|Sorbian ( serbšćina )|
|speaker||20,000 to 30,000|
|Official language in||Brandenburg and Saxony ( Sorbian settlement area )|
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
wen (language family)
hsb (Upper Sorbian)
The Sorbian language ( Sorbian for short , outdated Wendish, Lusatian Serbian , in both standard varieties serbšćina ) is the entirety of the Sorbian dialects. It belongs to the group of West Slavic languages and is spoken today mainly in Lusatia . A distinction is made between two written languages,
- Upper Sorbian ( hornjoserbšćina , hornjoserbska rěč [ rɨtʃ ]) in Upper Lusatia and
- Lower Sorbian ( dolnoserbšćina , dolnoserbska rěc [ riəts ]) in Lower Lusatia .
A number of transition dialects exist at the border between the two language areas .
Both languages, Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian, are threatened with extinction. Upper Sorbian is an endangered language . Lower Sorbian is a seriously endangered language, although it is only spoken in very few families.
Within West Slavonic, Sorbian forms a separate group and is somewhat more similar to the Lech group , especially the Polish , than the Czech-Slovak group. Upper Sorbian, however, has more similarities with Czech and Lower Sorbian with Polish. These similarities can be traced back to historical language contact; Especially between Lower Sorbian and Polish there was an area with transitional dialects until about the 17th century.
Historically, the term Wendish was used for Upper Sorbian and Lower Sorbian as well as for the neighboring Polabian languages to the northwest and Pomoran in the north. Wendish is therefore a non-differentiating term for Slavic languages west of Polish and north of Czech.
While on the threshold of the 20th century there were still native Sorbian children and young people on the entire territory of today's Sorbian settlement area , this is now almost only the case in the Catholic area of Upper Lusatia due to the assimilation efforts favored by Germanization efforts and economic developments.
The science for the research and documentation of the Sorbian language is called Sorabistik designated whose only university institute at the University of Leipzig is located. Outside the university, the Sorbian Institute in Bautzen and Cottbus is particularly concerned with Sorbian linguistics.
The history of the Sorbian language in what is now Germany begins with the migration of peoples around the 6th century.
Even when today's Lusatia came into the focus of medieval chroniclers , it was inhabited by two different Slavic peoples, the Milceni in the south and the Lusici in the north. Even after subjugation by states of the Holy Roman Empire , Upper and Lower Lusatia were always under different sovereignty for less than a hundred years.
Since the 12th century, with the massive influx of rural settlers from Flanders , Saxony , Thuringia and Franconia and the previous devastation of the country through wars, the gradual decline of the Sorbian language began. In addition, Sorbian was legally subordinate to German , including in the Sachsenspiegel . Language bans were added later: "Wendish" was banned as a court language in the area of the Nienburg monastery in 1293, in Altenburg , Zwickau and Leipzig in 1327 , in Meißen in 1424 (although the tradition is only traceable for 1293). Furthermore, in many guilds in the towns in the area there was a requirement to only accept German-speaking members.
The oldest written language monument of Upper Sorbian is the " Burger Eydt Wendisch ", a citizen's oath of the city of Bautzen from the year 1532. Sorbian literature only emerged in connection with the Reformation , which remained dependent on the Sorbian vernacular for its expansion. The oldest known Lower Sorbian note to date was discovered in a manuscript from 1510 that was kept in the parish library of Jauernick . It is a marginal note to a Latin-language work by Ovid . Experts from the Manuscript Center of the University of Leipzig presented the find on May 13, 2011 in the archives of the Diocese of Görlitz . The marginal note, which should therefore be considered the oldest Sorbian language evidence , reads: "Ach moyo luba lubka / bit weßola thy sy / my luba" (translated: "Oh my dear love, be happy, you are dear to me").
In the 13th to 16th centuries, language bans were issued in several cities and towns. The core area of the Milzener and Lusitzer , two of the twenty or so Sorbian tribes that lived in what is now Lusatia , was only slightly affected by German-speaking new settlements and legal restrictions. The language therefore had a good hold there. The number of speakers there grew to over 300,000 by the 17th century.
In the Baroque era , a philological interest in the Sorbian language arose for the first time, which was reflected in the extensive grammatical and lexical works of Lower Sorbian Johannes Choinan and Upper Sorbs Jurij Hawštyn Swětlik and Xaver Jakub Ticin . Sorbian received a considerable boost at the beginning of the 18th century through the activities of the evangelical Wendish preacher colleges in Leipzig and Wittenberg . When the Wendish seminary , a convict for the next generation of Catholic priests, was established in Prague , an important connection to the Czech language and nationality was established. After the Seven Years' War the attention for the Sorbian language sank again.
Only the influence of Romanticism brought a new upswing in literary activity, and a specifically Sorbian national consciousness emerged. In the 19th century, especially in Prussia, the "Germanization policy" was very repressive, although the Sorbs received numerous privileges in 1848 for their allegiance to the king.
In the census of 1900, a total of 93,032 residents of the German Empire gave "Wendisch" as their mother tongue. The actual number of speakers is likely to have been a little higher. In 1904 the Wendish House (Serbski dom) was inaugurated on the Lauengraben in Bautzen with the participation of the official bodies as the seat of Maćica Serbska , the Smoler bookshop and other Sorbian institutions. On October 13, 1912, the Domowina Association for the preservation of the Sorbian language and culture was founded in Hoyerswerda .
Already in the Weimar Republic , but especially in the German Reich from 1933 to 1945 , the Sorbian language and culture was suppressed by court decisions, bans, Germanization and the like. During the Weimar Republic there was a specially established Wenden department to suppress the Sorbian language and culture . After the Nazi state had tried in vain to integrate the Sorbs into the new structures, the Domowina and then all other associations and Sorbian-language publications were banned and in some cases expropriated from 1937 . During the Second World War , v. a. Sorbian pastors and teachers were forcibly transferred from Lausitz as carriers and multipliers of Sorbian identity.
Domowina was re-established on May 10, 1945; as early as 1947, Sorbian newspapers appeared again. During the GDR era , the Sorbian language and culture - especially in the 1950s - received extensive state support for the first time, and the Sorbs were given the right to use their language in public. For the first time, Sorbian was given the status of a second official language, was introduced as the language of instruction in large parts of Lusatia and made visible to the public through bilingual signage. These rights were expressly anchored in the constitution of the GDR in Article 40, in the Unification Treaty for German Unity (Einheitsvertrag) of 1990 in Article 35 and explicitly in the constitutions of the federal states of Brandenburg and Saxony and the corresponding Sorbian laws. The German Courts Constitution Act (GVG) guarantees in the right “to speak Sorbian in court in the home districts of the Sorbian population”; The law does not determine which exact area is covered by this. Numerous Sorbian institutions were founded during this time, some of which still exist today. B. the Sorbian Institute for Teacher Education , the State Ensemble for Sorbian Folk Culture (today: Sorbian National Ensemble ), the Domowina-Verlag , the German-Sorbian People's Theater and the Institute for Sorbian Folk Research (successor: Sorbian Institute ) as well as the Institute for Sorbian Studies at the University of Leipzig (until 1968: Sorbian Institute ).
Nevertheless, the number of Sorbian speakers continued to decline, in particular due to industrialization, collectivization of agriculture and strong influx from outside. Since the mid-1960s, Sorbian lessons, which had been mandatory until then, were only optional, which led to a massive drop in the number of students. Only in a few rural areas was Sorbian able to survive as an everyday language beyond the 20th century. This is particularly true of the Catholic part of the settlement area along the Klosterwassers in Upper Lusatia, where the assimilation of Sorbian and thus the loss of language, in contrast to the larger Protestant area and Lower Lusatia, only occurred to a limited extent .
A total of around 60,000 Sorbs live in Germany today, around 40,000 of them in Saxony and 20,000 in Brandenburg . Since nationality is not officially recorded in Germany and the commitment to Sorbian nationality is free, there are only estimates of the exact number. The number of active speakers in Sorbian is likely to be lower. Unlike Upper Sorbian, Lower Sorbian is acutely threatened with extinction. According to projections, around 7,000 people actively speak Lower Sorbian, which could become extinct in 20 to 30 years, and around 13,000 people speak Upper Sorbian. According to language experts, Upper Sorbian will survive the 21st century.
Today Sorbian is taught in 25 primary schools and several secondary schools. It is compulsory at the Lower Sorbian Gymnasium Cottbus and the Sorbian Gymnasium Bautzen . In many elementary schools and Sorbian schools, lessons are held in the Sorbian language . The daily Serbske Nowiny appears in Upper Sorbian and the Lower Sorbian weekly Nowy Casnik , as well as the religious weeklies Katolski Posoł and Pomhaj Bóh . The cultural magazine Rozhlad appears monthly, a children's magazine each in Upper and Lower Sorbian ( Płomjo and Płomje ) and the educational magazine Serbska šula . The Mitteldeutsche Rundfunk and the Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg broadcast monthly half-hourly TV magazines in Sorbian as well as several hours of radio programs every day, the Sorbian Radio . Wikipedia language versions exist in both written languages.
Upper Sorbian-German sign in Nebelschütz
Bilingual street signs in Cottbus (Chóśebuz) in German and Lower Sorbian
Bilingual place-name sign in Bautzen (Budyšin) with German and Upper Sorbian
Bilingual station sign at the station in Kamenz
Both standard Sorbian varieties (written languages) have nominally seven cases, whereby the vocative is not fully developed:
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.|
|Date||nan ej||nan oju||štom ej||bom oju||woknu||wokn oju , woknu|
|Instr.||z nanom||z nanom||ze štomom||z bomom||z woknom||z woknom|
|Locomotive.||where nanje||wó nanje||na štomje||na bomje||well woknje||well woknje|
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.|
|Date||ramjenju||ramjenj eju , ramjenju||žonje||žeńskej||ruce|
|Instr.||z ramjen jom||z ramjen im||ze žonu||ze žeńskeju||z ruku|
|Locomotive.||where ramjenju||wó ramjenju||where žonje||wó žeńskej||w ruce|
1 The form žona is literary in Lower Sorbian. The Lower Sorbian declination is adjectival because of the ending -ska.
In Lower Sorbian the vocative is only preserved in a few rigid forms.
It is noteworthy that in addition to the singular and plural , the number dual (the two number) has been preserved from Old Slavonic. Singular: ruka ("hand") Dual: ruce ("two hands") Plural: ruki ("more than two hands")
In contrast to other West Slavic languages ( Czech , Slovak , Polish , Kashubian ), the synthetic preterite ( aorist , imperfect ) has also been preserved in the Upper Sorbian written language and some of the dialects to this day . This form was also used in the written language of Lower Sorbian, but became increasingly rare in the course of the 20th century and is rarely used today.
Not too demanding written texts of Sorbian can be understood by speakers of the West Slavic languages in general.
|German||Upper Sorbian||Lower Sorbian||Czech||Slovak||Polish||Polish|
Differences between the two written languages
With the consonants
The two written languages differ greatly in terms of consonants . The letter ć has been placed after č in Upper Sorbian since 2005.
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||Examples||importance||Remarks|
|H||G||hora - góra||mountain||g> h also in Czech , Slovak , Ukrainian , Belarusian and western Slovene dialects.|
|hordy - gjardy||proud|
|kniha - knigły||book|
|hody - gódy||Christmas|
|č||c||čas - cas||time||č> c as in Polish and Lithuanian dialects and in Polabischen|
|čorny - carny||black|
|čert - cart||devil|
|česć - cesć||honor|
|ličba - licba||number|
|pčołka - pcołka||bee|
|š||s||štyri - styri||four||š> s in Lower Sorbian|
|štwórć - stwjerś||quarter|
|štwórtka - stwórtka||Four|
|štwórtk - stwórtk||Thursday|
|ć||ś||ćeńki - śańki||thin, tender||ć> ś in Lower Sorbian except behind sibilants|
|bić - biś||beat|
|hić - hyś||walk|
|puć - puś||path|
|ćah - śěg||train|
|ćahnyć - śěgnuś||pull|
|ćahać - śěgaś|
|ćim - śim||the more|
|ćichi - śichy||quiet calm|
|but: hósć - gósć||guest|
|dź||ź||dźeń - źeń||Day||dź> ź in Lower Sorbian except behind sibilants|
|dźesać - źaseś||ten|
|hdźe - źo||Where|
|- źož||where (rel.)|
|dźowka - źowka||daughter|
|dźiwy - źiwy||wild|
|dźěło - źěło||job|
|dźak - źěk||thanks|
|hózdź - gózdź||nail|
|kr, pr, tr||kš, pš, tš||krasny - kšasny||splendid||r> š after voiceless consonants before a, o, u in Lower Sorbian
|prawy - pšawy||right, right|
|próstwa - pšosba||You're welcome|
|preč - pšec||path|
|bratr - bratš||Brothers|
|sotra - sotša||sister|
|wutroba - wutšoba||heart|
|trawa - tšawa||grass|
|jutry - jatšy||Easter|
|wótry - wótšy||sharp|
|ń||j, '||dóńć - dojś||go there||ń in Upper Sorbian similar to Kashubian instead of j in Lower Sorbian|
|nadeńć - nadejś||to meet, to find|
|přeńć - pśejś||go over|
|přińć - pśiś||come|
|rozeńć - rozejś||diverge|
|woteńć - wótejś||walk away|
|wuńć - wujś||(go out|
|njeńdu - njejdu||they are not leaving|
With the vowels
Both Lower and Upper Sorbian have eight vowels .
|closed||i [ i ]||y [ ɨ ]||u [ u ]|
|ó [ ʊ ]|
|medium||e [ ɛ ]||o [ ɔ ]|
|open||a [ a ]|
|closed||i [ i ]||y [ ɨ ]||u [ u ]|
|medium||e [ ɛ ]||ó [ ɨ , ɛ , ʊ ] 1||o [ ɔ ]|
|open||a [ a ]|
- 1 The first two variants are written. In dialect also comes [ ɔ ] and the third variant before.
|Diphthong of both languages|
|ě [ iə ]|
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||Examples||importance||Remarks|
|'a||ě, e||mjaso - měso||flesh||from ursl. ę|
|dźak - źěk||thanks|
|časty - cesty||often|
|hladać - glědaś||see, look, look|
|dźes a ć - źas e ś||ten|
|rjad - rěd||line|
|rjany - rědny||beautiful|
|swjatki - swětki||Pentecost|
|'e||'a||mjeza - mjaza||Rain||'e>' a also in Polish , Belarusian and Bulgarian with different rules|
|čert - cart||devil|
|jedyn - jaden||a|
|dź e sać - ź a seś||ten|
|njesć - njasć||wear|
|pjec - pjac||to bake; roast meat|
|wjeselo - wjasele||joy|
|wjes - wjas||Village|
|wječor - wjacor||Eve|
|e||O||hdźe - źo||Where||e> o in Lower Sorbian|
|-će - -śo, -ćo||(Ending of the 3rd person plural)|
|ćeta - śota||aunt|
|wčera - cora||yesterday|
|i||y||hić - hyś||walk||Lower Sorbian evaporation of i to y after ž, š, h and c (from č), analogous in Polish ; this phonetic tendency is also evident in the East Slavic languages .|
|wužiwar - wužywaŕ||User, user|
|wužiwać - wužywaś||use, apply|
|žiwy - žywy||lively)|
|činić - cyniś||do, do|
|šija - šyja||neck|
|šiška - šyška||Cones|
|O||'a||pos - pjas||dog||from the original ь (cf. Polish ie in pies)|
|O||e||- sused||Neighbor||e> o in Upper Sorbian|
|so - se||yourself|
|won - whom||out|
|y||e, ě||cyły - ceły||completely, completely, completely||e / ě> y in Upper Sorbian after c, s, d|
|cyłosć - cełosć||Wholeness, wholeness|
|dyrbjeć - derbiś, derbjeś||must, should|
|cypy - cepy||Flail|
|cyn - cen||tin|
|cyrkej - cerkwja||church|
|dyrić - deriś||Displacement of blows / blows|
|syć - seś||network|
|symjo - semje||Seeds|
|oil||łu||tołsty - tłusty||thick, strong||from oil or oil after hard dental|
|dołhi - dłujki||long|
|dołh - dług||fault|
|stołp - słup||pillar|
|or||ar (jar to g / k)||hordy - gjardy||proud||from original ъr|
|horbaty - gjarbaty||hunched|
|horb - gjarba||humpback|
|hordło - gjardło||Goiter; throat|
|hornc - gjarnc||pot|
|or||ar||čorny - carny||black||from the original ьr before hard consonants, otherwise uniformly he (in: smjerć - smjerś "death")|
- 1 The variant žona as in Upper Sorbian is literary.
Different number of syllables
For some words, the number of syllables is different because Upper Sorbian has shortened here, similar to Czech .
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||importance|
|kelko||keliko, kelko (arch.) 1||how much|
- 1 The common form is (kak) wjele .
Differences in declination
- Upper Sorb. 7 cases - Lower Sorb. 6 cases
- Differences in case rectification
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||importance|
|mam dweju bratrow, dwaj konjej||mam dweju bratšowu, kónjowu||"I have two brothers / horses"|
|mam třoch bratrow, tři konje||mam tśoch bratšow, tśich kónjow / kóni||"I have three brothers / horses"|
|mam bratrow, konje||mam bratšy / bratšow, kónje||"I have brothers / horses"|
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||importance||Comments|
|huso (n)||gus (f)||goose||
|swinjo (n)||swinja (f)||pig|
|jězor (m)||jazoro (n), jazor (m)||lake|
|karp (m)||karpa (f)||carp|
Differences in conjugation
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||Comments|
|Preservation of aorist, imperfect tense||In the written language|
|a, i, e conjugation||o-, a-, i-, j-conjugation 1|
|Verbs like pisać after the a-conjugation (1st and 2nd person singular present indicative active: pisam, pisaš)||Verbs like pisaś after the o-conjugation (1st and 2nd person singular present indicative active: pišom, pišoš)||The Lower Sorbian o conjugation corresponds to the e conjugation of Upper Sorbian, with the exception of the displacement of some verbs such as pisać .|
- 1 Today, the perfective verbs of the a- and i-conjugations usually form their present tenses after the o-conjugation.
Differences in vocabulary
|Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||importance||comment|
|prajić||groniś||say speak||groniś is similar to Polabian gornt|
|patoržica||gwězdka||Christmas Eve, Christmas Eve|
|sewjer||pódpołnoc||north||Upper Sorb. = Czech sever,
Lower Sorb. see Polish północ
|yeah||pódpołdnjo||south||Upper Sorb. = Czech. jih,
Lower Sorb. see Polish południe
|zapad||pódwjacor||west||Lower Sorb. see polish wieczór (evening)|
|wopica||nałpa||monkey||Upper Sorb. = Czech. opice,
Lower Sorb. = Polish małpa
|dyrbjeć||musaś 3 , dejaś||must, should||Lower Sorb. = Czech muset, Polish musieć|
|hač 4||ako 5||as (when increasing)|
|całta||guska||bun||Upper Sorb. = old Czech.
Lower Sorb. = Czech houska
|haj 6||jo||Yes||Upper Sorb. = slovak. hey
lower sorb . = czech. jo (there next to ano)
|holca||źowćo||girl||Lower Sorb. = Polish dziewczę, dziewczyna, Czech děvče, holka|
|štom||bom 7||tree||Lower Sorb. from German "tree" / Obersorb. from German "Stamm"|
|porst||palc||finger||Upper Sorb. = Czech prst
Lower Sorb. = Polish palec
- 1 also means: sphere; Dumpling.
- 3 only means: must.
- 4 Also means: to (especially before do ); if
- 5 Also means: as (for attributes); der, die, das (relative pronoun), how
- 6 The nickname Hajak, once widespread in Lower Sorbian, for bourgeois urban Sorbs of Upper Lusatia is derived from this difference .
- 7 According to Starosta, štom only means tree in the dialect, otherwise it means tree trunk.
- = here stands for corresponds .
|st||tr / tř -
tš / tś
|Loss of s; very
|top, roof||Czech: střecha
|string||Czech, Polish: struna|
|Grind, scab||Czech, Polish: strup|
|change||Upper Sorb.||Lower Sorb.||importance||Comments|
|e> o||wječor||wjacor||Eve||see: russ. вечер, czech. večer, serb. veče, polish wieczór|
|čłon||cłonk||Member, member||see: russ./ukr. член, Serb / Croat. clan|
|daloko||far, far||see: Polish daleko, russ./ukr. далеко, Czech / Serb / Croat. daleko|
|wjesoły||wjasoły||happy, happy, cheerful||see: russ. весёлый, ukr. веселий, serb./croat. veseo, vesela|
|pjećory||pěśory||fivefold||see: russ. пятеро, ukr. п'ятеро, serb./croat. petero|
|pčoła||pcoła||bee||see: russ. пчела, ukr. бджола, serb./croat. pčela|
|sotra||sotša||sister||see: russ./ukr. сестра, Croatian / Serbian / Czech. sestra, Polish siostra|
|i> y 1||zyma||zyma||winter||see: Polish / Czech. zima, ukr. зима|
|nazyma||nazyma||autumn||see: czech podzim|
|kazyć||kazyś||spoil||see: polish kazić, czech kazit, slovak. kazit ', croat./serb. unacceptable|
|ǫ> u 2||ruka||Arm, hand||see: Polish ręka, kashub. rãka, ukr. рука, croat / serb / czech. ruka|
|wutroba||wutšoba||heart||see: Polish wątroba "liver"|
|mudry||Smart||see: Polish mądry, ukr. мудрий, kroat./serb. mudri|
|huso||gus||goose||see: czech. husa, polish. gęś, russ. гусь, ukr. гусак, serb. guska|
|pucher||puchoŕ||Bladder; bladder||see: Polish pęcherz|
|pupk||navel||see: polish pępek, ukr. пупок, czech. pupek, serb. pupak|
|huba||guba||mouth||see: czech huba, polish gęba, ukr. губа|
|el> ło 3||žłob||Gutter; trough||see: slovak. žleb (žl'ab), Serb / Slovenian. žleb, Croat. žlijeb, Russian желоб|
|mloko||milk||see: Polish / Serbian / Czech. mleko, croat. mlijeko, russ./ukr. молоко|
|er> re / rě / rje 4||drjewo||Wood||see: croat./serb. drvo, polish drzewo, czech dřevo, slovak. drevo, ukr. дерево, russ .: дрова|
|ol> ło 5||złoto||gold||see: Polish złoto, czech / slovak / serb. zlato, bulg. злато, russ./ukr. золото|
|słód||słod||Taste; Sweet; malt||see: Polish słód, kroat./cschech./serb./sloak. slad, russ./ukr. солод "malt"|
|hłowa||głowa||head||see: Polish głowa, czech / slovak. hlava, croat./serb. glava, russ./ukr. голова|
|słoma||straw||see: polish sloma, czech sláma, kroat./serb. slama, russ./ukr. солома|
|młody||young||see: Polish młody; czech. mladý, croat./serb. mlad, ukr. молодий|
|or> ro 6||hród||grod||Castle; lock||see: polish gród, czech. hrad, croat./sloven./serb. grad, Russian город "city"|
|mróz||mroz||frost||see: Polish mróz, czech / slovak. mráz, croat./serb. mraz, russ./ukr. мороз|
- 1 In Lower Sorbian, this change also took place after h, ž, š, c (from č).
- 2 The same change occurred in East Slavic , Czech , Slovak , Croatian , Bosnian, and Serbian . The Slovenian has changed the nasal vowel to o.
- 3 Between consonants. In Polish there was also ło here, but partly also łó; Czech, Slovak and Slovenian have le here; Croatian and Serbian have le and lije; Bulgarian here has ле [le] or ля [lja]; the East Slavic languages have оло [olo] here.
- 4 In Lower Sorbian this sound has partly changed to r (j) a; z. B. brjaza "birch".
- 5 Polish has also developed in the same way . In Russian, the original sound group ol was not subject to metathesis and is represented by оло [olo] according to the law of polo glass.
- 6 The development in Polish is similar, while in Russian оро [oro] arose here due to the lack of a tendency towards West Slavic metathesis and polo glaze.
- Preservation of the dual
- Coincidence of the locative dual with the dative / instrumental dual
- Stress on the first syllable
- Extensive generalization of the genitive plural of the nouns on -ow
- Filip Rězak : German-Sorbian encyclopaedic dictionary of the Upper Lusatian Sorbian language . Photomechanical reprint of the Bautzen 1920 edition, 1st edition. With a foreword by Konstantin K. Trofimowič . Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 1987, 1150 pages, ISBN 3-7420-0183-3 .
- Bjarnat Rachel: Sorbian-German and German-Sorbian place names index of the bilingual districts. Part I: Dresden district . VEB Domowina, Bautzen 1959, 135 pages.
- Sorbian curriculum at high school with Sorbian lessons . Council of Ministers of the German Democratic Republic, Ministry for National Education. Part 4/6: Years 4–6, Berlin 1972, 93 pp.
- Encounter language Sorbian . Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 1999.
- Till Vogt, Tobias Geis: Sorbian. Word for word (= gibberish . Volume 211 ). 1st edition. Reise Know-How Verlag Rump, Bielefeld 2007, ISBN 978-3-89416-381-5 .
- Madlena Norberg: Can the Sorbian / Wendish language and identity still be saved? (PDF; 114 kB) In: anthology on Sorbian / Wendish culture and identity (Potsdam contributions to Sorabistics; 8) - Potsdam: Univ.-Verl., 2008, ISBN 978-3-940793-35-5 .
- Andrew Hippisley, Ian Davies, Greville G. Corbett: The basic color terms of lower sorbian and upper sorbian and their typological relevance. In: Studies in Language (2008), 32 (1): 56-92.
- Słownik hornjoserbsko-němski . Bautzen 1990, ISBN 3-7420-0419-0 .
- Słownik němsko-hornjoserbski . Bautzen 1986.
- Jana Šołćina, Edward Wornar : Upper Sorbian in self-study. Hornjoserbšćina za samostudij . Bautzen 2000, ISBN 3-7420-1779-9 .
- Иржи Мудра , Ян Петр : Учебник верхнелужицкого языка . Bautzen 1983, page 159.
- Manfred Starosta: Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik . Bautzen 1999, ISBN 3-7420-1096-4 .
- Erwin Hannusch: Lower Sorbian practical and understandable . Bautzen 1998, ISBN 3-7420-1667-9 .
- Herbert Bräuer: Slavic Linguistics . Volume I, Berlin 1961, pages 59, 80, 136.
- Макс Фасмер : Этимологический словарь русского языка . Volume III, examples about str> tr / tš, pages 770–784.
- Elisabeth Pribić-Nonnenmacher: The literature of the Sorbs . In: Kindlers Literatur Lexikon im dtv in 24 volumes . Volume 2. Munich 1974, ISBN 3-423-03142-5 , page 402.
- GVG § 184 sentence 2; VwVfGBbg Section 23 Paragraph 5; SächsSorbG
- Frido Mětšk : Serbsko-pólska rěčna hranica w 16. a 17. lětstotku [The Sorbian-Polish language border in the 16th and 17th centuries]. In: Lětopis , Series B, Volume III (1958), Ludowe nakładnistwo Domowina, Budyšin 1958, pp. 4–25.
- Hans K. Schulze : Slavica lingua penitus intermissa. On the prohibition of Wendish as a court language. in: Settlement, Economy and Constitution in the Middle Ages. Selected essays on the history of Central and Eastern Germany (= sources and research on the history of Saxony-Anhalt. Vol. 5). Cologne Weimar 2006, p. 39ff. , see p. 52
- Helmut Glück : German as a Foreign Language in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Baroque Period. Berlin New York 2002, p. 61
- Raphael Schmidt: Oldest Lower Sorbian note. Sensational find: a manuscript from 1510 discovered in the parish attic of Jauernick. In: Day of the Lord , No. 20/2011
- Harriet Stürmer: Sorbian sensations in Märkische Oderzeitung , 14./15. May 2011, p. 10
- Mother tongue of the population according to the census of December 1st, 1900 according to: Statistics of the German Empire Volume 150: The census on December 1, 1900 in the German Empire. Berlin, 1903.
- Ludwig Elle: Language policy in the Lausitz . Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 1995.
- Peter Schurmann: Sorbian interests and state minority policy in the GDR . Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 2016, ISBN 978-3-7420-2269-1 , p. 51-57 .
- Edmund Pech: One State - One Language? Domowina-Verlag, Bautzen 2012, ISBN 978-3-7420-2231-8 , pp. 181-212 .
- The language of the Slavic inhabitants of the Baltic Sea region. In: wizlaw.de. Retrieved November 21, 2017 .
- František Vydra: Lužičtí Srbové. In: luzicke-hory.cz. Retrieved November 21, 2017 .
- Sorbian Institute: Textbook of Upper Sorbian ( Memento from April 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Institute for Sorabic Studies at the University of Leipzig
Sorbian dictionaries and glossaries
- Online language course Upper Sorbian (A1)
- www.niedersorbisch.de (German-Lower Sorbian dictionary)
- Lower Sorbian glossary (place and street names, job and office names)
- Upper Sorbian online dictionary (with conjugation and declension)
- Upper Sorbian spelling dictionary
Entries for the Sorbian language in the World Atlas of Language Structures Online
Entries for the Sorbian language in the World Loanword Database
- Keyboard layouts for Linux and Microsoft Windows 2000 / XP as well as Windows 95, 98, ME ( Memento from June 28, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- The little language story: Sorbian on Deutschlandradio Kultur , July 26, 2012
- Course serskeje rěce / Bluń , Sorbian conversations from the textbook Curs practic de limba sorabă , Universitatea din București 1986 (in a dialect of Central Lusatia)