|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 49 ° 46 ' N , 9 ° 31' E
|Administrative region :||Stuttgart|
|County :||Main-Tauber district|
|Height :||145 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||138.63 km 2|
|Residents:||22,780 (Dec. 31, 2018)|
|Population density :||164 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||97877|
|Primaries :||09342, 09397|
|License plate :||TBB, MGH|
|Community key :||08 1 28 131|
|LOCODE :||DE WTM|
|City structure:||Core city , 15 localities and 5 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Markus Herrera Torrez ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Wertheim in the Main-Tauber district|
Wertheim (in Taubergründischen dialect [ 'væʁdɘ ]) is the northernmost city of Baden-Württemberg , right on the border with Bavaria , about 70 kilometers southeast of Frankfurt am Main and 30 kilometers west of Würzburg . It is located in Tauberfranken and is (as of December 31, 2016) the second largest city in the Main-Tauber district and a medium-sized center in the Heilbronn-Franken region for the surrounding communities. Wertheim has been a major district town since January 1, 1976 .
Wertheim is the northernmost city of Baden-Württemberg and is located in the northwest of the Main-Tauber district at the confluence of the Tauber in the Main , at the foothills of the Odenwald and the Spessart on the other side of the Main. The area of 138.63 square kilometers, bounded in the north by the Main, belongs in its western parts with the Wertheim plateau and the deeply cut valleys of the Main and the Tauber to the sandstone Spessart and in its eastern half to the Marktheidenfelder Platte . The lowest point of the community is on the Main in the direction of Dorfprozelten at a height of 127 meters, the highest point not far south on the Vorderen Berg at around 412 meters.
The following cities and communities border the city of Wertheim. They are called clockwise starting in the east.
Holzkirchen , Helmstadt and Neubrunn (all districts of Würzburg , Bavaria ), Werbach and Külsheim (both Main-Tauber district ), Neunkirchen ( district of Miltenberg , Bavaria), Freudenberg (Main-Tauber district), Dorfprozelten , Stadtprozelten and Faulbach (all districts Miltenberg) as well as Hasloch , Kreuzwertheim and Triefenstein (all districts of Main-Spessart , Bavaria).
Map with all coordinates of the places in the city of Wertheim: OSM | WikiMap
The urban area of Wertheim consists of the core city , 15 localities , each with their own local administration and a local councilor, and 5 districts , each with a district advisory board and a district advisory board chairman . Historically, the urban area to the left of the Tauber was not always viewed as a district. The term “suburb” is used on a copper engraving from the early 18th century for this formerly independently walled area. An alternative name was "over-deafening".
The 15 localities are formerly independent municipalities that were not incorporated into Wertheim until the territorial reform of the 1970s. Their brief portraits can be found on the city administration's website. Some localities or districts also have separate residential spaces with their own names, some of which have very few residents. These are the places:
- Bettingen with the village of Bettingen ( ⊙ ) and the industrial area Almosenberg ( ⊙ ).
- Dertingen with the village of Dertingen ( ⊙ ) and the residential area Renztal ( ⊙ ).
- Dietenhan with the village of Dietenhan ( ⊙ ).
- Dörlesberg with the village Dörlesberg ( ⊙ ), the homestead Ernsthof ( ⊙ ) and the residential areas Ernsthofsiedlung ( ⊙ ) and Ebenmühle ( ⊙ ).
- Grünenwört with the village of Grünenwört ( ⊙ ).
- Höhefeld with the village of Höhefeld ( ⊙ ), the residential area Klosterhöhe ( ⊙ ) as a scattered settlement and the courtyards Mittelhof ( ⊙ ) and Wagenbuch ( ⊙ ).
- Kembach with the village of Kembach ( ⊙ ) and the Sonnenberg residential area ( ⊙ ).
- Lindelbach with the village of Lindelbach ( ⊙ ).
- Mondfeld with the village Mondfeld ( ⊙ ) and the residential area Rosenmühle ( ⊙ ).
- Nassig with the villages Nassig ( ⊙ ) and Ödengesäß ( ⊙ ), the residential area Ödengesäßer Hof ( ⊙ ) and the hamlets Im Tal ( Im Loch ) ( ⊙ ) and Steingasse ( ⊙ ).
- Reicholzheim with the village of Reicholzheim ( ⊙ ), the hamlet Bronnbach ( ⊙ ), the farmstead Schafhof ( ⊙ ) and the residential areas at train station Bronnbach ( ⊙ ), train station Reicholzheim ( ⊙ ), camping site ( ⊙ ), Eichgrundsiedlung ( ⊙ ), Jungheidsiedlung ( ⊙ ) and Teilbacher Mühle ( ⊙ ).
- Sachsenhausen with the village Sachsenhausen ( ⊙ ) and the residential area Am Kirchenweg ( ⊙ ).
- Sonderriet with the village of Sonderriet ( ⊙ ).
- Urphar with the village of Urphar ( ⊙ ) and the Klosterweg residential area ( ⊙ ).
- Waldenhausen with the village of Waldenhausen ( ⊙ ).
Core city and districts
The core town of Wertheim ( ⊙ ) and its districts belong to Wertheim . The six districts are either formerly independent municipalities that were incorporated into Wertheim by 1939 ( Besteheid ( ⊙ ), Eichel / Hofgarten ( ⊙ ) with Eichel ( ⊙ ) and Hofgarten ( ⊙ ) and Vockenrot ( ⊙ )) or newly created areas that after their settlement were declared to be independent districts ( Reinhardshof ( ⊙ ) with the adjacent residential area Besteheider Höhe ( ⊙ ), Wartberg ( ⊙ )). The districts or residential areas of the Brückenviertel ( ⊙ ), Mühlenviertel ( ⊙ ) and Tauberviertel ( ⊙ ) merged into the city of Wertheim. There are also the Haidhof ( ⊙ ) and Neuhof ( ⊙ ) residential spaces . Reinhardshof only came into being in the mid-1990s, when the civilian district of Reinhardshof was relocated from the Peden Barracks, which had been used for military purposes until then , after the US Army had withdrawn . Besteheider Höhe is a residential area that lies between the districts of Reinhardshof, Wartberg and Besteheid.
Wertheim forms a middle center within the Heilbronn-Franconia region , in which Heilbronn is designated as a regional center . In addition to the city of Wertheim, the city of Freudenberg belongs to the middle area of Wertheim , although there are also strong links with neighboring Bavarian communities.
There are three landscape and three nature reserves in Wertheim :
- Landscape protection area Wertheim : 3932.0 ha; Freudenberg, Külsheim, Werbach and Wertheim districts; since 1979.
- Freudenberg landscape protection area : 1,704.5 ha; Freudenberg and Wertheim districts; since 1984.
- Kembachtal landscape protection area : 744.0 ha; Wertheim district, since 1985.
- Ellenberg-Kapf nature reserve : 17.5 ha; City of Wertheim, Dertingen district ; since 1986.
- Gutenberg nature reserve : 12.2 hectares; City of Wertheim, Dertingen district; since 1984.
- Leidenrain nature reserve : 29.7 ha: City of Wertheim, Wertheim district; since 1942 and thus the oldest nature reserve in the Main-Tauber district .
In addition, there are a total of 34 protected natural monuments in the area of the city of Wertheim .
The FFH areas Unteres Taubertal and Sandstein Spessart are partly in the area of the city of Wertheim. There are also eight water protection areas in the Wertheim district.
Division of space
According to data from the State Statistical Office , as of 2014.
Early and Middle Ages
On the Wettenburg , a hill in the Main loop near Urphar east of Wertheim, people already settled in the time of the Michelsberg culture and the urn field culture . There was also a settlement on the hill at the time of the early Celts ( Latène period ) and during the Great Migration .
Wertheim was probably in the 8./9. Founded Century. The first documentary mention of Wertheim (whether left or right Main Main is unclear) took place from 750 to 802 / 779/94 (?). Count Kunibert transfers Eigen zu Wertheim, Biscoffesheim, Kuffese, Rowilenheim, Heringesheim and Kamerdinge to the Fulda monastery (document no. 222, page 320 in the Fulda monastery record book). From the early 12th century a branch of the noble family of Reginbodonen named itself after Wertheim. After they, as Counts of Wertheim , built a castle ( Burg Wertheim ) to the left of the Main, on the right bank of the Tauber estuary, a new settlement developed below this dominant fortification, which was also named Wertheim. In 1192 it was first mentioned as “ Suburbium castri Wertheim”, around 1200 it was called “oppidum” and in 1244 as “civitas”.
From 1355 to 1373 the city was ruled by Count Eberhard von Wertheim. Under his aegis, Wertheim received the coin rack in a document in 1363 because, according to the document, he supported Emperor Charles IV with "constant trewe and fast service (...) often undefrozen". During this time, the Count of Wertheim subordinated the entire county to the Emperor Charles IV. The Emperor returned the county to the Count as a fief of the Bohemian Empire. This bondage to Bohemia made the Wertheim counts confidants of the monarchy. The last Count of Wertheim was Michael III. He married the eldest daughter of Count Ludwig zu Stolberg , Katharina. Since no male descendant emerged from this marriage, the noble family died out and Ludwig zu Stolberg came into the possession of the Grafschaft Wertheim. After his death in 1574, the county went to another son-in-law, Count Ludwig von Löwenstein.
3. Würzburg feud
After the death of Count Ludwig zu Stolberg in 1574, the three sons-in-law of Stolberg, Count Philipp von Eberstein , Katharina's husband, Count Dietrich von Manderscheid , Elisabeth's husband, and Ludwig III recognized. von Löwenstein , husband of Anna, took over the succession and ruled the county together. This unity was lost after the death of Dietrich von Manderscheid in 1593 through Elisabeth's second marriage to the Catholic Wilhelm von Krichingen , as he was not together with Ludwig III. wanted to rule. In addition, he claimed the Würzburg fiefdom of Count Ludwig zu Stolberg. The Würzburg bishop Julius Echter sided with Krichingen in this dispute and supported him. After the death of Countess Katharina von Eberstein, von Krichingen moved his residence to Remlingen, from where the feud began.
The bishop had Wertheim besieged and individual villages plundered. In 1605 Bettingen and on April 23, 1606 Höhefeld were attacked and plundered by episcopal horsemen. Five citizens were injured, some seriously.
In 1612, after the death of the childless von Krichingen couple, Julius Echter moved all of Wertheim's left-wing property into the Würzburg monastery . A complaint from Wertheim contains the comment " Maior minoris esca " (The big one eats the little one).
The conflict led to the fact that the four former local offices (Karlstadt-) Laudenbach, Remlingen, Freudenberg and Schweinberg became Würzburg. The county of Wertheim did not accept the loss of the offices and filed lawsuits against it in the 18th century, but they were unsuccessful.
Split of the princely line
The city of Wertheim, which was part of the Franconian Empire between 1500 and 1806 , developed into the center of the county of the same name , which has since been ruled by the counts or later princes of Löwenstein-Wertheim . Around 1630, the entire Löwenstein-Wertheim family split into two lines: the older and Protestant line was nicknamed Virneburg and the younger, re-Catholicized, was nicknamed Rochefort . This principality existed until 1806 and was then mediatized with the Rhine Federation Act. The city of Wertheim and with it the surrounding area to the left of the Main were annexed to the Grand Duchy of Baden , the areas to the right of the Main initially went to the state of the Prince Primate von Dalberg and the later Grand Duchy of Frankfurt and, after its dissolution in 1815, to the Kingdom of Bavaria. Wertheim became the seat of various administrative districts (City Office, First and Second Land Office), which merged in 1819 to form the Wertheim District Office (see Baden's administrative structure ).
In 1363, Count Eberhard von Wertheim was granted the right to mint coins and make financial profits from them. However, only a few coins have survived from the time of the Counts of Wertheim; from 1442 to 1556, when Michael III. died, there are no imprints at all. Under Count Ludwig von Stolberg, coinage was resumed until his death in 1574. Coin minting was interrupted again under his successor, Count Ludwig von Löwenstein. Its heirs, as the community government, again minted coins for five years around 1620. The mint was again not used during the Thirty Years' War and the time thereafter. Subsequently, both Eucharius Casimir, who belonged to the Virneburg line , and Maximilian Karl, who belonged to the rival Rochefort line , minted coins again. The latter wanted to divide the county under both lines for administrative reasons. A coin stamp from that period shows as an allegory a symbol juxtaposed with a strong fruit tree, which is thriving by two workers, and a second, which is depicted without fruit and threatens to be pulled in half by force. From 1730 to 1750 - both had already died at that time - coinage in Wertheim was suspended again until it was revived by Count Johann Ludwig Vollrath and Prince Karl Thomas until the end of the county in 1806.
The stately mint was initially in the Wertheim Castle, then in the later court and finally in the old town building, which still bears the name Old Mint today . In the 16th century the street on the coin was called Schulzengasse . The Schultheiße or Schulzen supervised the coinage. 196 stamps remain from the Wertheim mint.
Flood of February 1784
On 27./28. February Wertheim experienced the highest flood in its history to date. The skippers Georg Nicolaus and Philipp Christoph Müller reported on the development in advance: “The winter was already cold and unfriendly in November. Between December 10 and 20, the Main froze over in various places, including in Eichel. After Christmas, rain and lots of snow alternated. (…) In the first week of January the Main closed completely. ”When the snowfall ended, the snow melted on February 24th, followed two days later by heavy rain. When the Tauber Bridge was flooded, many residents fled to the right side of the Taubers. The Tauber Bridge collapsed on the afternoon of February 27; the water continued to rise the following night, so that it was not possible to get through either at the Main Gate or the Bridge Gate. The only way to get into town by boat was through the Eicheltor. The level reached a level of 8.50 meters. This extreme flood was probably related to the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Laki , which led to massive storms across Europe.
Revolution of 1848/49
The famine of 1846/47 was also one of the reasons for the March Revolution in Wertheim . The bread for the poor was subsidized by the city treasury in Wertheim, and for some it was given out free of charge. There was also a municipal soup establishment. On March 2, 1848, on the occasion of the newly acquired rights such as freedom of the press, jury courts and armament, which had been granted by the Grand Duke, a pageant through the city. The train from Turnern went through the festively illuminated city to the town hall and from there accompanied by Mayor Ludwig Haas, most of the local council and the citizens' committee to the Löwensteiner Hof, where a number of speeches were given.
After Reicholzheim farmers demonstrated in front of the Fürstlich Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg Rent Office on March 10 in Bronnbach , night vigils were set up in Wertheim, which were recruited from the rifle corps and the rest of the citizenry, as it was feared that the Reicholzheim farmers would move to Wertheim but this was not the case.
On April 4th, Wertheim residents put a black, red and gold flag on the top of the tower. It was donated with voluntary contributions and was greeted with shots of joy. In the election of the electors for the National Assembly on April 13th, the representatives of a constitutional monarchy prevailed in Wertheim .
On April 1st, shortly after the law on the establishment of vigilante groups, a vigilante group was set up in Wertheim. This was reallocated in June and comprised 500 men on foot and 20 on horseback. At its head was Hereditary Prince Adolf zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg , under whose command the vigilante marched on the market square on August 6, where he read out the Manifesto To the German People by Archduke Johann of Austria , the imperial administrator . Initially, the vigilante could only exercise because there was still a lack of weapons, because these had to be procured at the expense of the citizens.
In Wertheim people were critical of Hecker's republican goals , a circumstance that was particularly valid in the meetings for the election of electors for the National Assembly. In the autumn of 1848 associations were formed with the aim of shaping political life. In September the workers' education association was brought into being, later, on October 27th, the people's association in the Gasthaus Ochsen, which at the time was nicknamed "riot box" because of the violent change of opinion there. The cause was a dispute between the three mayors Adelmann, Götzelmann and Scheurich and the prince. On September 30, they asked him on behalf of 19 parishes in the former county of Wertheim to waive some old taxes. His answer, which was published in the democratic Main and Tauberbote , is said to have been: “Yes, yes! You get nothing. Prince Löwenstein doesn't shit in his pants! "
When Robert Blum died on November 9th, the editorial staff of the Main- und Tauberboten accepted donations for his bereaved families. The Democrats organized a memorial service on November 15th. A little later, in February 1849, their opponents founded the Patriotic Association, but they were unable to outstrip the Volksverein, as it was popular because of the dispute over the imperial constitution . On May 20, 1849, the Patriotic Association organized a large popular assembly on the market square, to which, according to press reports at the time, 9,000 to 10,000 people are said to have gathered. Despite the absence of almost all the speakers announced, it was decided to recognize the provisional government in Baden, to which the army had also passed, and to support the Bavarian Franks in their fight for the imperial constitution. At the end of this meeting, around 400 students from the University of Würzburg asked for asylum in Wertheim, as they were exposed to attacks by the military stationed there in Würzburg. After eight days and discussions with authorities and the university, they were able to return to Würzburg. They were adopted with a festive ball in the Löwensteiner Hof.
In the elections for the constituent assembly in June, Nikolaus Müller, a printer from the Volksverein, was elected as one of the four members of the 20th constituency. In addition, he succeeded Jakob Langguth as “civil commissioner” and as such was responsible for the administration and leadership of the popular riot. He printed from 1843 to June 1849 the Main and Tauber messengers, the predecessor of today Wertheimer Zeitung , and also the Mauth sermon of Ludwig Borne . In May 1849, after calls from the People's Association, the Gymnastics Association and the Workers' Association, a volunteer corps was founded . On June 23 and 24, there were tumults when the first contingent of the People's Army was supposed to move to Tauberbischofsheim to suppress counter-revolutionary efforts there. Two members of the Fatherland Association tried to prevent this and pointed out that the Prussians were on the march. This action led to her arrest.
That first contingent moved out on June 24th, but learned in Hundheim of the defeat of the revolutionary troops at Waghäusel and turned back. The Prussian troops occupied Wertheim on July 16 and 17 with the 5th Prussian Jäger Battalion and stayed there until 1852. The Volksverein was dissolved immediately, several citizens were arrested as revolutionaries and imprisoned partly in the city and partly in Külsheim Castle. September 1849 after three months the longest imprisonment came to an end. Two Jews, Philipp Mandelbaum and Bernhard Benario, were also among the convicted Wertheimers. The publisher Nikolaus Müller was able to escape with the help of Engelwirt, his neighbor, and fled to America via Switzerland. The board of the workers' association, Ernst Weimar, was also able to escape. Other punishments such as city arrest, fines and penal sentences were also imposed. However, the hunters from Görlitz, part of the Prussian occupation, also contributed to the Wertheim culture with concerts. The infantry that followed this unit left a baptismal font with a canopy in the church of St. Venatius, made in neo-Gothic style.
Establishment of the drinking water supply
As early as 1882 there were three so - called running water fountains in Wertheim - at the court, on the market square and in the Brückengasse. During the construction of the Schlossberg tunnel, which was part of the Lohr – Wertheim railway line , spring water was encountered at the tunnel entrance on Mühlenstrasse, which was collected and led to the fountain via cast iron pipes. This first drinking water supply was ceremoniously put into operation on May 17, 1882. In 1886 the water pipes to the individual houses were continued. Since they were fed by the Dörlesberger Pfarrwiesenquelle, they led via Reicholzheim through the Waldenhausen railway tunnel to the elevated reservoir on the Knackenberg. In 1912, the wolf and donkey springs near Dörlesberg were opened up in order to be able to expand the drinking water supply; In 1915 another elevated tank was added on the Alte Steige.
Flood of February 1909
On 7./8. February 1909 Wertheim was surprised by a flood that was particularly violent and entered the city chronicle as the second highest of the 20th century. In addition to the already existing snow masses, more was added on February 1, so that even non-residents traveled by train with their sledges to toboggan in Wertheim. When the temperature suddenly rose to seven to nine degrees due to a change in weather, the snow thawed. On 4 February, the reported Wertheimer Zeitung , that the defrost water "almost causing floods" ran through the streets. On February 5th, the Tauber floods, which resembled a lake until Bad Mergentheim , entered the city. In the evening, the Tauber Bridge was loaded with rails to prevent it from being washed away. On Saturday, however, the level of the Tauber fell surprisingly again, but the Main carried more and more water into the city. On Sunday, February 7th, individual streets were then two to three meters under water. The main level was almost seven meters, and inner-city traffic was mostly handled by barges and ships. Onlookers also came by train from the higher villages around to see the flood. The newspaper reported, among other things, damage to quarry owners whose huts had been torn away. It is true that the state commissioner came from Mannheim to get an overview of the damage; however, there were numerous complaints that the government was not offering any assistance to the victims. One house had to be demolished after the flood; the clean-up work could not be completed until the beginning of March, as severe frost had prevailed up until then.
Memorial "Reichstreue am Main"
On March 31, 1931, a plan for a memorial was presented in the Wertheimer Zeitung , which was to be called "Reichstreue am Main". The initiator was high school professor Alfred Bock, who wanted to thematize the loss of territory resulting from the Versailles Treaty and to express the “feeling of togetherness” of north and south on the Main line. A three-arched hall of honor was envisaged, which was to be surmounted by a massive tower and thus could also have served as a lookout point - the latter in particular due to its location on today's Wartberg. The building was to be dedicated to the founders of the German Empire and its defenders in the First World War; it should be carried out by the architect Bernhard Klüpfel. A memorial committee was established; In addition to the initiator of Wertheim's mayor Hans Bardon, Prince Udo zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg, city architect Klüpfel and painter Willy Exner were among its members . The latter made a design in which a statue with a raised hand of an oath was to crown the building, as a symbol of the chosen motto from the Rütli oath in the version of Schiller's Wilhelm Tell : "We want to be a united people of brothers". The point was intended to be 310 m above sea level. The population was called upon in leaflets to cooperate (among other things via the " Voluntary Labor Service ") and to donate money. On July 12, 1932, the municipality bought the required building site and construction work began, but did not progress very far, as most of the labor service workers logged off by the end of November and construction apparently stopped after that. After the National Socialists came to power, the funds collected up to then were probably used for the Kreuzwertheim memorial on the Kaffelstein.
|Political party||January 19, 1919||May 20, 1928||September 14, 1930||July 31, 1932||November 6, 1932||March 5, 1933|
|National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP)||-¹||8.1%||680||30.48%||1,061||43.48%||911||41.28%||1,197||51.02%|
|German Center Party (Center)||-¹||15.5%||-¹||15.4%||384||17.22%||409||16.76%||344||15.58%||357||15.22%|
|Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)||-¹||23.5%||-¹||18.9%||250||11.2%||306||12.54%||243||11.01%||256||10.91%|
|German National People's Party (DNVP)||-¹||-¹||-¹||28%||206||9.23%||205||8.4%||228||10.33%||222||9.46%|
|Christian Social People's Service (CSVD)||-¹||-¹||-¹||-¹||341||15.28%||180||7.38%||161||7.29%||124||5.28%|
|Communist Party of Germany (KPD)||-¹||-¹||-¹||4.3%||103||4.6%||163||6.68%||192||8.7%||113||4.81%|
|German People's Party (DVP)||-¹||-¹||-¹||8.9%||196²||8.79% ²||38||1.56%||76||3.44%||47||2%|
|German Democratic Party (DDP), from 1930 German State Party (DStP)||-¹||35.1%||-¹||13.1% ³||53||2.17%||34||1.54%||30th||1.28%|
¹ No figures. ² DVP and the German State Party formed a unified list in Baden for the election on September 14, 1930. ³ Including VRP .
Sources: Ellen Scheurich: Rise and seizure of power of National Socialism in Wertheim am Main, Wertheim 1983 as well as figures from the official announcements in the corresponding annual volumes of the Tauber-Zeitung and the Tauber- and Frankenbote as well as information from the State Statistical Office.
Resignation of Mayor Bardon
At the beginning of the Nazi era , the long-time mayor Hans Bardon was ousted from office in March 1933. An official medical certificate was used as the occasion, in which he was certified incapacity for work. After three unsuccessful attempts by opening criminal proceedings, the NS municipal council achieved their goal of changing mayor. The impeachment of Bardon was preceded by a nervous breakdown in the summer of 1931, which Bardon probably suffered as a result of the aggressive behavior of the NSDAP local council group. As a result, he had to interrupt his work several times, but this did not lead to any improvement in his condition. Bardon also led violent arguments with the representatives of the NSDAP when they demanded "to hoist the swastika flag in a prominent place" on the occasion of the Reichstag election. Two days before the election, this application was rejected in the municipal council with seven against five votes. The demand for Hitler to be granted honorary citizenship in Wertheim was postponed until after the election. On March 4, 1933, the local councilors Schüßler, Menz and Schwöbel (NSDAP) complained to Mayor Bardon about the course of the council meeting the previous day. Bardon was asked to disregard the municipal council decision and to flag the town hall for March 4th and 5th, as this was in the "interest of peace and order", otherwise there was threat of "unpleasant demonstrations". Bardon did not comply with the wish for the flag to be displayed; the threatened demonstrations did not take place. By bringing Baden into line, the NSDAP was also able to take power in Wertheim. Thereupon Bardon requested his retirement on March 20, 1933, which was approved by the local council three days later. A request by the NSDAP to only pay Bardon the remuneration that he was entitled to according to the guidelines of the municipal pay regulations from April 1, without taking into account a higher classification and an expense allowance, was accepted with six to two votes (with one abstention). After taking office, the new mayor of Wertheim, Friedrich Bender, immediately had his office redesigned by the Munich interior designers Knidlberger and Schüßler in the National Socialist homeland style, with a large, gold-colored imperial eagle with a swastika attached to his new armchair.
Granting honorary citizenship and renaming of streets
Wertheim was one of the first cities in Baden to give the Reich President von Hindenburg and Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler honorary citizenship. At the request of the NSDAP, only Hitler was originally supposed to become an honorary citizen, but at the municipal council meeting on March 3, 1933, von Hindenburg was also added to this demand by the other members. There was no vote.
In a newspaper advertisement on March 6, members of the NSDAP "irrevocably" announced that Hitler would be granted honorary citizenship for March 8. On March 7th it was announced in the same way that the Reich President and the Reich Chancellor “tomorrow, Wednesday, will become honorary citizens of our city. We ask the population and the state and municipal authorities of the old city of Wertheim to flag from early morning up to and including Saturday ”. The application for flagging, which was introduced by the NSDAP and the DNVP , was granted, as was the application for the renaming of two streets, namely Bahnhofstrasse in Hindenburgstrasse and Poststrasse in Adolf-Hitler-Strasse . Today's Hämmelsgasse was then called Robert-Wagner-Strasse , named after the Gauleiter of Baden; the Judengasse and the Neben-Judengasse, however, still bear the names Gerbergasse and Wehrgasse today. On December 7, 1945, honorary citizenship for Hitler and von Hindenburg was declared null and void by a resolution of the local council.
In 1936 the Wertheim district office was abolished, Wertheim came to the Tauberbischofsheim district office , which was renamed the Tauberbischofsheim district in 1939 . In 1937 Wertheim received a military airfield on the Reinhardshof and became a garrison town.
Boycott of Jewish businesses
Even before the boycott of Jewish shops was uniform across the Reich on April 1, 1933, the Wertheim NSDAP branch organized a boycott of Jewish shops in the city. On March 14th, for example, an advertisement appeared in the Wertheimer Zeitung, which was directed “to the national revolutionary-minded population of town and country”. In it it was announced that at the request of the SA the closing of all Jewish shops at 2 a.m. the day before had been forced . The shops were allowed to reopen two hours after this action, as Interior Minister Frick had banned individual actions. In the ad, the Wertheim Jews were also accused of supporting the communist march of the Iron Front by donating money. to have staged .
In 1934, posters and signs with the words "Jews undesirable" were put up at the entrance to the town of Wertheim; The advertising banners for this year's Michaelis Fair were also supplemented with the banner “Jews are undesirable in Wertheim”. The latter were removed along with the advertising after the Michaelmas Mass on October 8, 1934. With regard to the posters at the entrances to the town, the Minister of the Interior was asked in a letter of October 26, 1934 to work towards the removal of these signs , since “the installation of such signs (...) with regard to their damaging effect on international tourism and the role that international Judaism plays ”was considered questionable. In the reply from the Minister of the Interior of November 15, 1934, it is pointed out that the signs were put up on the basis of an order from the district administration and that the deputy Gauleiter Hermann Röhn also campaigned for their removal, as did the Minister of the Interior himself On November 4th, the district management was instructed by Röhn to remove the signs. This decision was reaffirmed by the Minister of the Interior on June 21, 1935 and May 8, 1936 by circular letters to district offices, police headquarters and police headquarters.
Reprisals against pastor Karl Bär
The Catholic pastor Karl Bär (1880–1968), who was also the local chairman of the Center Party, was repeatedly the victim of hostility and reprisals because he made no secret of his critical attitude towards National Socialism. In October 1933 a report appeared in the Tauberbischofsheimer newspaper “Der Franke”, in which there was a detailed report on how Pastor Bär allegedly abused a student at the commercial school who had greeted him with the Hitler salute. The report referred to this behavior as an “act of sabotage”.
The Archbishop's Ordinariate in Freiburg also put pressure on Bär. In a letter dated July 12, 1934, it requested the pastor to be transferred. Bear answered the letter with the side note “No! Should I be a coward! ". In a further letter, dated December 3, 1934, the Archbishop's Ordinariate, however, withdrew from this request. In it it explained to the Minister of Culture, Education and Justice that there was no reason to continue to demand that Bär be transferred. Attached to the letter was a letter from the Catholic Board of Trustees in which full confidence was expressed in the city pastor. His loyalty to the government was also shown.
On July 23, 1934, Bär's apartment was searched for political writings by the Gestapo . Bär had the unsuccessful search certified.
The strongly anti-Jewish article “Pastor Bär and his Jews” appeared in the “Burning Mirror” of the “Volksjugend”. It is reported about him as follows:
“Pastor Bär cannot yet forget these Jewish times. One sees him all too often standing with the poor Wertheimer crooks of the Jewish race. So it happened on July 8, 1935, during the school break, that Pastor Bär took a short special break in front of the trade school on his way to religious instruction. For he had met Max Held, the Jewish department store clerk in Wertheim, and now Pastor Bär was talking to Max Held, the Maccabees, in the most friendly way outside the schoolhouse. Held muttered and Pastor Bear smiled! In response to this, the other students would have said, 'Ugh! Pooh!' called. "
The article ends:
“Pastor Bär is not a Jewish rabbi, but a Christian pastor, and he does not teach in Palestine, but in Aryan Germany. But we say to the Wertheimer youth: 'You are right if you defend yourself against such Jewish pastors!' (...) "
The Karlsruhe Hitler Youth called this incident in a letter of August 12, 1935 to the Archbishop's Ordinariate in Freiburg, a case of racial uncleanliness . In 1940 Bär agreed to his early retirement. In April of the same year he also had to defend himself against accusations that he had violated the national community by purchasing an excessive amount of herrings. On July 13, 1942, Bär complained in a letter to a dean in Freiburg about the lack of support from the church.
Karl Bär was made an honorary citizen of the city of Wertheim on December 30, 1960.
The Jewish community under National Socialism
From 1827 to 1885 Wertheim was the seat of the District Rabbinate Wertheim , after which it was co-administered by the District Rabbinate Mosbach . In 1885 the number of Jewish residents was 221. Until 1933 there were numerous commercial and industrial enterprises that belonged to Jewish owners. As a result of the Nazi persecution and murder of Jews, 35 of the 109 Jewish citizens still living in Wertheim in 1933 were killed; 29 had emigrated by 1938. In the late summer of 1938, the Jewish community under its last chairman, Sigmund Cahn, sold the synagogue building to the city. That is why it was not burned down a few days later during the November pogrom , but the interior was devastated. The city set up a carpentry shop and warehouse in the building; it was demolished in February 1961 to widen the right-hand Tauberstrasse.
At the time of the Reichspogromnacht , only 45 Jewish residents lived in Wertheim. On October 22, 1940, the last 19 Jews from Wertheim were deported to the Gurs internment camp in the Pyrenees with a further 6,500 people as part of the so-called Bürckel-Wagner campaign of the Nazi Gauleitung Baden . From there they were taken to death camps in the east in 1942 . Four of the Wertheimers survived the war.
So-called stumbling blocks were placed in front of the former homes of the deportees , as well as in front of some of the former homes of the 37 euthanasia victims in Wertheim (see also Action T4 ). A memorial plaque on the city wall between Gerbergasse 18 and the Spitzen Turm has been a reminder of the deportations since 1976. In 2013, on the initiative of the Pro Wertheim Citizens' Association, the Neuplatz memorial site was set up to commemorate the former Jewish fellow citizens . There are several information boards on the history of the synagogue, mikveh and deportation.
A mikveh is an immersion bath used to cleanse before religious acts or festivities. The bathhouse in Wertheim, first mentioned in a document in 1662, was located in today's new location. Demolished in 1971, the underground bath was determined in an archaeological excavation in 2001 in outline and with stairs and marked in the newly laid pavement of the square.
A symbolic shadow cast by the synagogue, which was demolished in 1961, is also embedded in the flooring of the Neuplatz as a black plaster contour. Street signs ("formerly Judengasse") mark the former Jewish quarter behind the pointed tower.
The Americans take the city
In January 1945 Wertheim was to be bombed in a British air raid; however, due to the weather, the planes had to turn away. However, on the Easter weekend of the same year, the city was confronted directly with the war. On March 24 at around 4 a.m. Albrecht Englert from Wertheim received the radio message from the Commander-in-Chief of the entire Western Front, Field Marshal Albert Kesselring , “All river crossings in the area from Frankfurt / Main to Ochsenfurt / Main are to be equipped with explosive charges and blown up when the enemy approaches "As well as further orders with the content that on the line Aschaffenburg - Miltenberg - Wertheim - Eberbach" a defensive position should be set up as quickly as possible "and several units should" move into this area in forced marches ".
On the following Palm Sunday, the first American low-level planes flew over the city and thus disrupted an event by the Hitler Youth under NSDAP district leader Hermann Schmitt, who warned the audience with the words "Ladies and gentlemen, step back into the streets" as a precaution prompted. The flyover of enemy planes continued the next day.
On Tuesday, March 27th, the high school for boys, the former grammar school , was closed due to the war and an army command post was set up there. The order to blow up all ships in the area of the Eichel lock was withdrawn on the same day.
While the nearby Nassig was attacked by the Americans on March 30, there was a tank alarm in Wertheim in the early evening. At around 11 p.m., a broken tank fired three or four shots at the right bank of the Main, a little later the air base on Reinhardshof was partially blown up by its German crew. Between 3 and 4 a.m. the road and railway bridge over the Main was blown up, causing it to break apart almost in the middle. The shelling of the city remained only sporadic on Saturday; In the afternoon there was a call to defend the city.
After Nassig was captured, the 12th US Armored Division received reinforcements from advancing infantry troops from the 42nd Infantry Division ("Rainbow Division") in order to be able to take Wertheim on Easter Sunday. On Sunday, April 1, 1945, an attempt was made to assemble the Volkssturm to defend the city. In the early afternoon of that day, the road bridge over the Tauber was supposed to be blown up by a demolition squad. However, it was only possible to tear a hole about two meters in size in the bridge so that traffic could continue to pass, while the tanks of the US Army had already advanced to the Wartberg and fired over the city in the direction of the Main Valley. Dean Heinrich Schäfer noted in the book of the dead of the Evangelical Church in Wertheim that four German soldiers were killed and one seriously wounded by the shooting in Eichel. "These soldiers were among the few troops equipped with machine guns and bazookas, who were unsuccessfully used to defend Wertheim against a superior force" (Schäfer).
The fire brigade was able to limit the damage caused by a fire bomb hit to the affected building. Thereupon Anton Dinkel and Heinrich Herz asked the mayor to immediately hoist the white flag on the keep of the castle, which also happened after a discussion and the departure of the mayor at 4:25 p.m., whereupon the shelling of Wertheim was stopped. A memorial plaque was placed inside the castle in 2005 to honor the efforts of spelled and hearts.
After the Second World War
The admission of many refugees led to a housing shortage in Wertheim shortly after the Second World War. To counteract this, the construction of the "glassworks settlement" began in 1951 in the neighborhood of the new glass industry in Wertheimder's district of Besteheid ; At the beginning of 1952 approx. 1400 new residents were able to move in here. In the mid-1960s, the construction company Neue Heimat built a satellite town with around 1,000 residential units. The new district was built on the Wartberg below the former air base and, in addition to the striking high-rise buildings, also includes row houses, multi-storey blocks and row bungalows. The primary school and the ecumenical church center were also established at that time.
From 1952 to 1994 there was a US military base in Wertheim, the Peden Barracks .
In 2015, Wertheim was awarded the honorary title of “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .
Squatting by the "Aktion Jugendhaus"
After Mayor Scheuermann had given the promise for a youth house in 1969, which was not redeemed, there was a squatting by young people in Wertheim in 1971 , who wanted to emphasize the desire for their own youth house, although it was clear from the start that the house was occupied had to give way to road construction. After that, commitments were repeated until 1973 with no result, after which there was another squatting that year. The action was preceded by a signature collection with 2,800 signatures, a symbolic building of the wall and several general assemblies, and a solidarity demonstration also took place. The occupation ended three days later with an eviction by the police and the demolition of the house. The alternative offered by the city afterwards was rejected by the young people because the rooms were too small and the house was dilapidated. After another six-month negotiation period, which remained without results, the “Aktion Jugendhaus” only became active again on March 7, 1975 when it occupied another house. The occupiers followed the city's request to vacate the house by March 24, 1975 at 10 p.m.
The building was occupied again in April. The local council has now called for the establishment of a sponsoring association so that the city “has a permanent negotiating partner. A committee of the local council wants to visit the 'Klösterle' in Mühlenstrasse, which is occupied by the young people, to find out about the structural condition of the house. ”Through a variety of activities - also reported on television -“ the letting of the house became more or less less forced ”. One year after the occupation: at the beginning of March 1976, a press conference took stock and on March 6, 1976 a festival “1 year youth center” was celebrated. However, it was also announced that “the city (sold) the building to a private individual.” The city's promise that the youth could move into another building a year later (“in March 1977”) was received with great skepticism. A little later the decision was made in an unusual way: “First the burglars came last week [13. on March 14, 1976] and demolished the furnishings of the youth center, then [22. March 1976] there was a fire in the youth center. […] The furnishings that were in the rooms were destroyed in the flames. ”After that, the building was no longer habitable for the time being.
District reform and incorporations
From 1972 a total of 15 surrounding communities were incorporated into Wertheim. During the district reform of January 1, 1973, the Tauberbischofsheim district was incorporated into the newly formed Main-Tauber district , which was also assigned to the newly established Franconia region (today Heilbronn-Franken) within the newly circumscribed Stuttgart district . The former Baden city of Wertheim is now administered from Stuttgart in Württemberg .
On January 1, 1975, Reicholzheim was incorporated into Wertheim against the opposition of many citizens of Reicholzheim by a judgment of the administrative court of Baden-Württemberg. With this last incorporation, the population of the city of Wertheim exceeded the 20,000 mark. As a result, the city administration applied for a major district town , which the state government of Baden-Württemberg then decided with effect from January 1, 1976.
The following communities and districts were incorporated into Wertheim:
- 1913: Besteheid
- 1935: acorn
- 1937: Vockenrot
- January 1, 1972: Bettingen, Grünenwört, Lindelbach, Nassig, Sonderriet, Urphar, Waldenhausen
- April 1, 1972: Mondfeld resort
- December 1, 1972: Dertingen, Dietenhan , Dörlesberg , Kembach, Sachsenhausen
- January 1, 1975: Höhefeld, Reicholzheim resort
Population figures according to the respective area. The figures are estimates, census results (¹) or official updates from the respective statistical offices ( main residences only ).
¹ census result
² By 1950 Wertheim had taken in 3,854 refugees and 1,294 evacuees. ³ taken from Nordisk Familjebok .
The archive of the city of Wertheim was brought into the Main-Tauber archive network as one of three sub- archives . The archive network was set up in 1988 in the former hospital of the Bronnbach monastery under the auspices of the Wertheim State Archive, which was founded in 1978 . Soon afterwards, the Wertheim City Archives were added as a second archive, almost ten years before the archive network was founded.
The Wertheim dialect, which is only spoken in a very small area, belongs to the deaf-green dialect. This is attributed to the East Franconian language area .
Religion on June 16, 1933:
- Evangelical: 68.9%
- Catholic: 28.2%
- Jews: 2.6%
In 1518, one year after Luther published his theses on the sale of indulgences, Count Georg had a script posted at the St. Marien collegiate church in Wertheim in which the large number of foundations for funeral masses was denounced and in their place more charity was demanded, whereupon he admitted Received letters of protest from the episcopal city of Würzburg. After the dean of the collegiate church, Johann Friedel, died in 1519, Count Georg had the Würzburg auxiliary bishop look for a successor at the University of Ingolstadt in 1520. Thereupon Hans Götz, a close confidante of Johannes Eck, was recommended to him as a pious, honorable and learned Master of the Holy Scriptures . He took office in July.
From 1522, the Reformation, according to the Lutheran confession, gradually took hold in the city and was finally completed in 1530. After that, Wertheim was a Protestant city for many centuries. No other denominations besides the Lutherans were allowed. The Counter-Reformation during the Thirty Years' War could not prevail. After the transfer to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1806, Wertheim became the seat of the Evangelical Dean's Office in Wertheim . The associated church district today includes all parishes in the city of Wertheim. The main church is the collegiate church. A second pastor's post was set up there after the Reformation, which was transferred to the Martin Luther Church in Besteheid in 1955 . A third pastorate was combined with Waldenhausen in 1800. In 1974 an ecumenical community center was established in the Wartberg district, from where the Germany-wide Bible Week began in the spring of 1935 . In the districts of Bettingen, Dertingen, Dietenhan, Eichel-Hofgarten, Grünenwört, Höhefeld, Kembach, Lindelbach, Nassig, Sachsenhausen , Sonderriet and Waldenhausen there are Protestant churches or parishes, in some cases only branch parishes with mostly younger church buildings. The Romanesque fortified church of St. Jakob is in the Urphar district .
On February 14, 2016, ZDF broadcast a live television service from the Church of the Resurrection in Nassig.
Wertheim belonged with its medieval Marienkirche (since the introduction of the Reformation ev. Collegiate church) initially to the diocese of Würzburg and was assigned to the archdeaconate Karlstadt am Main.
In 1631, Count Johann Dietrich zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort brought Capuchins back to Wertheim to reclaim the Wertheim population for the Roman Catholic Church . However, due to the provisions of the Peace of Westphalia , they had to leave the city again in 1649. The future Prince Maximilian Karl zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort again invited Capuchins to Wertheim as court chaplains in 1682 and assigned them the “Klösterle” near the collegiate church as a branch. The Capuchins celebrated masses and the Liturgy of the Hours in the choir of the collegiate church that became Protestant through the Reformation until the 19th century . The small Capuchin branch in Wertheim, which housed two to four brothers, was supplied with natural produce and financial resources by the Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg class. The brothers were each sent to Wertheim for about three years by their convents . With the death of the last president Venantius Arnold in 1836, the Capuchin hospice in Wertheim went out. Father Venantius Arnold (1754–1836) worked for over 35 years as court chaplain and Catholic parish priest in Wertheim. Building his own church was very important to him.
- In the 19th century, for the first time since the Reformation, an increasing number of Catholics settled in Wertheim, but by the middle of the century they only made up about a fifth of the population. Initially, the parish members belonged to the Reicholzheim parish, which had become Catholic again in 1673. In 1842 the parish of St. Venantius was built in Wertheim with a church in the style of neo-Romanesque historicism with neo-Gothic individual forms. The patronage is derived from Father Venantius Arnold, who strongly promoted the establishment of a Catholic parish in Wertheim. The church patron, St. Venantius of Camerino , according to tradition, around the year 250 at the age of 15 years under Emperor Decius the martyrdom suffered. The church center on the Wartberg, belonging to the parish, was inaugurated in 1976. There is also a Catholic hospital chapel.
- In the glassworks settlement built after the Second World War from 1949, later the district of Besteheid, the church of St. Elisabeth was built in 1953 , which was elevated to a parish church in 1970 . The church building was built for the displaced people from Hungary, Bohemia and Thuringia who had settled there. The church was therefore placed under the patronage of St. Elisabeth , who came from Hungary . In addition, it is consecrated as co-patron saint Clement Maria Hofbauer , who came from South Moravia .
- The Church of St. Lioba was built in the Eichel district in 1968/1969 and is responsible for the entire eastern area of the city of Wertheim. Saint Lioba von Tauberbischofsheim , a relative of Saint Bonifatius , went to the Franconian Empire as a missionary and was abbess of the local monastery in Wertheim's neighboring town of Tauberbischofsheim . Lioba thus made a decisive contribution to Christianization in the Taubertal. The elevation to the parish took place in 1972. However, the parish church only had its own pastor until 1989.
- In the Dertingen district there has been the Maria Rosenkranzkönigin branch church since the post-war period, which is housed in a temporary barrack building to this day.
- The Dörlesberg district, like Reicholzheim, has been Catholic again since 1674 and has a church from 1721.
- Mondfeld is also a predominantly Catholic district. The local church of St. Martin dates from 1887 with older parts. The earlier church was expanded at that time by adding a larger nave to the previous one at a right angle. The former chancel became the sacristy, the old nave became the altar area.
All Catholic parishes in the city of Wertheim belong to the pastoral care unit Wertheim in the deanery Tauberbischofsheim of the Archdiocese of Freiburg .
Apart from the two large churches, there are also free churches and other parishes in Wertheim . In addition to the free Jesus church, there is also a meeting place for the local Baptist church and a free evangelical church. The Jehovah's Witnesses and the New Apostolic Church are also represented in Wertheim.
Jewish community of Wertheim
The Jewish community in Wertheim was one of the oldest Jewish communities in the Baden region. For the first time between 1212 and 1222 Jews were documented in the city.
In 1827 the Wertheim District Rabbinate was established . It was one of 15 district rabbinates , also known as the district synagogue. From 1850 to 1864 the seat of the rabbinate was in Tauberbischofsheim . The Wagner-Bürckel campaign in October 1940, during which the Jewish residents of Baden were deported to Gurs , also meant the downfall of the Jewish community in Wertheim.
Jewish community of Dertingen
The Jewish community of Dertingen existed from the 17th century until 1925.
In the Reinhardshof district there is an Islamic prayer house with the Selimiye Mosque in Wertheim . A former factory building near the Main-Tauber-Stadium served the Wertheim Muslims as a mosque for several years from 1979. As early as the 1970s, the growing glass industry in Wertheim was recruiting new workers from Turkey. The city became home to many of these guest workers, and with them the Muslim community of Wertheim grew. After lengthy negotiations with the city of Wertheim and some disputes with citizens' groups and residents, the construction and site plans for a new mosque changed several times. As a result, the Wertheim mosque construction conflict received nationwide media attention and in 2007 was the subject of a documentary film entitled “Home Advantage - Mosque Construction in Wertheim”, which was broadcast on SWR television under the title “Mosque, no thanks!” And addressed the longstanding conflicts.
The council has since the local elections in 2019 22 honorary members (2019: 26), who are elected for five years. The municipal councils use the designation city council. In addition, the mayor is the municipal council chairman with voting rights.
The 2019 local elections led to the following result (in brackets: difference to 2014):
|Municipal Council 2019|
|Party / list||Share of votes||Seats|
|CDU||28.7% (−11.1)||6 (−5)|
|SPD||25.1% (+2.4)||5 (−1)|
|Free Citizens Wertheim (FBW)||17.4% (−2.7)||4 (−1)|
|Green||14.8% (+4.2)||3 (± 0)|
|Citizens' List Wertheim (FOAG)||11.6% (+11.6)||3 (+3)|
|FDP||2.4% (−3.3)||1 (± 0)|
|Turnout: 59.2% (+ 7.1)|
Today, the mayor is elected for eight years by the eligible population. In his function he is the head of the city administration and chairman of the municipal council and various committees and supervisory boards.
On February 3, 2019, Markus Herrera Torrez was elected full-time Lord Mayor of the major district town of Wertheim. His term of office began on May 1, 2019.
Citizens' petitions and referendums
Connection to the Lake Constance water supply
In July 1989, the local council decided to connect Wertheim to the Lake Constance water supply, as its own springs in the Aalbach valley had too high a nitrate load. In future, the old springs should only contribute a third to the water supply and should be mixed with the Lake Constance water to reduce the nitrate content. A citizens' initiative was formed against this decision, which primarily wanted to see the existing wells renovated with the necessary money and therefore initiated a referendum which resulted in a referendum in May 1990. Around 80% spoke out against connection to the Lake Constance water supply.
Sale of land to Kaufland
On February 20, 2006, the local council decided to sell the "Bahngelände" property to the Kaufland company , which was planning to set up a supermarket there. In response to this, the “Initiators 'group of citizens' petitions for the preservation of the Kupsch market” collected 3994 signatures in a referendum. In a public meeting on July 31, 2006, the municipal council determined the inadmissibility of the referendum on the basis of false statements in the grounds; there was also no mandatory cost recovery proposal. The group of initiators then lodged an objection and submitted an urgent application to the Stuttgart Administrative Court for an interim order . This was rejected in February 2007.
Gas turbine power plant in Besteheid
In 2006 plans were made to build a 400 megawatt gas turbine power plant in Besteheid. The investment volume should be around 250 million euros and the construction should create around 30 jobs. On April 27, the local council approved an option contract with Tübingen's SüdWestStrom , whereupon the interest group “Power Plant Opponents Maintal” brought about a referendum on November 12, 2006, in which over two thirds of the population voted against the construction of the gas turbine power plant. The turnout was almost 50%. Thereupon the municipal council canceled the option contract.
Inclined elevator to the castle
On July 21, 2008 the Wertheim municipal council decided to build an inclined elevator to the castle. This should run from the rose garden at the town hall on a 160 m long route with supporting pillars and allow barrier-free access to the castle. An operating company should be founded specifically for construction and maintenance. The “Pro Wertheim” association then initiated a referendum against this project. Approx. 1,800 votes were required for this, the number of valid signatures was 4,241. Thereupon the local council overturned its own resolution with 24 to one vote.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "In a divided shield above in gold a red armed black eagle growing out of the division, below in blue three (2: 1) silver roses ."|
|Justification of the coat of arms: Even the oldest city seals show today's coat of arms, the family coat of arms of the Counts of Wertheim . The large city seal was inscribed S. CIVITATIS. IN. WERTHEIM and was used in this or a similar form until the middle of the 18th century. In the later seals, branches of flowers or circles with decorations were used instead of the shield. These seals were labeled SI (E) GEL DER STADT. WERTHEIM used until after 1811; the color stamps that were used until the middle of the 19th century had the same legend. In 1952 the triangular shield was used again in the coat of arms.|
The city flag is yellow-blue.
Wertheim maintains a city partnership with the following cities:
- Salon-de-Provence ( France ), since 1964
- Huntingdon and Godmanchester ( United Kingdom ), since 1981
- Szentendre ( Hungary ), since 1989
- Csobánka ( Hungary ), since 1992
- Gubbio ( Italy ), since 2006 (friendship between cities 1980–2006)
At the time of reunification there were efforts to establish a town twinning with Ilmenau in Thuringia . However, these failed.
Economy and Infrastructure
Wertheim can be reached via the federal highway 3 Frankfurt - Würzburg (junction Wertheim-Lengfurt). Otherwise, only state and district roads lead through the urban area. The Main is spanned by two road bridges near Wertheim, the Spessart Bridge to the west and the Main Bridge Wertheim , which was opened to traffic for the first time in 1882.
Until October 1, 1912, stagecoaches and horse-drawn buses also ran between Wertheim and Stadtprozelten .
Rail transport and public transport
The Wertheim train station was opened in 1868. Today Wertheim lies on the Lauda – Wertheim and Aschaffenburg – Miltenberg – Wertheim railway lines .
Local public transport ( ÖPNV ) is served by several bus lines within the Main-Tauber transport association . The tariffs of the Rhein-Neckar transport association apply.
Due to its location on the Main and Tauber, ship traffic has always been important in Wertheim. The first documented mentions of a ship's and fishermen's guild can be found as early as 1495. Wine, grain and cloth were shipped down the river towards Frankfurt; however, there was already a highly developed passenger shipping system back then. On the way back, the ships were loaded with goods from Frankfurt and were treadled by horses . The transition from sailing to steamers was formed in the 19th century by the chain towing ships , called Maakuh (Mainkuh) in Wertheim and the surrounding area because of their steam whistle signal . The chain shipping was stopped in July 1936; the chain was lifted in 1938.
At the beginning of the 20th century there was also a ferry service across the Main near Besteheid; the price for a crossing in 1912 was 20 pfennigs.
Due to the expansion of the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal in the early 1990s, river cruise ships have increasingly moored in Wertheim in recent years. At that time there were around 60 ships a year; this number has increased to 395 (2011).
The mouth of the Tauber offered itself as a natural harbor in Wertheim. In the second half of the 19th century a winter harbor was built there, which could then be used by ships when shipping traffic on the Main was idle due to the ice drift. The Tauberhafen was replaced by the Mainhafen in the 1960s. In 1960 there was a record handling of 20,918 tons of goods by 65 ships. Before the Main Harbor went into operation, there was a siding at Wertheimer Tauberhafen via a ramp connecting track at the northeastern station area.
Main harbor Wertheim
The Mainhafen Wertheim was completed in October 1967. The port of Wertheim is the only port on the Main in Baden-Württemberg.
Between 1936 and 1937, the city received a military airfield with the Wertheim air base on Reinhardshof.
With the Wertheim airfield located two kilometers southwest of Wertheim, the city now has a special ultralight landing field. It is the northernmost airfield in Baden-Württemberg and is located in the triangle of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria and Hesse.
In Wertheim, the daily newspaper " Wertheimer Zeitung " appears, a local edition of the Aschaffenburg-based " Main-Echo ". Another daily newspaper is the Wertheim edition of the Fränkische Nachrichten from Tauberbischofsheim .
The SWR operates a transmission system for VHF and TV (formerly also medium wave) near Wertheim.
The BlickLokal advertising paper (formerly known as MAIN TAUBER aktuell ) is also based in Wertheim and publishes news for the entire Main-Tauber district on weekends.
Authorities, courts and institutions
At the time of the county and the Grand Duchy of Baden, Wertheim was the seat of the following offices: Stadt- und Landamt Wertheim (from 1864 district office Wertheim), Main-Tauber district directorate, district construction inspection, water and road construction inspection, tax commissioner district, tax office, sub-tax office, grand ducal forest office, railway First class station office, second class post office (at the same time the Reich Telegraph Institute) as well as the district court and notary's office. The latter two offices are still in Wertheim today.
In 1952/53 the calibration office was opened in Wertheim. In Wertheim today there is a branch of the district office of the Main-Tauber district and a city library. The city is also the seat of the church district Wertheim of the Evangelical Church in Baden .
At the time of the existing county, Wertheim had a city and a district court. The latter was also called the Centgericht and, as the higher court, was responsible for crimes such as murder, theft, rape and flowing wounds and imposed body and life sentences. The subordinate city court was responsible for all citizens within the city walls. It negotiated abuse and diatribes, insults and disregard of the rules of the authorities and imposed fines and arrest sentences. The incumbent counts decided on appeals. In addition, there were also guild courts in Wertheim, which prosecuted disputes between guild members, non-compliance with the guild rules, the immoral behavior of guild members or the absence of guild meetings, the so-called guild laws. Today Wertheim has a district court , which belongs to the district court district Mosbach, and a notary's office .
Hospital / hospital
The Rotkreuzklinik Wertheim (also Wertheim Hospital, formerly Spital Wertheim ), previously owned by the city, is now a house of basic and standard care with 178 beds, 13 different medical specialist clinics and three competence centers in cooperation with national hospitals.
The In den Christwiesen outdoor pool is located in the Besteheid district . It has a non-swimmer pool with a slide, a swimmer pool with diving blocks and a baby paddling pool. A baby changing room is also available.
The Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Gymnasium , the Comenius-Realschule and the Edward-Uihlein-Schule, a special needs school, are located in Wertheim . There is also the Wertheim Community School, the Hauptschule with Werkrealschule Urphar-Lindelbach, the Otfried Preußler Elementary School and one elementary school each in the boroughs of Besteheid, Dertingen, Nassig and Reicholzheim.
The Main-Tauber-Kreis is responsible for a cross-school vocational school center , which includes the commercial, industrial and home economics school Wertheim, including a business high school and a technical high school . These different types of schools are grouped together in the Wertheim Vocational School Center ( BSZ Wertheim ).
There is also a branch of the school in Taubertal Lauda-Königshofen (Unterbalbach), which is located in the Waldenhausen district of Wertheim together with the school kindergarten for the mentally and speech-impaired. The private school for work and care for the elderly of Johanniter-Unfallhilfe e. V. as well as the branch of the Academy of Police Baden-Württemberg round off the school offerings in Wertheim.
There are also plans for a university adapted to the prevailing economy in the city with a focus on export, small and medium-sized enterprises and tourism. Teaching is to begin with 50 students each in 2018. The project is supported by the Austrian IMC University of Applied Sciences Krems after a call for proposals .
Trade and commerce
In 1939 there were eight industrial companies in Wertheim, mainly from the wood processing and mechanical engineering sectors; Among them was the Eisenwerk AG, a large company. After the Second World War, nine other larger companies (metal processing, textile and clothing industry) came to Wertheim in the years 1945 to 1950, which together employed around 750 workers. Five glass factories from Thuringia settled on the site of the former air base on Reinhardshof , mainly from Ilmenau , which were dissatisfied with the conditions in the Soviet occupation zone. Since they needed chemical-technical hollow glass for the production and this could not be smuggled from the former location across the inner-German border in the long term, a glassworks was built, which means that other companies in the glass processing industry settled in Wertheim, including DWK Life Sciences . The glassworks settlement with 26 buildings was built from April to October 1950. In 1952, the glass fiber processing and the research association for technical glass were added; In that year Wertheim had 35 glass processing companies. In 1971 there were 30 with 2,700 employees. For 1990 a total of 8,900 employees were recorded who were employed in the glass industry as well as in machine and tool construction. Shortly after the war, hydrometer manufacturers, among others, settled in the district of Besteheid . With 6,000 employees, Wertheim is the largest industrial location in the Main-Tauber district.
The Wertheim Village Factory Outlet Center is located directly on the A3 motorway . It opened in 2003. In the following years the outlet center was gradually expanded. Every year around 2.5 million people visit the Wertheim Village . With over 110 outlet boutiques on a sales area of around 27,000 m², it makes Wertheim one of the largest outlet locations in Germany.
Culture and sights
- The glass museum is located in a half-timbered house from 1577 ( Kallenbach'sches Haus ) in the former Löwenstein-Rosenberg'schen court and shows the production and samples of utility glass, art glass and glass in science and technology. It emerged from the "Wertheimer Glasmuseum sponsors' association" founded in 1973 and opened on May 29, 1976 with an exhibition area of 400 m². Since 1998, the Small House, a half-timbered building from 1588, has been part of the museum and houses a 250 m² studio and lamp glass collection, a glass bead cabinet from the collection of Thea Elisabeth Haevernick and the exhibition “Glass for Science and Industry”.
- The county museum with Otto Modersohn cabinet emerged from the former historical museum for the city and county of Wertheim . It includes the collections of the city of Wertheim and the historical association Wertheim e. V. It protects and maintains cultural products that were created on the area of the former Grafschaft Wertheim , were used here or have a content-related relationship to the landscape, culture or history of the region. It is located in a building complex from the 16th century that includes the Old Town Hall, the House of the Four Crowned and the Blue House , a half-timbered house painted with Smalt Blue . It is located in the old town not far from the market square.
Fischer and Schiffergenossenschaft Wertheim e. V.
The Fischer and Schiffergenossenschaft Wertheim e. V. is one of the oldest associations in Wertheim as the legal successor to the former fishermen's and boatmen's guild. Your exact age is unknown; However, the guild already owned a large guild house in 1478, which was destroyed in the flood of 1732 along with almost the entire inventory and all files. However, the dated foundation stone has been preserved and can be viewed today in the Grafschaftsmuseum Wertheim. The association owns its old fishing rights, which extend over two federal states on the Main - in Baden-Württemberg from river kilometer 168.3 (between Bettingen and Homburg) to river kilometer 148.84 (below Grünenwört) and in Bavaria from river kilometer 168.3 (between Trennfeld and Kreuzwertheim) to 149.368 (between Hasloch and Faulbach). The association also has fishing rights from the mouth of the Tauber to the mill weir (approx. 1.5 km).
Historical Association Wertheim e. V.
On the initiative of Otto Langguth and Pastor Georg Kappes, the historical association Alt-Wertheim (former name) was founded on April 25, 1904 in the restaurant "Ketten". The association set up a museum in the former court and took care of the facilities at the current location. The tasks also include the restoration and conservation of art-historically significant grave monuments from the 16th to 19th centuries in the mountain cemetery and the preservation of the historic townscape. The association publishes a yearbook every year.
City layout and buildings
Listed entire complex
Wertheim is a former castle settlement from the late 12th / early 13th century with characteristic urban expansion areas from the 15th to 19th centuries. Century. The castle ruins that dominate the city, together with the remains of the once mighty fortifications, have been preserved, as well as the well-preserved building stock from the 16th to 19th centuries. Century and the historical city plan. The historical building and spatial structure as well as the cultural landscape embedding is the reason for the quality of the city as an overall facility according to § 19 DSchG, in the preservation of which there is a special public interest.
Cultural monuments in the old town
The core town above the mouth of the Tauber still consists of medieval streets and numerous listed half-timbered houses and other art and architectural monuments. The center is a market square rising towards the church and castle. The Protestant collegiate church is the main church in the city. Also worth seeing are the Angel Fountain and the late Gothic Kilian's Chapel from 1472 with the "Wertheim Monkey" as an allegory of vanity. The former encircling of the old town by the city wall is still clearly visible, especially clearly on the side walls that lead up to the castle.
- Covered Tauber Bridge
A bridge over the Tauber has already been built several times and torn away by floods; for example, a Tauber Bridge existed from 1408 to 1514, 1515–1564, 1565–1732, 1733–1746, 1747–1780 and 1780–1784.
In the course of the construction of the Lauda – Wertheim railway line between 1866 and 1868, major changes were made to the townscape of the Tauber district in Wertheim. For example, the hospital was dismantled to make room for the tracks. The biggest intervention was probably the demolition of the wooden roofed Tauber Bridge in 1873. Even before the construction of the railway line, there were complaints about obstructions for heavy freight traffic due to the low roof. The “Main- und Tauberbote” of August 21, 1846 criticized: The old, dark bridge roof appears to be a barrier against highly beneficial traffic. The wood of the present bridge, which consists of heavy trunks and is largely still usable, has a very considerable value at current wood prices, a solid pillar is available, and the two banks of the Tauber are so high and solid that a chain bridge can be installed at a low cost. In the edition of July 21, 1868, the Tauber Bridge is mentioned by a reader as a locally recognized unpleasantness , which leads him to the conclusion: whether the Tauber Bridge will be sufficient for rail traffic is generally doubted and the need will soon arise to see it replaced by a broader one, constructed according to the newer taste of iron.
Since the axis of the new bridge should be rotated slightly, three to four houses were demolished for the construction of the same, including the Centhaus. While the bridge was being built, traffic was routed over an emergency bridge that was completed on May 13, 1873.
- Cent house
Presumably shortly before the Thirty Years War the construction of the Centhaus should have taken place. It is already mentioned in a document from 1634 and is considered to be the only building in Wertheim that was entirely in the Italian Renaissance style. The front in the direction of the old Tauber Bridge was provided with a high, arched gate passage. Three large cornices and volute , so also in the Real style were common, were in this building by Tuscan Rustika- pilasters added, which gave him a fortress-like character and him the nickname Brückentor earned.
The Centhaus was the seat of the Cent Court and custody in one and could only be built directly in front of the city wall, as Cent Wertheim ended in front of the actual city area. The bridge tower behind the house marked the beginning of the territory of the city court; Thus, the Centhaus connected both districts, which was also advantageous for the city's fortifications.
During the planning of the Lauda – Wertheim railway line in 1863, the proposal came up to demolish the Centhaus in favor of a railway line to the right of the Tauber, which gave this variant the name Centhauslinie , as this building was the only one in the way. However, this plan was rejected. The plans for demolition, which had existed for a long time, were also questioned by alternatives. So demanded an unknown author in the Wertheimer Zeitung. August 29, 1873: We propose to the municipal administration that the entire bridge gate (Centhaus) be placed as a morgue in the middle of the upper wall of our beautifully situated cemetery! Anyone who looks closely at the entire structure of the bridge gate will hardly be able to doubt its suitability. The grave-digger's apartment and the burial vault would be gained, and it could very easily be given a chapel-like appearance. If, sooner or later, the hearse should be brought in, the Thorhalle (of course the whole thing would have to be built at today's entrance) could be used as a shed for it.
However, the house was demolished in November 1873 for traffic reasons after it had been put up for auction on October 1st and 7th of this year for demolition. Only individual parts of the building were used again in 1875 when the property at Mühlenstrasse 55 was built; the volutes serve to support a stairway next to this building.
A synagogue was built five times in Wertheim and then destroyed again. In a document dated December 24, 1381, Count Johann I. von Wertheim granted the Jews tax exemption for a farm in what is now Kapellengasse including the farmstead, which was the "old Jewish school". Both the old and the new Jewish schools were in the same place. Presumably the first synagogue was destroyed in 1349 and a new, second synagogue was later built in the same place, but it was destroyed by the Christian population in 1447. The Marienkapelle was built in its place until 1452; The following Hebrew inscription stands above its entrance: "Anno Domoni 1447 broke here and destroyed a Jewish school and raised this chapel".
From 1449 the third synagogue was located in the Brückenviertel. It was located within the city walls and was rebuilt in 1592/93. The fifth synagogue building dates from 1798/99 and was located in the same place as the two previous buildings. It had been in the city's possession since September 1938, as Sigmund Cahn, the last chairman of the Jewish community in Wertheim, had offered the city the synagogue for sale in late summer 1938, which became their property for 3,000 Reichsmarks.
As a result, the synagogue was largely spared from destruction during the November pogroms , even though arsonists were already setting the synagogue on fire. However, a town clerk announced that it was already town property, so the building was not damaged, but the interior was. The Torah scrolls and some cult vessels were brought to the town hall. Willy Exner , the painter of a famous picture of Hitler, wanted to remove the total of 468 parchments and use them as a painting surface, but this was thwarted by the city archivist Otto Langguth.
After the end of World War II in 1945, the synagogue became the property of the Jewish Asset Management (JRSO). This in turn sold the building to the city of Wertheim in 1949, whereupon storage rooms and accommodation for the city joiner's workshop were set up there. At the end of February 1961, the building was demolished when the right Tauberstrasse was being expanded. Not far from the synagogue there was also a mikveh , a ritual bath, the aboveground part of the building (bath house) was demolished. The actual mikveh (the stairs including the plunge pool) is preserved under the Neuplatz paving.
On the inside of the rear city wall at Gerbergasse 16 is the lintel of the former synagogue from 1799 and a memorial plaque. The lintel bears the following inscription: "Moral instruction to the people of the current generation who are experiencing the construction of the temple in connection with their forefathers"; the second line reads: "In this good year to the builders of the temple that is being swiftly built in our day."
Architectural monuments worth seeing
- Wertheim Castle
The Wertheim Castle , high above the Old Town and Main Tauber dominant, is the landmark of the city. Behind a moat backed to the east by a high wall cladding is of the upper castle nor the dungeon . From the hall next to a stair tower and the old residential building, only a three-part window group from the Staufer period is preserved. Below is the ruin of the outer bailey, which was expanded into a residential castle. The archive building above the gatehouse dates back to the baroque period . Up until the 17th century, the count's seat was continuously expanded. Parts of the castle were destroyed by a powder explosion in 1619 and other parts in the Thirty Years' War in 1634 that were not rebuilt.
- Evangelical Collegiate Church of St. Mary
In 1384 Count Johann I von Wertheim laid the foundation stone for the late Gothic three-aisled collegiate church; presumably it stands on the foundations of two previous Romanesque buildings. On July 4, 1481, the parish church was elevated to the status of a collegiate church. Construction of the choir began in 1388; here is the burial place of the Counts of Wertheim. Directly behind the altar is the "bed drawer" from 1618, a canopy grave for Count Ludwig III. von Löwenstein and his wife, Countess Anna von Stolberg. The grave created by Michael Kern , who comes from Forchtenberg , is empty. The collegiate church has a portal vestibule on the north side, above whose entrance the "Wertheimer Madonna" (probably around 1320) stands, a sundial on the south aisle, an approx. 51 m high church tower and a library extension from 1448 63 books by the scholar Konrad Wellin grew over the years to 900 medieval manuscripts and early prints, including one of the three so-called "Wertheim Bibles" still in existence. As a special feature, the collegiate church has a slightly asymmetrical floor plan, which is due, on the one hand, to the course of the street at that time and, on the other hand, to possible planning errors. During the iconoclasm , all ten altars were destroyed or removed; one of these altars is in the Badisches Landesmuseum in Karlsruhe. The gallery was built in 1680 including a library; For this purpose, the tracery of the windows was removed in order to compensate for the lower incidence of light. The last renovation of the collegiate church took place from 2005 to 2007. The interior of the collegiate church has the following dimensions:
- Largest width of the interior: approx. 22 meters
- Width of the central nave: 8.80 meters
- Length of the interior from the apse to the wall under the organ gallery: approx. 46 meters
- Ceiling height in the non-vaulted nave: 18.20 meters
- Room height in the vaulted altar area: approx. 15 meters
- Largest arcade arch width: 6.20 meters / smallest arcade arch width: 3.92 meters
The collegiate church with its location on the Main Cycle Path and Taubertal Cycle Path is designated as a cycle path church.
Choir of the collegiate church around 1852, watercolor by Johann Wilhelm Völker
- Catholic Parish Church of St. Venantius
The Catholic Church of St. Venantius was completed on October 27, 1841 and consecrated on July 12, 1842. The namesake of the church is Venantius von Camerino . The first approved plans were available as early as 1838.
Father Venantius Arnold, honorary citizen of the city, and his parish administrator Philipp Gärtner planned the construction while Arnold was still alive and had already financed it with 20,000 guilders - partly from donations from Catholics in the Grand Duchy of Baden (almost 6,000 guilders), partly through state support. This made it possible to engage the architect August Moosbrugger , who chose an elevated location to the left of the Tauber for the execution of the construction, in today's Luisenviertel. Before the church was built, there were garden plots at this point. The ceremonial laying of the foundation stone by Dean Binz from Tauberbischofsheim took place on July 2, 1840. The elevated position of the church creates a sublime impression, which is reinforced by the staircase in front. The building combines a variety of style elements and is in some cases very sophisticated. The spire, renovated in 1981, consists of 63 seamlessly nested segments that only hold together due to the weight of the keystone and the cross (almost four tons). The high altar of the church, which was created by the Munich sculptor Anselm Sickinger , was consecrated on All Saints' Day in 1869 and replaced the temporary tabernacle.
- Pointed tower
This watch tower is located at the so-called Mainspitze, at the confluence of the Tauber in the Main. It was originally included in the fortification of the core town of Wertheim, which was built between 1200 and 1400. As the earliest structural evidence of the later town complex at the foot of the castle, the tower has a very high testimony value for the settlement and defense history of Wertheim.
The multi-storey city gate made of red sandstone, built over a square floor plan, is crowned with battlements and has a passage with a segmental arch. The south facade and the passage are plastered. It was built between 1200 and 1400, but was only mentioned in a document in 1459/63. In 1991 the exterior was renovated.
In addition to its fortification function, the Maintor, as an important northern entrance to the city, connects the market place with the Mainland via Maingasse. This was the city's most important transshipment and storage point until the early 20th century. Thus, the gate has a high documentary value for the city's history and shape. As part of the Wertheim fortifications, which were built between the 12th and 17th centuries, the Maintor is also of great testimony value.
In addition to the Zolltor and Kittsteintor, it is one of the few city gates that remain from the 14 gates of the city of Wertheim.
- Packhof crane
The Packhof crane was built in 1896 based on a design by the Unger brothers machine factory in Wertheim. It had a carrying capacity of 5 tons and a radius of 6 meters and was used for loading and unloading the Main ships.
The crane got its name from the nearby agricultural warehouse that was demolished in 1974. This building was erected in 1798 as the “Löwensteiner Hof” and later converted into the “Packhof” in front of the Vaitstor before it became a warehouse.
- Courtyard garden
The little castle in the Hofgarten at the entrance to Wertheim-Eichel now houses three private art collections. These are paintings and watercolors from the Berlin Secession , 19th century painters from the Rhine-Neckar area and a porcelain collection.
The rococo palace was built in 1777 for Count Friedrich Ludwig von Dietrich Gottlieb Betschler and is now in the Eichelhofgarten, a small park with the Löwenstein's grave chapel. In 1817 Prince Georg zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg had a path built from the castle to the English Garden. The building offered the citizens a welcome opportunity to earn additional income, as there was a severe famine at the time . During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71 , the castle was used as a military hospital, and from 1873 it was rented out to the writer and journalist Otto von Corvin , among others - for an annual rent of 400 guilders . The Eichelhofschlösschen with park was chosen by the Monument Foundation Baden-Württemberg as Monument of the Month August / September 2006 .
In 2011, the Otto Modersohn and Max Liebermann exhibition took place in the Schlösschen , recalling , among other things, the repeated stays of Modersohn and his third wife Louise Modersohn-Breling in Wertheim and the paintings that were created. In 2012, the exhibition Käthe Kollwitz and her colleagues followed in the Berlin Secession with works by Käthe Kollwitz , Dora Hitz , Clara Siewert , Julie Wolfthorn and other artists.
The Hofgarten chapel was donated by Princess Friederike zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg as a burial place for her husband Prince Wilhelm, who died in World War I in 1915, and was completed in 1917. In addition to Prince Wilhelm, his wife and their daughter Dorothea as well as Ernst Fürst zu Löwenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg and his wife Wanda found their final resting place here.
- Council and school houses
Since 1260, the town hall has been built repeatedly in the city center at other locations.
- 1260 Town hall at the historical location zum Esel in Mühlenstraße 2. 1459/60 it is used as a conference center. In 1485 a mayor, Nicolas Müller, lived there. 1542 the Turkish tax collector Johann Morhard I.
- In 1562 the town hall was relocated to Vierherrenhof, House of the Four Crowned in Rathausgasse 6. Incorrectly called the Old Town Hall . Today it serves as a county museum .
- Since 1988 the town hall and the city administration at Mühlenstraße 26 have been in the former Fürstlichen Rosenberg'schen (Catholic) court. Previously (13th century) the property was called Bronnbacher Hof.
The location of the city council remained in the Mühlenviertel, as early as 1324 this could be seen in the mayor and council seal as a symbol of the mill iron.
- In the Münzgasse stands the oldest school building in the city mentioned around 1260, it housed the mint. There was the official seat of the mayor Gernot, called Irrmut , in 1323 , who presided over the oldest and younger mayor, who was responsible for the administration of finances, weights and measures and who directed the lower court with its lay judges.
- Bronnbach Monastery
The former Cistercian Abbey of Bronnbach Monastery , which was founded in 1151 and is now owned by the Main-Tauber district, is located in the village of Bronnbach . In addition to various other institutions, since 2000 it has also housed a religious branch of the Congregation of Missionaries of the Holy Family .
Since January 2007, the Main-Tauber-Kreis has been running the Bronnbach Monastery in the form of its own business . This also includes a vinotheque opened in the basement in 2007 with samples from all over the Taubertal. In spring 2009 the cloister forecourt was rebuilt. This measure served to ensure that the historical monastery complex should again be perceived more strongly as an ensemble. For this purpose, the state road 506, which runs through the middle of the village or the monastery grounds, was narrowed to six meters and the roadway was given a red ceiling. The costs of the measures amounted to approx. 300,000 euros.
As a special kind of venue, the monastery offers rooms for concerts of classical music and for exhibitions and conferences with guest rooms. The Joseph Hall and the Bernhard Hall in particular are used for this purpose. The Klosterschänke is also open again. The bursary, formerly the seat of the monastery administration, was renovated from 2003 to 2006 and is used as a guest house with various conference rooms; the orangery, which was also renovated from 2003 to 2006, serves as a cafeteria for conference participants.
The Main-Tauber archive network with the Wertheim State Archives , the Wertheim City Archives, the District Archives of the Main-Tauber District and other archives of cities belonging to the district as well as a reference library for regional history have been housed in the monastery hospital building since 1992 . Since 1995 there has been a branch of the Institute for Silicate Research of the Fraunhofer Society in the former cattle shed. In the former fruit barn of the monastery is the Museum for Rural Heritage as a branch of the municipal county museum .
- Jakobskirche Urphar
The Jakobskirche in Urphar is a medieval fortified church with frescoes by the master of Urphar . A cross with a "smiling Christ" hangs over her altar.
The Baden-Württemberg Home Days took place on May 13 and 14, 2006 in Wertheim .
Main and Taubertal cycle paths
The Main Cycle Path and the Taubertal Cycle Path lead through the Wertheim city area. These are the first two ADFC 5-star cycle paths in Germany. The Main-Tauber-Fränkische Rad-Achter also leads through Wertheim.
The "Wein-Tauber-Wanderweg" is an approximately 20 kilometer long hiking trail around the city. It connects the former Cistercian monastery Bronnbach, the wine village of Reicholzheim, the village of Waldenhausen and the city of Wertheim and leads to wine and cultural-historical points, which are explained on site by information boards. The hiking trail is divided into two circular tours that can be hiked individually or as a large loop. Individual sections of the route lead over sections of the European long-distance hiking trail and the Main-Danube hiking trail .
The third hiking trail in the lovely Taubertal (LT 3) with the name "Wine and Faith" leads from Wertheim via Waldenhausen and Reicholzheim to Bronnbach to the local monastery. The return is on the railway line from the station Bronnbach (Tauber) to the train station Wertheim recommended.
The approximately 180 km long Jakobsweg Main-Taubertal also leads through Wertheim and the districts of Urphar and Bronnbach. The path is often identical to the Taubertal Panorama Trail .
The Viktoria Wertheim sports club , located in the district of Besteheid, played in the 2nd amateur league North Baden in 1964/65 and, after advancing in 1965/66, for one year in the 1st amateur league North Baden , the top amateur class at the time and the third highest German division.
In the 2018/19 season Viktoria Wertheim and Eintracht Nassig play in the Landesliga Odenwald .
- Thomas Ellwein, Ralf Zoll: The Wertheim Study. Leske and Budrich, Opladen 2003, ISBN 3-8100-3515-7 .
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- Erich Langguth: From Wertheim's history (= publications of the historical association Wertheim. Volume 7). Verlag des Historisches Verein Wertheim e. V., Wertheim 2004, ISBN 3-00-015709-3 .
- Friedrich Lotz: The Werdemer Buddescheißer. Dialect. Poems and anecdotes. 2., ext. Edition. GHK-Verlag, Kreuzwertheim 1995, DNB 958859906 .
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- Manfred Schneider: Wertheim's beautiful corners. Discoveries with the pencil. Ed. Schneider, Kreuzwertheim 1997, ISBN 3-00-001568-X .
- Kurt Zimmermann: Authority, bourgeoisie and economic forms in the old Wertheim. Investigations into the constitutional, social and economic history structure of a sovereign city of Main Franconia in the 16th century (= Main Franconian Studies. Volume 11). Friends of Mainfränkischer Kunst und Geschichte e. V., Würzburg; Historischer Verein Schweinfurt, Schweinfurt 1975, DNB 760448272 (Zugl .: Würzburg, Univ., Philos. Fac., Diss., 1974).
- Joseph von Aschbach : History of the Counts of Wertheim. From the earliest times to their extinction in the male line in 1556. Adreaeische Buchhandlung, Frankfurt am Main, 1843, p. 115, 153–155: on the feudal letter of Charles IV for the city of Wertheim and Kreuzwertheim from January 4, 1362 ( scan in Google Book Search).
- Markus Numberger, Karsten Preßler: The oldest building in Wertheim. For the historical examination and restoration of the "coin". In: Preservation of monuments in Baden-Württemberg - news sheet of the state preservation of monuments . Volume 49 (2020), Issue 3, ISSN 0342-0027 , pp. 184-191, doi: 10.11588 / nbdpfbw.2020.3.74371
- Web presence of the city of Wertheim
- Pictures from Wertheim. (No longer available online.) In: Wertheimer-portal.de. Archived from the original on February 12, 2013 .
- Wertheim on "Architecture Baden"
- Acoustic stumbling blocks in Wertheim. In: SWR2 (as of October 21, 2013)
- A. Baier: Monument conservation value plan for the entire Wertheim complex. (PDF; 21.6 MB) (No longer available online.) In: denkmalpflege-bw.de. Regional Council Stuttgart, Department of Monument Preservation, April 21, 2008, archived from the original on September 26, 2016 .
- ↑ State Statistical Office Baden-Württemberg - Population by nationality and gender on December 31, 2018 (CSV file) ( help on this ).
- ^ Karl Platz: Wertheim dialect dictionary. Verlag E. Buchheim, Wertheim 1990, ISBN 3-924611-12-2 .
- ^ Germany: area, postcodes, inhabitants, federal states. All politically independent municipalities with selected characteristics on December 31, 2016. In: destatis.de. Federal Statistical Office, July 2, 2018, accessed on April 29, 2020 .
- ^ Main-Tauber-Kreis: Cities and municipalities. In: main-tauber-kreis.de. Retrieved April 29, 2020 .
- ↑ Wertheim - detail page - LEO-BW. In: leo-bw.de. Retrieved April 28, 2020 .
- ↑ Michael Geringhoff: Damaged, but an important testimony. In: Wertheimer Zeitung. 13./14. March 2010.
- ↑ Stadtverwaltung Wertheim: Localities, accessed on October 7, 2013.
- ↑ a b Wertheim. ( Memento from April 8, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) In: fliegerhorste.de, accessed on February 26, 2018 (Bernhard Weiss' private website).
- ↑ Business location in the country. In: Wertheim.de. Retrieved April 28, 2020 .
- ↑ Reinhard Wolf , Ulrike Kreh (ed.): The nature reserves in the Stuttgart administrative region. Thorbecke, Ostfildern 2007.
- ↑ State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg : 1.144 Ellenberg-Kapf. In: lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de, accessed on January 3, 2018.
- ^ State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg: 1.127 Gutenberg. In: lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de, accessed on January 3, 2018.
- ^ State Institute for the Environment, Measurements and Nature Conservation Baden-Württemberg: 1.041 Leidenrain. In: lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de, accessed on January 3, 2018.
- ↑ List of protected areas - selection of profiles. In: rips-dienste.lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de. Retrieved April 28, 2020 .
- ↑ BfN: Profiles of the Natura 2000 areas. In: bfn.de. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation , accessed on April 28, 2020 .
- ↑ BfN: Profiles of the Natura 2000 areas. In: bfn.de. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation , accessed on April 28, 2020 .
- ↑ Water protection areas and SchALVO. In: lubw.baden-wuerttemberg.de. Retrieved April 28, 2020 .
- ↑ Area since 1996 according to actual use. Wertheim. 2018. In: statistik-bw.de. Baden-Württemberg State Statistical Office, accessed on April 29, 2020 .
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- ^ Revolution in the Southwest. Sites of the democracy movement 1848/49 in Baden-Württemberg. Edited by the working group of full-time archivists in the Baden-Württemberg Association of Cities. INFO Verlag, Karlsruhe 1997, ISBN 3-88190-219-8 , pp. 725-728.
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- ↑ Erich Langguth: It wasn't even ... a memorial. In: Wertheimer Zeitung. December 11, 2012.
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- ↑ How Hitler and Hindenburg became honorary citizens of the city of Wertheim. (No longer available online.) In: fnweb.de. Fränkische Nachrichten, March 25, 2008, formerly in the original ; accessed on November 6, 2017 (no mementos). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) .
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- ^ Wertheimer Zeitung. October 21, 1938.
- ^ Letter from the Wertheim City Archives on the honorary citizenship of Hitler and von Hindenburg.
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- ^ Advertisement To the people of the city and the countryside who are interested in national revolution. In: Wertheimer Zeitung. March 14, 1933.
- ↑ General State Archives Karlsruhe, 233/17 737.
- ↑ The Franconian. October 12, 1933.
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- ↑ People's youth. No. 313, Führer Verlag Karlsruhe.
- ↑ Guido Weber: Wertheimer Zeitung 50 years ago: Pastor Karl Bär became an honorary citizen. In: Wertheimer Zeitung. December 31, 2010 / 1. / 2. January 2011.
- ^ Franz Hundsnurscher, Gerhard Taddey: The Jewish communities in Baden (= publications of the State Archives Administration Baden-Württemberg. Volume 19). Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1968, pp. 294-298.
- ↑ Guido Weber: Wertheimer Zeitung 50 years ago: Synagogue had to give way to garages. In: Wertheimer Zeitung. February 25, 2011.
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- ↑ Information added after the memorial plaque in Wertheim. There is also a list of names.
- ^ Dieter Fauth: Stumbling blocks in Wertheim. (PDF; 244 kB) In: dieterfauth.de. December 24, 2013, accessed February 24, 2018 (private website).
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- ↑ Memorial sites for the victims of National Socialism. A documentation. Volume 1. Federal Agency for Civic Education, Bonn 1995, ISBN 3-89331-208-0 , p. 104.
- ↑ Uwe Bauer: Neuplatz transformed into a memorial. In: fnweb.de. October 30, 2013, accessed July 2, 2018.
- ↑ In God's name. Christian customs in Franconia. Old people remember. Catholic Seniors Forum Diocese of Würzburg, 2002.
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- ↑ In those days everyone was next to himself . (No longer available online.) In: fnweb.de. Fränkische Nachrichten, March 26, 2005, formerly in the original ; accessed on November 6, 2017 (no mementos). ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
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- ↑ GW: Without a sponsoring association, the continuation of the youth center is not guaranteed. In: Franconian news. April 16, 1975.
- ↑ 'bedo': The Jugendhaus campaign took stock. Starving strategy survived. In: Franconian news. March 6, 1976.
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- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 469 .
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- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 469 .
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- ↑ Extended magazine inaugurated in the archive network. In: main-tauber-kreis.de. Retrieved May 24, 2020 .
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- ↑ Jörg Paczkowski, Kurt Bauer, Stefanie Zwicker: Wertheim, City on Main and Tauber. Gerchsheim 2012, pp. 14-18.
- ^ Robert Meier: The canons often pursued their own interests. In: Franconian news. May 23, 2012.
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- ↑ Taubertal panorama hiking trail (long-distance hiking trail) - wanderkompass.de. In: wanderkompass.de. Retrieved August 3, 2020 .
- ↑ Amateur League North Baden 1964/65. In: f-archiv.de. Retrieved April 27, 2020 .
- ↑ Amateur League North Baden 1965/66. In: f-archiv.de. Retrieved April 27, 2020 .
- ^ Landesliga Odenwald 19/20 - Baden - FuPa. In: fupa.net. Retrieved April 27, 2020 .