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The locative , also Localiza or Ortskasus called, is a term used in grammar and designates a occurring in different languages case ( case ). Nouns that are in the locative usually have the function of place names. In addition to the actual locative, other local cases can sometimes occur, which indicate in a very differentiated manner the spatial relationship in which an object stands to a place (such as the prepositions or adpositions in, on, under, with, in, out, near, away, etc. ). In languages ​​that do not have a special case for location specifications, this task is usually taken over by prepositions.


Indo-European languages

In some Indo-European languages , remnants of a locative present in Ur-Indo-European have been preserved.

In the Latin language, the locative is still used in the names of cities and smaller islands. For nouns of the first and second declination belong (a and o-declination), the locative in the right singular with the genitive singular agree z. B. Romae = "in Rome". In the plural and in the third declension it agrees with the dative or ablative, e.g. B. Carthāginī or (more often) Carthāgine = "at Carthage". Some generic names also have a locative, e.g. B. domī (at home), rūrī (in the country [e]), humī (on the ground) and vesperī (also vespere ) (in the evening).

The locative is basically preserved in the Slavic languages . In Russian , the locative mostly became a prepositive (in Czech and Slovak analogous to local); Additional, deviating forms (originally from declinations no longer preserved in modern Russian such as the u -declination) can be found in some nouns after the prepositions в (in), на (on) and very rarely in при (next to), e.g. B. в снегу (in the snow), на носу (on the nose), при полку (at the regiment), на берегу (on the bank), в углу (in the corner). These special forms are traditionally referred to as the “second locative” of Russian, as the prepositive or the special form can appear with the same word depending on the preposition: prepositive о лесе (about the forest), second locative в лесу (in the forest). In Serbo-Croatian , the locative is a regular (sixth) case that is still used today. There it comes mainly after the prepositions u (in) and na (an, auf) on the question “Where?”, As well as after the prepositions o (over) and pri (at). In the singular it has the ending -u for the masculine and neuter gender, the ending -i for the feminine gender. So is called z. B. in Berlin u Berlinu , in Sarajewo u Sarajevu and in Sofia u Sofiji .

Another example of a language with a more sophisticated system of local cases is Lithuanian . Here, as locative case referred four: Inessive ( miške in the forest), Illativ ( miškan in the forest), Adessiv ( miškiep am Wald), allative ( miškop for the woods). These cases are described as secondary because they developed relatively late in the East Baltic languages ​​(they are not documented in the West Baltic languages) under the influence of the Finno-Ugric languages. The old Indo-European locative ( miškie ) has disappeared, the inessive has taken its place. In the standard language only inessive and illative are used, all four cases are still in use in some dialects, especially in language islands in Belarus. The cases are sometimes of secondary importance, e.g. B. jis prisipažino meilėje (In., He has known love, lit.: in love), išeiti viešumon (Ill., Come to the public, lit.: in the public), manip jau visa padaryta (ad., Me I've already done everything, literally: everything has already been done for me), but mostly only in dialects or older language certificates.

In some Upper German dialects, information on place and direction is coded without preposition. However, since the case marking is greatly reduced, the locative is not used here (e.g. i Wohnen Villach ; mir wårma Tarvis ). In the high-level German language, the locative functions are taken from the dative ; In word forms that have been left standing, the genitive has a locative function ( here , outdated also there ).

Altaic, Northeast Caucasian and Uralic languages

Also, the Turkish (not counting the to the Indo-European languages, but in the language family of Turkic languages is classified) knows the locative. It is expressed by the endings -de and -da (after the voiceless consonant hardened to -te and -ta ). In the case of proper names, this ending is separated by an apostrophe. The ending is subject to the small vowel harmony . Examples: Ankara'da = in Ankara, Ürgüp'te = in Ürgüp, Bodrum'da = in Bodrum, plajda = on the beach, okulda = at school, Bülent'te = at Bülent, doktorda = at the doctor, etc.

In addition to Turkish, in some other Turkic languages such as Kyrgyz and in Lesgic (which is not a Turkic language, but an East Caucasian language ), ablative (where?) And allative (where?) As separate cases to be found. The Turkish language can again serve as an example, where the endings change as in the locative above. Examples of the ablative: from Istanbul = İstanbul'dan, from the summit = doruk tan ; Examples of the allative: Şırnak ' a = after Şırnak (but as an exception it is read Şırnağa ), kayağ a = to ski ( Turkish kayak ), Erek Bey' e = to Mr. Erek etc.

The locative is also present in the Finno-Ugric or Uralic languages . The locative cases are implemented in Hungarian using word suffixes, as shown here using the example ház (house): In the inessive (e.g. házban , in the house), in the elative ( házból , out of the house), in the illative ( házba , into the house), in Adessiv ( HAZON , on the house), the ablative ( háztól , away from home), and finally in allative ( házhoz , towards the house). As in Hungarian, there is also a very differentiated system of local case in Finnish, which consists of a total of six cases: In the example talo (house) these are the inessive (e.g. talossa , in the house), the elative ( talosta , aus out of the house), the illative ( taloon , into the house), the adessive ( talolla , on the house), the ablative ( talolta , away from the house) and finally the allative ( talolle , towards the house).

According to Guy Deutscher (2008), the case development in Hungarian can be represented with the case ending -ra , i.e. the German preposition “nach” or “auf”. In modern Hungarian, the locative, "nach", "auf" is declined with the ending -ra . This was not the case in 11th century Hungarian. Rather, a postposition -rea was used.

Modern Hungarian:

Fehérvárra menő hadi útra. 
(wörtliche Übersetzung ins deutsche: „Fehérvár-nach gehend militärisch Straße auf.“)
(auf der Heerstraße, die nach Fehérvár führt.)

11th century Hungarian:

„Feheuuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea.“
(wörtlich „Fehérvár nach gehend militärisch Straße auf.“)

It can be assumed that the successive merging of initially independent post positions with the corresponding nouns generally creates a case system . Consequently, case affixes of all kinds belong to the same word class as the adpositions, because both word classes are connected to one another through the process of fusion . Therefore, there is only one difference between the case endings of (traditional) grammar and the prepositions and postpositions in terms of their degree of fusion. The case endings are stronger, the prepositions and postpositions less merged relators , which mark a grammatical relation on the nominal syntax. In the further linguistic dynamics there were changes in expression which then brought the complex and different causal endings with them.

Web links

Wiktionary: Locative  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ J.B Greenough, K.L. Kittredge, A.A. Howard, Benj. L. D'Ooge: Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges Founded on Comparative Grammar . Ginn & Company.
    • P. 269: “ 427. With names of towns and small islands , and with domus and rūs, the Relations of Place are expressed as follows: [...] 3. The place where, by the Locative. [...] The locative has in the singular of the first and second declension the same form as the genitive, in the plural and in the third declension the same form as the dative or ablative. "
    • P. 34: “ 80. The locative form for nouns of the third declension ends in the singular in or -e , in the plural in -ibus : as, rūrī, in the country: Carthāginī or Carthāgine, at Carthage ; Trallibus, at Tralles . "
  2. ^ Dunstan Brown: Peripheral functions and overdifferentiation: The Russian second locative (PDF) University of Surrey. 2013. Accessed August 21, 2015.
  3. ^ Alois Schmaus: Textbook of the Serbo-Croatian Language , Max Hueber Verlag, 8th edition Munich 1983, ISBN 3-19-005007-4 , p. 58
  4. Guy Deutscher : You Jane, I Goethe. A history of language. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57828-1 , p. 188 f.
  5. Georg Bossong: Analyticity and Syntheticity. Case and adpositions in typological comparison. In: Uwe Hinrichs (Ed.): The European languages ​​on the way to the analytical language type. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-447-04785-2 , pp. 431-452
  6. Guy Deutscher: You Jane, I Goethe. A history of language. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-57828-1 , p. 189 f.