Carpathian-Russian language

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Carpathian Russian (русиньскый язык)

Spoken in

Ukraine , Slovakia , Poland , Romania , Hungary ; Canada , USA , Czech Republic
speaker at least 600,000 (estimated)
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


Carpatho-Rusyn (also Ruthenian; Rusyn русиньскый язык [russinsky jasyk] ) is from the ethnic group of Rusyns in the Carpathian Ukraine , the Slovak Republic , Poland , Romania and Hungary (as well as large groups of immigrants, particularly in Canada and the United States as well as in Prague ) spoken. Because of this fragmentation, there are various attempts at standardization.

On the one hand, Carpatho-Russian is often seen together with Batschka-Russian as a language under the designation " Russian " or "Ruthenian". On the other hand, it is officially seen as a dialect of Ukrainian , especially by Ukrainians .

It is an East Slavic language spoken by around a million people . In the east of Slovakia, in the Transcarpathian Oblast in the Ukraine, in south-east Poland and north-east Hungary, there are separate attempts at standardization with different spelling and grammar recommendations. In Slovakia, the language has had an officially binding, normative codification since 1995, which is also used in teaching, television, radio, the press, etc.

Historically, the independence of Carpatho-Russian compared to Ukrainian can be explained by the fact that the Ruthenian settlement area south of the Carpathian Mountains belonged to the Kingdom of Hungary for centuries (first as an independent state, then as part of the Danube Monarchy ), while the Ruthenian or Ukrainian settlement area north of the Carpathian Mountains to Kievan Rus , then to Poland-Lithuania , finally to a greater extent in the Russian Empire and to a lesser extent in Austrian Galicia . The title of the “Reussian-Hungarian or Magyar grammar” (Русько-угорска їлї мадярска Граматїка) by Ivan Fohoraschi (1833) indicates this peculiarity .

See also


  • Aleksandr D. Duličenko: The Russian. In: Introduction to the Slavic Languages. Edited by Peter Rehder. Darmstadt ³1998. Pp. 126-140. ISBN 3-534-13647-0 .
  • Русиньскый язык. Ed. Paul Robert Magocsi. Opole 2004 (Najnowsze dzieje języków słowiańskich) . ISBN 83-86881-38-0 [very detailed treatise, written in the respective Russian varieties of the authors]. Improved new edition 2007.
  • Stefan M. Pugh: The Rusyn Language. A Grammar of the Literary Standard of Slovakia with Reference to Lemko and Subcarpathian Rusyn. LINCOM Europe, Munich 2009.
  • Marc Stegherr: Russian (PDF; 276 kB). In: Lexicon of the Languages ​​of the European East . Ed. Miloš Okuka. Klagenfurt 2002 (=  Wieser Encyclopedia of the European East, Vol. 10). ISBN 3-85129-510-2 .
  • Marc Stegherr: The Russian. Cultural-historical and sociolinguistic aspects. Munich 2003 [Slavic Contributions, Vol. 417]. ISBN 3-87690-832-9 .
  • Alexander Teutsch: The Rusinian of Eastern Slovakia in the context of its neighboring languages. Series: Heidelberg publications on Slavic Studies A) - Linguistic series. Volume 12, Frankfurt am Main 2001. ISBN 3-631-36819-4 .
  • Juraj Vaňko: The Language of Slovakia's Rusyns. East European Monographs. New York, Columbia University Press 2000.

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