|Historic region||Lower Styria / Štajerska|
|Statistical region||Koroška (Slovenian Carinthia)|
|Residents||16,525 (January 1, 2018 estimate)|
|Population density||95 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code||(+386) 288|
|Structure and administration (as of 2019)|
|Mayor :||Tilen Klugler (SD)|
|Mailing address||Šolska ulica 5
2380 Slovenj Gradec
Slovenj Gradec ( German : Windischgrätz or Windischgraz , literally: "Slovenian Graz" or "Slovenian small castle") is a town and municipality in Slovenia . It lies in the historical Spodnja Štajerska ( Lower Styria ) region, but is now part of the statistical region of Koroška ( Lower Carinthia ).
Slovenj Gradec is located in the lower Mislinja valley ( Missling ) at the northern end of a wide plain. The city center itself is at 411 m. ü. A. , in the east the municipality includes parts of the Pohorje ( Bacherngebirge ) and in the west it has a share of the Karavanke ( Karavanke ), where it joins the Uršlja gora with 1699 m. ü. A. reached its highest point.
The municipality of Slovenj Gradec is divided into five districts ( Slov .: Četrtne skupnosti , abbreviation: ČS ). They represent the executive power of the municipality and collect suggestions from the population:
- ČS Center
- ČS Orte-mesto
- ČS Polje
- ČS Stari trg-mesto
- ČS Štibuh
In addition, the municipality is divided into 22 localities, but these have no administrative significance. The German exonyms in brackets were mainly used by the German-speaking population until the area was ceded to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 and are largely uncommon today. (Population figures as of January 1, 2017):
1 Sele only partially belongs to the municipality of Slovenj Gradec, the municipality of Ravne na Koroškem comprises another part.
|Ravne na Koroškem||Dravograd||Vuzenica|
|Črna na Koroškem||Ribnica na Pohorju|
Prehistory and early history, Roman times, late antiquity
Stone and Bronze Age finds are rare and are limited to tool finds as well as a presumed Neolithic settlement in the area of the current district of Orte.
From the Hallstatt period, also in the area of the district of Legen, an important fortress is known, at the foot of which there are numerous barrows. The finds there date from the beginning of the Iron Age to the end of the 7th century BC. Another fortified settlement from the younger Iron Age was found in 1913–1915 in the area of what is now Stari Trg on the Puščava hill and archaeologically examined.
Shortly after the Noricum was annexed to the Roman Empire in 46 AD, the Roman station Collatio was built on the Roman road Celeia (Celje) - Virunum (settlement on the area of today's Zollfeld near Maria Saal in Carinthia ), also in the area of today's district Stari Trg. Collatio existed for nearly 400 years and went under in the early 5th century. Other Roman building remains and grave monuments can be found in the near and far.
Late antique graves can be found in the Puščava area above Stari Trg. Among these are 136 Old Slavic graves, which are assigned to the Karantanisch-Köttlacher cultural group.
Since today's district of Stari Trg (German: Altenmarkt) is located directly above the ruins of the Roman Vicus Colatio and burial fields with occupancy from late antiquity to the early Middle Ages have been found in the immediate vicinity (Puščava), there is a settlement continuity (otherwise very rare in this area) probably. The castle built on this site developed into an important possession of various noble families and came to the Counts of Andechs-Meran ( Duchy of Merania ) in the 12th century . It had market rights and coins and belonged to the Duchy of Carinthia . Weriant von Grez, first mentioned in 1091, is assigned to this castle. Since the location of the settlement belonging to the castle was not suitable for the expansion of the city, the settlement was moved - probably around 1180 - to its current location on the plain. The old settlement was retained as a village and was later given market rights again.
In 1251, Patriarch Berthold von Aquileia (also Berthold V. (Andechs) ), who came from the Andechs-Meraner family, donated the Windischgraz estate, castle and market to the Patriarchate of Aquileia. As a result, there were inheritance disputes because Duke Ulrich III. von Carinthia , who was married to a sister of Berthold, made claims to Windischgraz. After a 10-year dispute, Ulrich was finally enfeoffed with Windischgraz for life. Windischgraz was first mentioned as a city in 1267.
The Carinthian ducal family died out in 1279, and Carinthia was subsequently ruled by the Counts of Gorizia- Tyrol until it finally fell to the Habsburgs in 1335. Due to its turbulent history, Slovenj Gradec / Windischgraz, although it originally belonged to Carinthia, occupied a special position between Carinthia and Styria and only finally came to Styria in the course of the 15th century.
Slovenj Gradec was also the ancestral seat of the Austrian princely family Windisch-Graetz .
Early modern age
The city with its lively trade relations with Salzburg and Bavaria was one of the first in the Styrian-Carinthian border region to accept the Reformation from Martin Luther . The early reformation history of the city and Carinthia was significantly shaped by the pastor Hans Has (Janez Žaic), who was supported by the city nobility, but opposed by the pastor and humanist Auguštin Prygl. Prygl obtained that Has was arrested, transferred to Graz and hanged there on December 2, 1527. Nevertheless, Protestantism remained alive in the city, which u. a. is evidenced by the appointment of several Protestant pastors by the city lords. In 1595 the Protestants even built their own cemetery and chapel with financial support from the estates. At the end of the century, a massive re-Catholicisation program ( counter-reformation ) began, through which the age of Protestantism in Slovenj Gradec came to an end in 1629 with the departure of numerous Protestant nobles and citizens.
The city belonged to the Duchy of Styria until 1918 and was a German-speaking city surrounded by Slovenian villages. It was the seat of the District Authority Windischgraz and the District Court of Windischgraz , included Rottenthurn Castle and had 982 inhabitants in 1890, 745 of them Germans.
It is noteworthy that even today all the inscriptions on cultural monuments are trilingual.
- Collatio: district of Stari trag; Excavation site of the Roman vicus Collatio with some building remains.
- Parish Church of Sv. Elizabeta: on the main square, first mentioned in 1251; Interior fittings mostly from the baroque era.
- Gothic Chapel of the Holy Spirit: built in 1471, with important frescoes (Andreas von Otting) from the middle of the 15th century; the chapel is next to the parish church.
- St. George's Church: 5 km east of Slovenj Gradec, in the district of Orte, there is a Romanesque St. George's Church, which is assigned to the 2nd half of the 13th century. Excavations carried out in 1993/94 document several previous buildings, the oldest of which was built in the 9th / 10th centuries. Century is dated. The church is therefore possibly the oldest church building from Carolingian times in the whole of Carantania . 26 graves were also found, which are assigned to the Karantanisch-Köttlach cultural group. Some of the archaeological finds are presented in a very appealing way in the church (glass floors give an insight into the original find locations).
- Church of Sv. Pankracija: district of Stari trg; the church was built on the remains of the former Slovenj Gradec castle, which is one of the oldest castles in Slovenian-Carinthia / Styria. The castle was probably destroyed by the Hungarians in 1489 and later rebuilt to the current church.
- Koroški podkrajinski muzej: Glavni trg 24; extensive exhibition on the important archaeological finds in Slovenj Gradec and the surrounding area
- Sokličev muzej: Trg svobode 5; historical, archaeological and folklore collection of pastor Jakob Soklič (1895–1972)
- Koroška galerija likovnih umetnosti: Glavni trg 24; changing exhibitions of modern Slovenian art, primarily from the Slovenian Carinthia
- Dvorec Rotenturn: Castle created from a former aristocratic tower and parts of the city wall; today the seat of the city administration
- Remains of the city wall: old town
- Birthplace of Hugo Wolf : The composer Hugo Wolf was born here on March 13, 1860. In the birth house, which u. a. The music school is also used for concerts and courses.
- Ernst Goll's birthplace : The poet Ernst Goll was born here in his parents' hotel on March 14, 1887.
- Štrekna : bike path on an abandoned section of the Lavant Valley Railway
Sons and daughters of the church
- Hugo Wolf (1860–1903), Slovenian-Austrian composer and music critic
- Franc Berneker (1874–1932), sculptor
- Friedrich Schaffernak (1881–1951), hydraulic engineer, hydrologist and university professor
- Ernst Goll (1887–1912), Austrian poet
- Ivan Gams (1923–2014), geographer and university professor
- Vinko Ošlak (* 1947), writer, publicist and translator
- Mirko Messner (* 1948), Austrian journalist and politician
- Marjan Linasi (* 1958), historian and author
- Spasoje Bulajič (* 1975), football player
- Katarina Čas (* 1976), actress
- Tomaž Kovačič (* 1976), opera singer
- Peter Poles (* 1978), show master
- Boštjan neighbor (* 1980), basketball player
- Sašo Fornezzi (* 1982), football player
- Tina Maze (* 1983), ski racer
- Mirko Nikolič-Kajič (* 1984), handball player
- Vid Kavtičnik (* 1984), handball player
- Denis Halilović (* 1986), football player
- Dejan Vinčić (* 1986), volleyball player
- Mojca Bitenc (* 1989), opera singer
- Janja Garnbret (* 1999), sport climber
People who worked in the place
- Hans Has (? - 1527), Protestant preacher and reformer
- Franc Ksaver Meško ( 1874-1964 ), Catholic priest and writer
- Bogdan Borčič ( 1926-2014 ), painter
- Jože Tisnikar ( 1928-1998 ), painter
- -graetz , later -grätz is the spelling until the end of the 19th century. The Styrian capital Graz was also written Graetz (e.g. by Schubert) and later Grätz . The pronunciation of the ae, then the ä, which was valid in Austria, was [a:], which is why after the acceptance of an all-German pronunciation regulation - see German pronunciation (Siebs) - the spelling of the place names was changed according to the pronunciation.
- Website of the city of Slovenj Gradec
- Coat of arms of the city of Slovenj Gradec
- Map of the municipality of Slovenj Gradec
- Andrees Handatlas . Velhagen & Klasing, Leipzig 1928.
- The Big Brockhaus . 15th edition, Leipzig 1928-35, Vol. 20, p. 359.
- City districts of Slovenj Gradec (Slovenian)
- Special map of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy 1: 75,000 - Unterdrauburg 5354. (1913)
- Special map of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy 1: 75,000 - Prassberg ad Sann 5454. (1915)
- Population tables of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia ( Slovene )
- Mira Strmčnik-Gulič: Pregled pomembnih arheoloških odkritij na območju Slovenj Gradca. Časopis za zgodovino in narodopisje. Maribor 64 = 29 (1993), pp. 10-19.
- Manfred Lehner, Binnennoricum - Karantanien between Roman times and the High Middle Ages, habilitation thesis, Graz 2009
- Wilhelm Rausch, The City at the Exit of the Middle Ages, Austrian Working Group for Urban History Research, 1974, p. 317
- Norbert Weiss, The urban system of the former Lower Styria in the Middle Ages: comparative analysis of sources on legal, economic and social history, Historical Provincial Commission for Styria, 2002, p. 10
- Norbert Weiss, The urban system of the former Lower Styria in the Middle Ages: comparative analysis of sources on legal, economic and social history, Historical Provincial Commission for Styria, 2002, p. 11.
- Holm Sundhaussen, Konrad Clewing, Lexikon zur Geschichte Südosteuropas, Wien Köln Weimar 2016, p. 476
- Marko Kosan, Reformacija in protireformacija v Slovenj Gradcu (1527 - 1629), Kronika (Ljubljana), 56 (2), pp 233-246
- Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 5th edition. 17th volume. Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1897, p. 794.
- Marko Kosan, sv. Elizabete: 1251-750 let-2001, Mestna občina Slovenj Gradec 2001
- Koroški pokrajinski muzej: Stalna razstava Arheologjija koroške krajine, Slovenj Gradec 2009
- Mira Strmčnik, Sveti Jurij, zakladnica podatkov, Izvršni svet Skupščine občine Slovenj Gradec, 1994
- Svjetlana Kurelac, sv. Pankracija na Gradu nad Starim trgom, Slovenj Gradec: Mestna občina, 1997
- "Berneker Franc". Slovenian biographical lexicon. Slovenian biography. Ljubljana: ZRC SAZU, 2013.