Altnovgorod dialect

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Altnowgorod dialect ( Russian Древненовгородский диалект / Drewnenowgorodski dialekt ) is the name for a dialect of the Old Russian language , which was spoken in the area around Novgorod (Naugard) and Pskov until the 15th century. He is known for about 1000 texts on birch bark from the 11th to 15th centuries.

The term was introduced by Andrei Zaliznjak . The Altnowgorod dialect shows some features that are atypical for other East Slavic dialects (and in part also for other Slavic languages). The dialect used is sometimes associated with the Ilmenslawen . The East Baltic languages or the language of the Dnieper Balts probably had an influence .

It is believed that the speakers of this dialect used the Russian variant of Church Slavonic for official texts , while everyday texts were recorded in writing in a language form similar to the spoken dialect.

Interesting is the existence of the modus relativus , which otherwise occurs only in the south-eastern group of South Slavic.

The term Naugardism describes the linguistic peculiarities of the Altnowgorod dialect, such as B. the Zokanje , the linguistic economic use of auxiliaries or the possessive perfect .

Since the late 15th century, the Altnowgorod dialect was pushed back by Moscow Russian after Novgorod was conquered by the Principality of Moscow .

Numerous Naugardisms still exist in northwestern Russia.

Linguistic features

This section lists some features that are mostly untypical for East Slavic :

  • The nominative singular of the o -stems ends in -e (as opposed to ), the accusative singular ends in ' -ъ' , e.g. B. brate “the brother” and bratъ “the brother” (cf. Russian. Brat - brata );
  • The palatalization of / x / common to all other Slavic languages ​​did not take place, e.g. B. vьx- "all" opposite vs- in modern Russian, Ukrainian, Bulgarian, Slovenian, Polish ( ws- ), in Serbian and Croatian turned to sv- , Czech and Slovak vš- , also in the Sorbian languages wš- .
  • The second palatalization , a general Slavic characteristic (although partially neutralized in East Slavonic) did not take place, e.g. B. dative Sg. Rěkě "river" (not rěcě ).
  • As in West Slavonic, the palatalization from * kv, * gv to cv, zv is omitted, e.g. B. květ "color", gvězda "star", cf. Polish kwiat ("blossom"), gwiazda ( Russian cvet , zvezda ).
  • There is no phonological difference between c and č .
  • The goal of a movement can be represented without a preposition using the dative, e.g. B. idi Pliskovu "go to Pskow (Pleskau)".

The orthography differs in the use of Jer, ъ and ь are used synonymously with o and e , analogous to the use of ъ in modern Bulgarian (e.g. България )


Scientific literature on the Altnowgorod dialect is currently only available in Russian:

  • Andrej Anatol'evič Zaliznjak: Drevnenovgorodskij dialect . 1st ed., Moskva 1995, 720 pp., ISBN 5-88766-002-3 ; 2nd edition, taking into account the finds from the years 1995-2003, Moskva 2004, 867 pp., ISBN 5-94457-165-9 .
  • ders., "Posleslovie lingvista". In: Valentin L. Janin: Yes poslal tebe berestu… . 3rd edition, Moskva 1998 [1. Ed. 1965], pp. 425-449.
  • Zep Honselaar: “Sledy okončanija -e m. ed. muž. o-sklonenija ”. In: Russian Linguistics 21, pp. 271-274.