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The term exclusion literally means exclusion (from the Latin exclusio) or exclusion . In which he describes language of education the fact that someone from a project or a meeting of a group membership is excluded or from social contexts ( excludes ) is.

This usually happens against the will of the excluded and for various reasons. Those involved want to remain among themselves (ie exclusively ) - often for reasons of rule - and maintenance of power , out of mistrust or for other reasons of reputation - which is accompanied by a certain devaluation and even discrimination against those who are excluded. The opposite of this is inclusion .

Sociological use

Sign on the beach at Muizenberg near Cape Town , 1985, in English and Afrikaans . Translation: For whites only!
The beach and the facilities are reserved for white people.
The provincial administration


In sociology "exclusion" is (Engl. Exclusion ) in general, a term in a modern society sustainable exclusion of individual social actors who understand (possibly shared) than the actual 'society called or entire groups from those social circles, . The concept of the exclusion of fundamental rights such as the right to adequate food , the right to primary education, the right to vote, the right to protection from torture and political persecution, the right to medical care and the right to family planning and understood similar rights. Sometimes someone who is so marginalized feels himself to be 'worthless' and 'outside', does not (no longer) accept the values ​​of the collective that excludes him and acts accordingly. Nonetheless, connecting social interactions are viewed as irrelevant (purchase of goods, participation in local public transport, occasional linguistic communication , military service, public support).

The term thus includes a more sharply devalued social fact than the terms single , outsider , fringe group or recluse .

Social exclusion is the loss of social and political opportunities to participate . It can even become a survival problem for those affected. Does this exclusion affect large groups (e.g. women , non-whites, disabled people, LGBT people, homeless , AIDS sufferers, prostitutes , long-term unemployed , slum dwellers , immigrants , minorities such as Jews in National Socialist Europe, Kurds in Syria ), this can become a (social, health, regulatory, state) political problem. The discussion about “ new poverty ” that began at the beginning of the 1980s , especially its reception in sociology in France (“exclusion”) and the USA (“ underclass ”), has decisively shaped the term exclusion. In this discussion, special attention was paid to the question of whether and from whose point of view the excluded still fulfill an economically or socially significant function, or whether they are completely "superfluous" and threatened by complete neglect. In these cases, the exclusion is also reflected in the spatial exclusion of those affected (cf. Ghetto ). The discussion in France was strongly influenced by the unrest in France in 2005 .

Definition of terms

The factual exclusion of the most highly placed, ' sublime ' personalities from general intercourse, which emphasizes their high esteem, may often be unpleasant for them (the Japanese Tennō 'does not bathe in the crowd', the Pope does not go pub crawls, the British Queen never goes shopping in person Money with oneself), but is not viewed as an “exclusion”, but is intended to protect them from being dragged down into the “ common ”. An inclusion in a system that is so strongly binding that it actually results in exclusion from other systems is called hyperinclusion .

Older social forms

According to the matter, exclusion is an early social phenomenon (cf. the ostracism in ancient Athens ). Hard forms of exclusion - often legalized - knew both akephale companies ( outlaws , outlaws ) and box - and stands companies ( pariahs , dishonorable ), churches ( excommunicated ) and totalitarian dictatorships ( 'deviants'). ( See also traveling people , showmen - there also individual notes .)


In the corps , exclusion is the heaviest punishment. In Kösener Senioren-Convents-Verband there was consent for the decision of 1862 about the fact that exclusion only the disgraceful exclusion ( cum infamia ) had to call from the Corps. Re-admission or admission to another corps is excluded.


In economics, one speaks of the degree of exclusion of economic goods.

Comparative Politics

In comparative political science, exclusive democracies are referred to as exclusive democracy .


  • Zygmunt Bauman : Depraved Life. The excluded of modernity . Hamburger Edition 2005, ISBN 3-9360-9657-0 .
  • Heinz Bude , Andreas Willisch (ed.): The problem of exclusion. The excluded, the dispensable, the superfluous. Hamburger Edition, Hamburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-9360-9669-9 .
  • Heinz Bude , Andreas Willisch (ed.): Exclusion: The debate about the »superfluous« . stw 2007. ISBN 978-3518294192 .
  • Sina Farzin: inclusion / exclusion. Developments and problems of a system-theoretical differentiation , Bielefeld 2006 ISBN 978-3899423617 .
  • Martin Kronauer : Exclusion. The endangerment of the social in highly developed capitalism , 2nd edition, Frankfurt am Main / New York: Campus, 2010, ISBN 978-3-593-39176-2 .
  • Lutz Leisering: Disillusionment with the modern belief in progress. “Social exclusion” as a social self-description and sociological concept , in: Schwinn, Thomas (Ed.): Differentiation and social inequality , Frankfurt am Main 2004, pp. 238–268.
  • Wolfgang Ludwig-Mayerhofer : Exclusion as a sociological concept , in: Sozialer Sinn, Vol. 10, Issue 1, 2009, pp. 3–28.
  • Niklas Luhmann : Inclusion and Exclusion , in: ders .: Sociological Enlightenment 6. The Sociology and the Human , Planenden 1995, pp. 237–264.

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Wilhelm Fabricius : History and Chronicle of the Kösener SC Association, according to the files . Marburg 1907, p. 61.