Johann of Austria

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Archduke Johann of Austria (painting by Leopold Kupelwieser , around 1840). Johann's signature:Signature Johann von Österreich.PNG

Archduke Johann Baptist Josef Fabian Sebastian of Austria (born January 20, 1782 in Florence , † May 11, 1859 in Graz ) was a member of the House of Habsburg , brother of Emperor Franz I , Austrian field marshal and German during the revolutionary period of 1848/1849 Imperial administrator . In the Duchy of Styria he was a promoter and modernizer of industry , agriculture and railways as well as in the cultural and educational sectors for half a century .


Johann around 1805 at the age of about 18 ( Army History Museum ).

Johann was the thirteenth child and ninth son of Grand Duke Leopold of Tuscany, later Emperor Leopold II , and his wife Maria Ludovica of Spain . The name Johann , which is rather unusual for a Habsburg , was given in honor of John the Baptist, the patron saint of Florence. The godparents were also not relatives from the nobility, but the Florentine citizen Giovanni Filippo Barelai, known as Barchettone, and an unnamed Capuchin.

The first language he learned was Italian ; then French and only later in German and finally Latin . Even as a teenager he showed great interest in the Alpine countries, encouraged and influenced by the historian Johannes von Müller , who taught him. History , social issues , military and natural sciences fascinated and occupied him all his life. He collected minerals, was an alpinist and hunter , farmer , winegrower , industrialist and patron .

1819 met John at the age of 37 years on the west bank of the Styrian Toplitzsee for the first time on the then 15-year-old Ausseer postmaster's daughter Anna Plochl . On February 18, 1829 he married her at midnight in the in-house chapel on the Brandhof in Gußwerk near Mariazell . Because of his marriage to a commoner , Johann had to accept that he was excluded from the line of succession and that his descendants should not have a title of nobility . In 1834 Emperor Franz I showed himself gracious and gave Anna, his brother's wife, the title of "Baroness of Brandhofen", which raised her to a low nobility. The only son from this marriage and heir to the Archduke, Franz , was born in 1839. In 1845 the father succeeded in getting his son into the inheritable title of " Count of Meran " with Metternich . It was not until five years after her son that Johann's wife was appointed "Countess of Meran" by Emperor Franz Joseph I.

Archduke Johann at the age of about 64 (lithograph)

After the birth of their son Franz, Graz gradually became the central seat of the family. As early as 1828 Johann had bought a house and some parcels in the Graz district of St. Leonhard . Years later, the Palais Meran was built there and the family moved in in 1843. From just this one legitimate son (Franz Graf von Meran (1839–1891) ⚭ Theresia, née Countess von Lamberg (1836–1913)) there are - or there were - over 900 descendants of the "Styrian Prince" to date.

Although Johann described himself as a non-liberal, he had a certain liberal mindset. He was often in conflict with the Habsburg court. These conflicts increased after he announced his intention to marry a commoner. In his letters and notes, his opinion is often expressed that the court in Vienna and the noble landlords paid too little attention to the concerns and problems of ordinary people. Ultimately, however, he has always remained loyal to the imperial court. He also only married Anna Plochl after he had received approval from his imperial brother, although the latter kept him waiting for this approval for six years.

Archduke Johann died on the 78th birthday on May 11, 1859 at 9 am at a pneumonia . He was buried on May 14, 1859 in Graz and only transferred to the now completed mausoleum near Schenna Castle on June 21, 1869 , a residence of the Counts of Merano in Schenna near Merano ( South Tyrol ). He bought the castle in 1844 and his son, Count Franz von Meran, had the mausoleum built as his final resting place.


Johann von Österreich married Anna Plochl on February 18, 1829 in Gußwerk near Mariazell ( morganatic marriage ). They had a son:


Pedigree of Johann von Austria

Karl V. Leopold (1643–1690)
⚭ 1678
Eleanor of Austria (1653–1697)

Philip I of Bourbon (1640–1701)
⚭ 1671
Elisabeth of the Palatinate (1652–1722)

Leopold I (1640–1705)
⚭ 1676
Eleonore Magdalene of the Palatinate (1655–1720)

Ludwig Rudolf of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1671–1735)
⚭ 1690
Christine Luise von Oettingen (1671–1747)

Louis of France (1661–1711)
⚭ 1680
Maria Anna of Bavaria (1660–1690)

Odoardo II. Farnese (1666–1693)
⚭ 1690
Dorothea Sophie von der Pfalz (1670–1748)

August II (1670–1733)
⚭ 1693
Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth (1671–1727)

Joseph I (1678–1711)
⚭ 1699
Wilhelmine Amalie von Braunschweig-Lüneburg (1673–1742)

Great grandparents

Duke Leopold Joseph of Lorraine (1679–1729)
⚭ 1698
Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans (1676–1744)

Emperor Charles VI. (1685–1740)
⚭ 1708
Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1691–1750)

King Philip V (1683–1746)
⚭ 1714
Elisabetta Farnese (1692–1766)

King August III. (1696–1763)
⚭ 1719
Maria Josepha of Austria (1699–1757)


Emperor Franz I Stephan (1708–1765)
⚭ 1736
Maria Theresia (1717–1780)

King Charles III (1716–1788)
⚭ 1738
Maria Amalia of Saxony (1724–1760)


Emperor Leopold II (1747–1792)
⚭ 1765
Maria Ludovica of Spain (1745–1792)

Johann of Austria

Military career

Although intended for a military career, Johann developed diverse interests early on, especially in nature, technology and agriculture, which he also pursued during his military engagements. On July 22, 1795 he was promoted to major general and appointed colonel - owner of the 26th Dragoon Regiment. In the War of the Second Coalition Johann took over in August 1800 instead of Feldzeugmeister Kray the supreme command of the imperial army in southern Germany. He penetrated Bavaria , achieved success at Ampfing (December 1), but was badly beaten by General Moreau two days later in the Battle of Hohenlinden (December 3) . The Peace of Lunéville (February 9, 1801) ended the war, after which his brother Archduke Karl appointed him general director of genius and fortifications. After his promotion to Lieutenant Field Marshal on March 30, 1801 , he was also appointed director of the Vienna Engineering Academy and the Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt .

In the coalition war of 1805 he was initially supposed to organize the Tyrolean land militia in Innsbruck , but after his promotion to general of the cavalry at the beginning of September he had to take over the army commanded by Archduke Karl in Italy on imperial orders. In 1808 he organized the Landwehr in Tyrol and Inner Austria for the People's War against Napoleon and in 1809 promoted Andreas Hofer's Tyrolean struggle for freedom against Bavaria and the French .

At the beginning of April 1809 he took over the command of the southern army in Italy and led two corps against the French viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais there in the Venetian lowlands. On April 13th his troops entered Udine and on the 15th surprised the enemy rearguard at Pordenone. He finally defeated the viceroy's troops on April 16 at the Battle of Sacile . However, the defeats of the main army in Bavaria forced him to retreat to Styria via Carinthia . On his orders, in May 1809 the fortresses in Malborgeth were defended by Captain Hensel , on the Predil Pass by Captain Hermannsdorf and the Graz Schloßberg by Major Hackher . Archduke Johann could not hold Graz , united his troops with Hungarian reserves in the Körmend area and tried to bring his corps to the main army under Archduke Karl via Pressburg . Overtaken by the pursuing troops under Beauharnais on June 14th and badly beaten in the Battle of Raab , he was unable to arrive in time for the decisive battle of Wagram . After the main army passed to Prince Johann von Liechtenstein , Johann lost his active field command, but was at least awarded the Grand Cross of the Maria Theresa Order .

After the Congress of Vienna Johann deduced June 1815 nor the fortresses in the upper Alsace and the siege and storming of Vauban - Fortress Hüningen across from Basel , which resulted citizens after eleven days shelling on August 26, 1815 to the delight of Basel. The fortress was then razed at the request of the Basel citizens. His diary entry of July 28, 1815 shows his sympathy for the defeated enemy and his war weariness: “Let the eternal war end one day; What a wonderful world, if people would do themselves good ... ”The honorary appointment as Field Marshal by the new Emperor Ferdinand on September 17, 1836 , concluded his military career.

Tyrol (1800–1813)

Johann came to Tyrol for the first time in September 1800 and with that began “that unchanging and unshakable love which was shown to this country and which was faithfully returned by the same, [...] and which I will take with me to the grave.” In Scharnitz he met Baron Josef from Hormayr . Hormayr was at the forefront of the later Tyrolean popular uprising and was in close contact with Andreas Hofer and the imperial family in Vienna. From 1805 Johann organized the national defense system in Tyrol with unrestricted authority from the emperor. After the Peace of Pressburg on December 26, 1805, Austria had to cede Tyrol and Vorarlberg to Bavaria. Johann remained in close contact with Hormayr, who was preparing a mountain and people's war with Andreas Hofer from Vienna in Tyrol against the Bavarian occupation, which was perceived as harassed, which broke out in 1809 and, after several battles, with a defeat of the insurgents and the professional execution of Andreas Hofers ended.

In 1812 Hormayr convinced Johann of new ideas for uprising. In the Alpine League , all Alpine countries should be called to a popular uprising against Napoleon. Since the Austrian Empire after the Peace of Schönbrunn under the leadership of Emperor Franz I of Austria and Metternich , who had a decisive influence on politics from 1809 , had to be reconciled with Napoleon and was temporarily allied with Napoleon, the preparations for the popular uprising had to be carried out against the Keep the imperial house secret. But the Alpine League was betrayed and Johann denounced as a would-be king of a “Rhaetian Empire”. Hormayr was arrested in 1813 and had to serve a fortress. Archduke Johann was forbidden from entering Tyrol by his brother - Franz I. This imperial ban was not lifted until 1833. What remained was a lifelong hostility of Johann towards Metternich, whom he made responsible for his political "elimination".

Thernberg Lower Austria (1807–1828)

In 1807 Johann bought property in Thernberg in the south of Lower Austria . He remained the owner of Thernberg Castle and Lordship for over twenty-one years. Here he carried out his first agricultural experiments, laid out experimental gardens for fruit growing, and began with his extensive collections, which later formed the basis of the Graz Joanneum . As "Hanns von Österreich, der Thernberger", he was looking for conviviality in the " Wildenstein knighthood on blue earth " at Seebenstein Castle . From 1810 to 1820, Thernberg was also a place of retreat for the Archduke in order to deal with military and political defeats and to evade the intrigues of the Viennese court, to collect his thoughts and take up new ideas. In 1828 he sold his property in Thernberg again.

His work in Styria (1807-1859)

In Styria, Johann went down in history as the great modernizer and for many Styrians became a figure of identification par excellence. All of his initiatives and measures in Styria were made by Johann exclusively as a private person and not in any public function. Only his diverse relationships and his power of argumentation and persuasion enabled him to successfully implement his progressive ideas.

His loyalty to the people expressed itself in close contacts with the people, his interest in the inhabitants of the country and their needs and abilities and the promotion of the material and spiritual culture of Styria. He wanted his attitude to be expressed externally and made the gray, green loden skirt of the Upper Styrians , which was mainly worn by the hunters, into his garment, the Styrian skirt, from which the Styrian suit emerged . Johann obtained precise knowledge of the country, the residents and the services of the public institutions through statistical surveys of the country. On this he built and justified his economic and social reforms. Inspired by a folklore survey of the Joanneum initiated by Johann , the civil servant Johann Felix Knaffl, who worked in Fohnsdorf, wrote a detailed description of the landscape and folk life of his closer homeland in 1813 and thus created an invaluable folklore source, the so-called "Knaffl manuscript". Another survey was processed, sent out and finally evaluated by Archduke Johann's colleague Georg Göth in 1836 . The archduke's chamber painters, especially Thomas Ender , Jakob Gauermann , Johann Knapp , Matthäus Loder , Karl Ruß and Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld , created valuable cultural documents. They captured Styrian and Alpine motifs and scenes from the life of the Archduke in their pictures. They also created numerous illustrations of traditional costumes and fashion as well as the world of work and the alpine flora.

Palais Meran in Graz, today: part of the Graz University of Art

The development of the Eastern Alps also received new and decisive impulses from Archduke Johann. In the course of his life, which he spent mostly in the mountainous countries of Styria, Tyrol and Salzburg, he traveled and hiked most of the Austrian mountain groups. In 1807 he visited the Savica waterfall in Slovenia ; a memorial there commemorates his visit. Johann had great tours carefully prepared by people with experience in the mountains. His secretary Johann Zahlbruckner accompanied him on many of these tours . Almost always one of his chamber painters was there, who had the task of capturing the mountain landscapes, but also everyday rural life.

In 1811 Johann laid the foundation stone for the Joanneum in Graz , the forerunner of the Technical University . But other foundings were also based on Archduke Johann's suggestions, such as:

  • the Styrian State Library (1811),
  • the Styrian State Archives (1817),
  • the Styrian Agricultural Society (1819),
  • the Steiermärkische Sparkasse (1825), (quote :) "... that eliminated with the implementation of the savings bank philosophy not only the traditional means of coercion and domination by the state in the economy, but also the conditions are created, as a result to rebuild the economy that had suffered the Napoleonic wars and to lead the large parts of the population, who lived in unimaginable poverty at the beginning of the machine age, out of their social misery. "
  • the mining and smelting school (1840) in Vordernberg (moved to Leoben from 1849, today the Montan University ),
  • the mutual fire damage insurance company ,
  • the Landesoberrealschule (1845) and
  • the Historical Association for Styria (1850).

His social sentiment and his solidarity with the common people were already evident in 1816 and 1817, when there was a famine in Styria and he personally distributed potatoes in the emergency areas and encouraged the starving population to grow them. The task of the Steiermärkische Landwirtschaftsgesellschaft , founded by Johann in 1819, was to encourage the farmers to innovate and improve in order to improve their economic situation. This went from the spread of new methods for animal husbandry, fruit growing and arable farming and the publicizing of new seeds and varieties to the rationalization of cultivation and harvesting methods. Archduke Johann was elected President at the inaugural meeting, an office he held until his death. How important this initiative was to the Archduke is shown by the fact that he took part in the meetings of the almost 50 branches that were established throughout Styria at least once a year if possible. The Agricultural Society was the predecessor organization of the Styrian Chamber of Agriculture established in 1929 .

The Brandhof around 1820, S. Kölbl, Lith. Establishment JF Kaiser, Graz
Meranovo winery near Maribor 2013, formerly Pickern winery

In 1822 Johann's uncle Albert von Sachsen-Teschen died , who gave him 200,000 guilders in his will . Now he was able to expand his agricultural model estate Brandhof near Mariazell , he bought a wheel factory in Vordernberg and became an ironworker. In 1837 he bought a second Vordernberg wheel factory. In 1829 he pushed through the re-establishment of the Vordernberg cycling community among the other cycling champions. Under the decisive influence of Archduke Johann, ore mining and ore mining on the Styrian Erzberg were reorganized and modernized. By acquiring a sheet metal factory in Krems near Voitsberg (1848) and coal mines near Köflach , he also became a factory owner and coal works.

In 1840 he bought the Stainz estate , where he was also elected the first freely elected mayor in 1850. He had already bought a winery in Pickern (now Pekre ) near Marburg an der Drau in Lower Styria , where he had Rhenish vines planted in a model vineyard. His work in Lower Styria has largely been forgotten by the events of the 20th century, although he was essential for development through the promotion of traffic routes - the construction of the stone bridge over the Sann (1826) or the connecting road from Windischgraz to Schallthal (1830) contributed to the region and was celebrated for it by the population, who also erected several monuments to it. He also ran model and test yards at the Brandhof, in Stainz and also in Graz (in the area of ​​today's Annenstraße near what would later become the Gratz station (now the main train station)).

Impressed by the steam engines that he had got to know on his visit to England in 1815 (Archduke Johann traveled to England in 1815 and 1816 to explore the achievements of English industry and was received by James Watt in Birmingham ), he vehemently advocated the expansion of the railway. As early as 1825, he proposed to Court Chancellor Franz Josef von Saurau in detail a railway connection from Budweis to Trieste . Particularly noteworthy is the implementation of the route of the southern railway from Vienna to Trieste over the Semmering and through the Mur-Mürzfurche to Graz. The Styrian section from Mürzzuschlag to Graz was therefore popularly called Archduke Johann-Bahn . The Graz-Köflacher Bahn , built from 1855 and opened in 1860, also emerged from a Johannine suggestion. He personally determined the route of this railway line ( Köflacherbahn ), which connects the Köflacher coal districts and also Johanns Blechfabrik in Krems with the provincial capital Graz and thus with the southern railway.

Johann's loyalty to the people found its expression not least in a whole series of songs about him. The Erzherzog-Johann- Jodler (“Wo i go and stand”), text by Anton Schosser , written in 1830 , is still often sung today. In addition, there are at least three dozen Archduke Johann songs, some of which - such as those that deal with his role in the French wars or as imperial administrator - are also quite critical.

To commemorate his death, a large-scale fountain was erected in the middle of Graz's main square, on which a larger than life statue of the Archduke stands. The four female figures at his feet, which at the same time feed the fountain with water, symbolize the four main rivers of what was then Styria: Mur , Enns , Drau and Sann . The monument created by Franz Pönninger was unveiled on September 8, 1878 in the presence of Emperor Franz Joseph himself. One of the inscriptions on the base comes from the Austrian poet Anastasius Grün and reads: "Unforgettable lives in the people who have never forgotten the people".

The publicist Gerfried Sperl judges Archduke Johann's work in Styria:

“All in all, this Habsburg created a climate in Styria whose innovative basic trait is still exemplary today. [...] Archduke Johann became a brand. He didn't know that, but he did everything with this in mind. "

Johann as imperial administrator (1848–1849)

Archduke Johann as imperial administrator; Lithograph by Joseph Kriehuber , 1848

The revolution of 1848 led to the election of the Frankfurt National Assembly , the first all-German parliament. The National Assembly took over the task of giving Germany an executive from the Bundestag. The Provisional Central Power , the provisional German government, was established on June 28, 1848. The next day the National Assembly elected Johann, who received the title of Reichsverweser , as head of state . A deputation from the National Assembly went to Vienna to inform Johann of this. At the beginning of July Johann accepted the honor, on July 11th he moved into Frankfurt amid great cheers. Johann's choice met with a great deal of approval: the monarchists agreed because he was a prince, the Greater Germans because he was Austrian, and the leftists accepted him because he was considered popular. In general, the Archduke was an opponent of Metternich.

The Reichsverweser was the provisional head of the German Empire , a state that was still in the making. The role of the Reich Administrator was to appoint and dismiss the Reich Ministers. He also signed the Reich Laws . After the violent suppression of the German Revolution , he transferred his powers to the Federal Central Commission on December 20, 1849 .

From imperial administrator to mayor (1850–1858)

After a two-year absence, his return from Frankfurt brought him back to Stainz, where he was elected first mayor on July 23, 1850. For the first time and for the first time in Austria, a member of the imperial family was elected mayor of a small market town. He held this office, represented in his absence by the market judge Georg Ensbrunner , until the end of 1858.

More functions, engagements and initiatives

Archduke Johann of Austria (lithograph by Josef Kriehuber , 1859)
  • Impressed by the needs of the common people, he issued a service order in favor of the maids and servants and arranged for a brother's shop (Knappschaftskasse) to be set up for the miners and smelters in the Upper Styrian iron mining in Vordernberg . A men's sickness and corpse support association and the Anna Children's Hospital in Graz named after his wife can be traced back to him even though these detachments affected him personally as the landowner.
  • On July 2, 1846 he was appointed curator of the Academy of Sciences by the Kaiser , the first meeting of which he opened on February 2, 1848 with a speech. He revised their statutes and enforced the freedom of discussion in speech and writing for the members of the academy as an essential requirement, thereby puncturing the strict censorship in the Austria of Vormärz. Approval and establishment took place on May 14, 1847.


Graz main square with Archduke Johann monument
Monument to Archduke Johann in Bad Aussee , Styria
  • 1792: Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece
  • 1801: He was elected permanent rector ( Rector magnificentissimus ) by the Leopoldine University of Innsbruck .
  • 1803: Carl Ludwig Willdenow names a plant genus Johannia from the sunflower family (Asteraceae) after him.
  • 1805: Chief Director of the Theresian Cadet Academy in Wiener Neustadt
  • 1809: Awarded the Commander's Cross of the Military Military Maria Theresa Order .
  • Awarded the Grand Cross of the Maria Theresa Order.
  • 1809: Holder of the Grand Cross of the Leopold Order
  • In 1815 he was made an honorary member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences .
  • On December 4, 1815 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University (College) of Edinburgh .
  • 1815: Honorary member of the Tsarist Society of Naturalists in Moscow
  • On September 9, 1835, he was awarded the Black Eagle Order
  • 1847: President of the Society of German Farmers and Foresters
  • Due to his passion for mountaineering, such as the attempted first ascent of the Großvenediger , the Erzherzog-Johann-Hütte (Adlersruhe) on the Großglockner or the Erzherzog-Johann-Kohlröschen (Nigritella archiducis-joannis), a species of orchid in the mountain meadows, are named after him.
  • In 1959 and 1982 a Styrian national exhibition was dedicated to him, for which there was also a stamp with the image of the Archduke by the Austrian Post.
  • In 1959 a 25 Schilling silver commemorative coin was minted with his image.
  • On the south side of the Paulskirche in Frankfurt am Main , a monument donated by the city of Graz in 1982 commemorates Archduke Johann as imperial administrator.
  • In 1994 a 100 Schilling silver commemorative coin was minted with his image.
  • 1997 Name of the Erzherzog-Johann-Platz in Vienna- Wieden (4th district).
  • Many schools, streets, hotels and various commercial products bear the name of Archduke Johanns in Styria. In particular the Universalmuseum Joanneum and the Archduke Johann University ( TU Graz ), both of which go back to Archduke Johann, as well as the research company Joanneum Research and the Joanneum University of Applied Sciences .


  • Archduke Johann was the owner of the Dragoon Regiment No. 1 from 1795.
  • Archduke Johann was for a long time the commander in chief of the Styrian house regiment, the infantry regiment No. 27 "King of the Belgians", which was deployed on the front lines in all Austrian wars of the 19th century.
  • The 100th locomotive, which had been completed in the machine factory of the kk priv. Staatseisenbahn-Gesellschaft, whose first workshop he opened on April 21, 1840, and which was to be delivered to the southern state railway as "Wolfsberg", was built in 1848 in honor of the popular prince called "Reichsverweser", because the Archduke had been elected by the National Assembly as Reichsverweser of the German Empire shortly before in Frankfurt.
  • Other steam locomotives related to Archduke Johann are the " Brandhof I and II " built in 1842 .
  • His former Graz City Palace Palais Meran, 1841–1843 based on plans by Georg Hauberrisser senior. executed, remained in the family's possession until 1938. Today it is part of the University of Music and Performing Arts Graz and a venue for theater, cinema and conferences.
  • The street adjacent to the Palais Meran is called Brandhofgasse and the connecting street not far from it is named in honor of the son of Archduke Johann Merangasse .
  • The Brandhof , with a hunting area of 980 hectares, the Stainz Castle with forest and grounds of 1940 hectares and Schenna Castle near Merano in South Tyrol are still owned by the Merano family.
  • The conductor Nikolaus Harnoncourt (1929–2016) was a great-great-grandson of Archduke Johann.


  • 2015: From the beauty of nature. Archduke Johann's chamber painters . Albertina , Vienna.

Feature films about Archduke Johann

As early as 1929, Max Neufeld had set a cinematic monument to Archduke Johann, who was connected to the people, with Igo Sym in the lead role. The distribution title of this film in Germany was Herzog Hansl.

The popular film Archduke Johanns Große Liebe with OW Fischer and Marte Harell in the leading roles, shot in 1950 , triggered a wave of historicizing Habsburg films . For OW Fischer this film was the breakthrough to a film star.

In 2009 the love story of Archduke Johann and Anna Plochl was filmed for ZDF under the title Geliebter Johann Geliebte Anna (also: Anna and the Prince ) with Tobias Moretti and Anna Maria Mühe in the title roles .

See also

Archduke Johann (ship)
Archduke Johann Hut


Web links

Commons : Archduke Johann von Österreich  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Anton Schlossar : Archduke Johann of Austria. Styria, Vienna / Graz 1908, pp. 2, 35, 25, 36 and 64.
  2. ^ HHStA, Burgkapelle 1, death certificate of the kk garrison pastoral care Graz.
  3. ^ Friedrich Weissensteiner : Reformers, Republicans and Rebels. The other house of Habsburg-Lorraine. Piper, Munich / Zurich 1995, ISBN 3-492-11954-9 , p. 102.
  4. a b c d e f Charlotte Keil-Meran (Hrsg.): Archduke Johann - dates and deeds. Styria, Graz no year
  5. Hans Wagner:  Johann. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 10, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-00191-5 , pp. 505-508 ( digitized version ).
  6. Hans Magenschab: Archduke Johann. Styria, Vienna / Graz / Klagenfurt 2008, ISBN 978-3-222-13255-1 , p. 276.
  7. ^ Gabriele Praschl-Bichler: The Habsburgs in Graz. Leopold Stocker Verlag, Graz / Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-7020-0772-5 , p. 81.
  8. ^ Renate Basch-Ritter: Anna Plochl. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 2003, ISBN 3-201-01845-7 , p. 197ff.
  9. The Counts of Meran. In:
  10. ^ Anton Schlossar: Archduke Johann Baptist of Austria. Adolf Hölder, Vienna 1880, p. 120 ff.
  11. ^ Hannes Lammer: Archduke Johann and Tirol. Cultural Department of the Styrian Provincial Government and the South Tyrolean Provincial Government (ed.), Graz 1984.
  12. Jürg-Peter Lienhard: History of Hüningen.
  13. Addenda: Tabular history of Alsace-Lorraine. ( Memento from February 12, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
  14. Sibylle Bartl: Barbanègre could not prevent the fortress from falling. In: Badische Zeitung . January 31, 2009. Accessed August 18, 2011.
  15. Walter Pietsch u. a .: Our Archduke Johann. Leykam, Graz 1959, p. 60.
  16. Lutz Maurer: Prince Hanns and the poor abandoned sinner Andre. In: Guido Jaklitsch: Steirische Brauchstumskalender 2009. Volkskultur Verlag, Leibnitz 2008, pp. 66–73.
  17. See for example Wolfram Siemann: Metternich. Statesman between restoration and modernity. C. H. Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-58784-9 , pp. 97 and 100.
  18. ^ Website of Thernberg in Lower Austria.
  19. Hannes Lambauer in: Archduke Johann. Styrian Customs Calendar 2009, Volkskultur Verlag, Leibnitz 2008.
  20. ^ Fritz Posch : Archduke Johann and the Styrian archives. Graz 1959.
  21. ^ Steiermärkische Sparkasse in Graz (ed.): 140 years Steiermärkische Sparkasse in Graz. Leykam-Druck, Graz 1965, p. 97.
  22. ^ A b Hans Wilfinger: Archduke Johann and Stainz. Verlag der Marktgemeinde Stainz, Stainz 1959 (2nd edition 2001), pp. 13 and 50.
  23. Elisabeth Schöggl-Ernst, historian, in: Landwirtschaftliche Mitteilungen, Graz, edition January 15, 2009,
  24. Pekre in the Slovenian-language Wikipedia
  25. Walter Pietsch u. a .: Our Archduke Johann. Leykam, Graz 1959, p. 33.
  26. Archduke Johann of Austria - the "Styrian Prince". ( Memento of November 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Website of Archduke Johann Weine. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  27. ^ Anton Schlossar: Archduke Johann of Austria and his influence on the cultural life of Styria. Wilhelm Braumüller, Vienna 1878, p. 44.
  28. Sonja Žitko: Monuments Archduke Johann of Austria dedicated in Slovenia. In: Umetnostnozgodovinski inštitut Franceta Steleta. undated. Retrieved August 18, 2011.
  29. 2017 has already started on mein, December 27, 2016, accessed July 29, 2017.
  30. Original letter of March 26, 1825, in: Grete Klingenstein: Archduke Johann von Österreich. Catalog for the 1982 state exhibition in Stainz, Volume 1 (2nd edition), Graz 1982, p. 412.
  31. Walter Pietsch u. a .: Our Archduke Johann. Leykam, Graz 1959, p. 43.
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