenblatt Media, Künzell 2006, ISBN 3-937807-09-8 .
  • Andreas Naumann: The empire in the crossfire of world powers. Stations of the encirclement of Germany . Grabert, Tübingen 2006.
  • Peter H. Nicoll: England's war against Germany. The causes, methods and consequences of the Second World War. Publishing house of the Deutsche Hochschullehrer-Zeitung (Grabert), Tübingen 1963.
  • Georg Franz-Willing: The war guilt question of the First and Second World War . German publishing company , Preuss. Oldendorf 1992.
  • Bolko Freiherr von Richthofen: War debt 1939–1941. The other's share of guilt . Arndt-Verlag , Kiel 2001.
  • Helmut Schrätze : Causes of War and War Guilt of the Second World War: Summary of the state of knowledge. 5th edition, Verlag für holistic research , Viöl 2001.
  • Heinz Thomann: From Sarajevo to Nuremberg. The Second Thirty Years War 1914–1945. The causes, the culprits, the consequences - an unconventional analysis of a prescribed history. W3-Verlag, Vienna 2004, ISBN 3-900052-03-4 .


German history

  • Wolfgang Benz: The function of Holocaust denial and historical revisionism for the right-wing movement. In: Stephan Braun, Alexander Geisler, Martin Gerster (eds.): Strategies of the extreme right: Backgrounds - Analyzes - Answers. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2010, ISBN 3-531-91708-0 , pp. 404-418 .
  • Jasmin Waibl-Stockner: "The Jews are our misfortune": Anti-Semitic conspiracy theories and their anchoring in politics and society. Lit Verlag, Münster 2009, ISBN 3-643-50019-X (Chapter 4, pp. 185-235: Historical revisionism - the Holocaust an invention of “World Jewry”? ).
  • Alexander Ruoff: Bending, repressing, keeping silent. The national history of “Junge Freiheit.” Auschwitz in the discourse of völkisch nationalism. Unrast, Münster 2001, ISBN 3-89771-406-X .
  • Kurt Pätzold : "You were the best soldiers." Origin and history of a legend . Militzke Verlag, Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-86189-191-3 .
  • Wolfgang Benz: Different interpretation of history or right-wing extremist interpretation of history? On the problem of the observation of revisionism. In: Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (ed.): Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution. 50 years in the service of internal security . Cologne 2000, pp. 247-261.
  • Karl Heinz Roth : historical revisionism. The rebirth of the totalitarianism theory. Hamburg 1999, ISBN 3-930786-20-6 .
  • Wolfgang Benz: Legends, lies, prejudices. A dictionary on contemporary history , dtv, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-423-04666-X .
  • Johannes Klotz, Ulrich Schneider (ed.): The self-conscious nation and its historical image. Historical legends of the New Right - Fascism / Holocaust / Wehrmacht. Papyrossa, Cologne 1997, ISBN 3-89438-137-X .
  • Brigitte Bailer-Galanda , Wilhelm Lasek: rampage against reality. Nazi crimes and "revisionist historiography". DÖW, Vienna 1991, ISBN 3-901142-07-X .
  • Gerhard Schreiber: Revisionism and Striving for World Power. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-421-01851-0 .
  • Gerhart Binder: Revision literature in the Federal Republic. In: History in Science and Education , 17th year, 1966, pp. 179–200.

History of other states

  • Uladzislau Belavusau: Historical Revisionism in Comparative Perspective: Law Politics, and Surrogate Mourning. European University Institute, Department of Law, 2013.
  • Derek J. Penslar, Anita Shapira (Eds.): Israeli Historical Revisionism: From Left to Right. Routledge, 2013, ISBN 0-7146-8313-2 .
  • Michal Kopeček: Past in the Making: Historical Revisionism in Central Europe after 1989. Central European University Press, 2008, ISBN 963-9776-04-1 .
  • Steffi Richter: Historical revisionism in contemporary Japan. In: Steffi Richter (Ed.): Contested Views of a Common Past: Revisions of History in Contemporary East Asia. Campus, 2008, ISBN 3-593-38548-1 .
  • Ciaran Brady (Ed.): Interpreting Irish History: The Debate on Historical Revisionism 1938-1994. Irish Academic Press, 1994, ISBN 0-7165-2499-6 .
  • Traian Golea: Transylvania and Hungarian Revisionism: A Discussion of Present-day Developments. Romanian Historical Studies, 1988, ISBN 0-937019-08-9 .

Web links

Holocaust denial

  • Holocaust reference:
The difference between revisionism and "revisionism"
The argumentation of the "revisionists": number games, tricks and deception maneuvers

War debt denial

Israeli historians' dispute

Single receipts

  1. ^ Revisionist Historians. In: www.historians.org. Retrieved January 7, 2017 .
  2. ^ Brigitte Bailer-Galanda : Der "Revisionismus" - pseudoscientific propaganda in: Documentation archive of Austrian resistance (DÖW): Handbook of Austrian right-wing extremism , Deuticke, 2nd edition, Vienna 1993, ISBN 3-216-30053-6 .
  3. Gerd Wiegel : The future of the past. Papyrossa, 2001, ISBN 3-89438-228-7 .
  4. Hannah Arendt : Truth and Politics . Klaus Wagenbach, 2006, ISBN 3-8031-2553-7 , p. 42.
  5. Deborah Lipstadt: Subject: Denial of the Holocaust , Rio, Zurich 1994, p. 92 f.
  6. ^ Justus D. Doenecke: The United States and the European War, 1939-1941. A Historiographical Review. In: Michael J. Hogan (Ed.): Paths to Power. The Historiography of American Foreign Relations to 1941. Cambridge 2000, p. 225; Jean-Yves Camus: Holocaust-denial - New Trends of a Pseudo-Scientific Smokescreen of Antisemitism. In: Uwe Backes, Patrick Moreau (Eds.): The Extreme Right in Europe. Current trends and perspectives. Göttingen 2012, p. 256.
  7. ^ Justus Drew Doenecke: Harry Elmer Barnes. Wisconsin Magazine of History, Spring 1973, p. 315.
  8. Wolfgang Wippermann: Lamentations of victims and war guilt lies - 65 years ago the Second World War was unleashed .
  9. ^ Armin Pfahl-Traughber: Right-wing extremism in the Federal Republic. Beck, Munich 2001, p. 48.
  10. Christian Hartmann: In the general view. Abstruse to the prehistory of the Second World War . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , November 26, 2003.
  11. Daily Express, March 24, 1933: Judea declares war on Germany (English)
  12. Holocaust reference : "Jewish declarations of war" Right-wing extremist legends and myths: Jewish declarations of war against Nazi Germany ( memento of July 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  13. Wolfgang Ayaß , Dietfrid Krause-Vilmar : The denial of the National Socialist mass murders. Challenge for science and political education? ( Memento from January 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) 2nd edition, Hessian State Center for Political Education, Kassel 1998
  14. Ernst Nolte: Between historical legend and revisionism? The Third Reich in the perspective of 1980. In: Ernst Reiner Piper (Hrsg.): “Historikerstreit”: the documentation of the controversy about the uniqueness of the Nazi extermination of the Jews. Piper, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-492-10816-4 , pp. 13-20; Juliane Wetzel: Anti-Semitism as an element of right-wing extremist ideology and propaganda. In: Wolfgang Benz (Ed.): Antisemitism in Germany. On the timeliness of a prejudice. dtv, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-423-04648-1 , p. 103.
  15. Wolfgang Benz, Peter Reif-Spirek (Ed.): Geschichtsmythen. Legends about National Socialism. Metropol, Berlin 2003, p. 12.
  16. Wolfgang Benz : Handbook of Antisemitism Volume 3: Terms, Theories, Ideologies. De Gruyter / Saur, Berlin 2010, p. 125 f.
  17. Wolfgang Benz (Hrsg.): Handbook of Antisemitism Volume 5: Organizations, Institutions, Movements. Walter de Gruyter / Saur, Berlin 2012, p. 4 , p. 329 , p. 641
  18. Deborah Lipstadt: Subject: Denial of the Holocaust , Rio, Zurich 1994, p. 91 f.
  19. ^ Jean-Eve Camus: Holocaust-denial. New Trends of a Pseudo-Scientific Smokescreen of Antisemitism. In: Uwe Backes, Patrick Moreau (Eds.): The Extreme Right in Europe. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 3-525-36922-0 , p. 258
  20. Ernst Nolte: The European Civil War 1917–1945: National Socialism and Bolshevism. Herbig, 6th extended new edition 2000, ISBN 3-7766-9003-8 (Chapter 4: Genocide and the “Final Solution of the Jewish Question” , pp. 500-517).
  21. Jürg Altwegg: Noam Chomsky and the reality of the gas chambers. Time online , November 21, 2012
  22. Ernst Nolte: The European Civil War 1917–1945: National Socialism and Bolshevism. 2000, p. 592 f, footnotes 26–29.
  23. Gerd Wiegel: Denial and relativization: The abuse of Auschwitz in current politics
  24. Thomas Grumke, Bernd Wagner (Ed.): Handbuch Rechtsradikalismus. People - organizations - networks from neo-Nazism to the middle of society. Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 2002, ISBN 978-3-322-97559-1 , p. 452
  25. ^ Ministry of the Interior of North Rhine-Westphalia / Protection of the Constitution: Revisionism
  26. ^ Federal Agency for Civic Education: Revisionism
  27. BMI: Constitutional Protection Report 2009 ( Memento from April 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF, p. 130 f.)
  28. Positive role of colonialism: The ruling right in France puts itself in a bind
  29. Law of Shame - In France, after the riots, a debate about colonial history has broken out
  30. For example Wolfgang Schieder : The Italian Fascism. 1919–1945 (= Beck series 2429 CH Beck Wissen ). Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60766-0 , p. 113; Ina Brandt: Memoria, Politica, Polemica. April 25th in the Italian culture of remembrance. In: Petra Terhoeven (Ed.): Italy, Views. New perspectives on Italian history in the 19th and 20th centuries. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010, pp. 235–256, here p. 248.
  31. Steffi Richter: Japan: The textbook dispute as an indicator of national self-reflection ( Memento from September 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 45 kB).
  32. Peter Linke: Flattery units for Joseph Goebbels. Russian "historians' dispute" around June 22, 1941 . In: Friday , March 2nd, 2001.
  33. Bernd Wegner : Preventive War 1941? On the controversy about a pseudo-military history problem. In: Jürgen Elvert, Susanne Krauss (ed.): Historical debates and controversies in the 19th and 20th centuries. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden 2003, p. 219.
  34. Ilyas Kevork Uyar (International Society for Human Rights 2004): Being right and being right are not the same thing: Armenian Christians in Turkey ( Memento from October 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  35. Example: Magazine Orient, Volume 38, Issues 1–2. German Orient Institute, 1997; Lothar Baier: People without time. Klaus Wagenbach, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-8031-2182-5 , p. 71.