Presidential political system
|Systems of government in the world|
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A presidential system of government or presidential system , also a presidential regime based on the American model, is a system of government in which a president ( Latin: chairman ) holds the functions of head of state , head of government and regularly also the military commander. Such a system is characterized by a pronounced separation and separation of powers . In contrast to the parliamentary system of government , the government is therefore not responsible for the legislature elected by the people .
Characteristic is the degree of independence of the government , in particular the Government of the Legislature: He, unlike in a parliamentary democracy , not by the political no-confidence vote of popular representation, but only due to legal misconduct by a removal procedure (impeachment) be removed from office .
While in parliamentary democracies only parliament is directly elected by the people and the government emerges from it, there are two popular elections in presidential democracies, the parliamentary election and the presidential election. Because the president does not have to have a parliamentary majority in order to get into office and stay in office, the president may rule against the parliamentary majority of other parties. In the United States of America , this is called divided government . Political scientists like Juan Linz speak of a “failure of presidentialism” because such an opposing majority would lead to a politically unstable situation that could ultimately lead to the collapse of democracy , as demonstrated by examples from Latin American countries such as Brazil and Chile .
The semi- presidential system of government can be distinguished from the presidential system of government . In contrast to presidentialism, in semi-presidentialism there is a head of government in addition to the (state) president who can be recalled by parliament. An example of this system of government is France .
Examples of presidential systems of government are the USA and, in fact, almost all states in Latin America . De jure it is z. In Peru, for example, a semi-presidential system of government, because the constitution provides for the position of a head of government ( Presidente del Consejo de Ministros ), who can be overthrown by parliament by a vote of no confidence. However, this is irrelevant in government practice and thus in the constitutional reality of these countries.
- Peter Filzmaier, Fritz Plasser : Politics in American. Elections and political competition in the USA . Manz, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-214-08330-9 .
- Peter Filzmaier, Fritz Plasser: The American Democracy. The system of government and political competition . Manz, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-214-05971-8 .
- Wolfgang Jäger, Christoph M. Haas, Wolfgang Welz (Hrsg.): Government system of the USA: teaching and manual. 3rd edition, Oldenbourg, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58438-7 .
- Heinrich-W. Krumwiede, Detlef Nolte: The role of parliaments in the presidential democracy of Latin America . Institute for Ibero-American customers, Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-926446-65-X .
- Judith Schultz: Presidential Democracies in Latin America. An examination of the presidential systems of government in Costa Rica and Venezuela . Vervuert, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-89354-251-5 .
- Jorge Carpizo : The Mexican presidential system . Eberhard, Munich 1987, ISBN 3-926777-01-X .
- Juan J. Linz: The failure of presidential democracy . The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore 1994, ISBN 0-8018-4784-2 .
- Nicholas Wahl (Ed.): La France présidentielle. L'influence du suffrage universel sur la vie politique . Presses de la Fondation nationale des sciences politiques , Paris 1995, ISBN 2-7246-0658-2 .
- Reinhold Zippelius : General state theory. 16th edition, CH Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60342-6 , § 42.
- Literature on the presidential system of government in the catalog of the German National Library
- Political Database of the Americas at Georgetown University (with constitutions of all states on the American continent)