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Ljubljana coat of arms Map of Slovenia, position of Ljubljana highlighted
Basic data
Country SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia
Historic region Upper Carniola / Gorenjska
Statistical region Osrednjeslovenska (Central Slovenia)
Coordinates 46 ° 3 '  N , 14 ° 30'  E Coordinates: 46 ° 3 '5 "  N , 14 ° 30' 20"  E
height 298  m. i. J.
surface 275  km²
Residents 284,355 (2019)
Population density 1,034 inhabitants per km²
Telephone code (+386) 01
Post Code 1000
License Plate LJ
Structure and administration
Mayor : Zoran Janković ( PS )

Ljubljana ( Ljubljana ? / I Slovene [ ljuˈbljàːna ], colloquially [ luˈblàːna ]; German Laibach ; Italian Lubiana ) is the capital of Slovenia and with 284,355 inhabitants (2019) also its largest city . Audio file / audio sample  

The city is the political, economic and cultural center of Slovenia. Ljubljana is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of the same name and has been a university city since 1919 .

View of the city from the castle
The central promenade goes along the Ljubljanica , over which more than a dozen bridges lead.

name of the city

There are several explanations for the origin of the Slovenian name of the city: according to one, probably folk etymological explanation, it comes from the Slovenian ljubljena ("beloved city"), and the other from the Latin river name Aluviana . The city name was first mentioned in this form in 1146 as Luwigana .

In the German-speaking area, besides the name Ljubljana , the historical German name Laibach , originally derived from Slavic like the river name of the same name, has been retained , which today is mainly used in Austria . In German and Austrian diplomacy the city is officially referred to as Laibach. The German name of the city was mentioned for the first time in 1112–1125 as Leibach . This shape is also the oldest known mention of the city.


Political affiliation of Ljubljana since 1144
Country Administrative unit Affiliation
Holy Roman Empire 1400Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire Margraviate of Carniola
( Habsburg from 1278 )
Duchy of Carniola
(1379 / 1411–1457 and
1564–1619 Inner Austria )
Austrian EmpireEmpire of Austria Austria Duchy of Carniola 1804-1809
France 1804First empire France Illyrian provinces 1809-1813
Austrian EmpireEmpire of Austria Austria Illyrian provinces
occupied by Austria.
Kingdom of Illyria 1816-1849
Duchy of Carniola 1849-1867
Austria-HungaryAustria-Hungary Austria-Hungary Duchy of Carniola
( Cisleithanien )
Yugoslavia Kingdom 1918Kingdom of Yugoslavia SHS state / Yugoslavia Slovenia Province 1918-1922
Ljubljana Oblast 1922-1929
Drava Banschaft 1929-1941
Italy 1861Kingdom of Italy (1861-1946) Italy Laibach Province 1941-1943
German Reich NSGerman Reich (Nazi era) German Empire Laibach Province formally
Italian, de facto under
German control ( OZAK ).
Yugoslavia Socialist Federal RepublicYugoslavia Yugoslavia People's Republic of Slovenia 1945–1963
Socialist. Rep. Slovenia 1963-1990
Republic of Slovenia 1990-1991
SloveniaSlovenia Slovenia Municipality of Ljubljana since 1991


From 3600 to 3100 BC The earliest lake dwellings ( pile dwellings ) can be found in the Laibacher Moor .

Between 1000 and 700 BC The first Illyrian and Venetian settlements existed around 400 BC. The period of the Celts followed .

Jason is considered to be the first mythical inhabitant (see the coat of arms section ).

Roman Empire

In the 1st century BC A military fortress was built by the Romans on the site of today's Ljubljana and in 14 the Roman settlement Emona or Aemona ( Colonia Aemona Iulia tribu Claudia ) was laid out. Although it was located on the site of today's Ljubljana, it was lost in the migration of peoples and is therefore only a predecessor of today's city.

Migration of peoples and the Franconian Empire

Slavic tribes migrated to the area around 600 , followed by a decline in Emona. Around 800 the area of ​​Laibach fell under the rule of the Franks .

Holy Roman Empire

The city before the 13th century

In the East Franconian and later the Holy Roman Empire, the area around Ljubljana belonged to the Carniola region . The period between 1112 and 1125 is the time when the first written records of Laibach were made. The first documented mention of the city comes from the year 1144. The settlement founded by the Spanheimers was first called city around 1220, in 1243 its market rights and its city wall are on record, in 1280 the inhabitants were called "cives" (citizens).

In 1270, Laibach was conquered by the Bohemian King Premysl Ottokar II , who had previously subjugated their Austrian territory after the male line of Babenbergs had died out in 1246.

Habsburg rule, Reformation and Counter-Reformation

Slovenian Philharmonic, founded in 1701

In 1278, after the defeat of King Ottokar II against Rudolf von Habsburg , Laibach became the property of the Habsburgs .

In 1335, Laibach became the capital of the Duchy of Carniola, part of the Holy Roman Empire, under the Habsburgs . In 1415, Laibach resisted a Turkish invasion.

In 1461 the Diocese of Ljubljana was founded ( see also: List of Bishops of Ljubljana ), and the Church of St. Nicholas became a cathedral . In 1504 the election of the first mayor took place. In 1511, Laibach experienced its first major earthquake .

The first Reformation sermon was delivered in 1523 at the latest. With the support of the Carniolan estates , Protestants established a professional Latin school in 1536 at the level of a grammar school . In addition to humanism , the Slovene reformer Primož Trubar (Primus Truber, 1508–1586) was particularly influential in the development of the Reformation through his Reformation sermons in the Slovene language. With his extensive written work in Slovene, he is considered the founder of the Slovene written language. In 2016, Ljubljana was awarded the honorary title “ City of the Reformation of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .

After the Jesuits arrived in Ljubljana in 1597 and built their own grammar school two years later, the Trubar Reformation in Slovenia came to an end in the first third of the 17th century. With the Counter-Reformation , the Ministry of Churches and Schools in Ljubljana was closed, evangelical preachers were expelled, a religious reformation commission was set up and the nobility, unwilling to convert, were expelled from the country. Churches were founded in Ljubljana in the middle of the 19th century - made possible by the Josephine Tolerance Patent of 1781; The Slovene Church AB ( Augsburg Confession ) has existed since 1945 .

In 1693 the Academia Operosum, an association of the most respected scholars, was founded, and in 1701 the Academia Philharmonicorum was founded.

In 1754 the population was 9,300. From 1773 to 1781 the Gruber Canal (Gruberjev Canal) and the Gruber Palace (Gruberjeva palača) were built. In 1797 the first daily newspaper was published in Slovenia .

Empire of Austria

Postage stamp from the Austrian coat of arms edition 1850 with local stamp of Laibach

In 1804, Laibach became part of the newly proclaimed Austrian Empire . After the Treaty of Schönbrunn , the city and the surrounding area had to be ceded to Napoleonic France, and the city became the capital of the Illyrian provinces of France under the name Laybach from 1809 to 1813 . In 1814/15 she returned to Austria with the Congress of Vienna .

In 1810 the botanical garden was founded . In 1821 the Ljubljana Congress of the Holy Alliance took place at the invitation of Emperor Franz I.

The Ljubljana – Vienna railway connection , the Austrian Southern Railway, was built in 1849 and, as an extension, the Ljubljana – Trieste connection .

In 1861 public gas lighting was introduced and in 1890 public water supply was built. After a devastating earthquake in 1895, Laibach committed itself to a modern look. In 1898, public electric lighting was introduced. Three years later, in 1901, the electric tram was introduced in Laibach.

In 1900 Ljubljana had 36,547 inhabitants including the garrison. Of these, 29,733 were Slovene (81%) and 5423 German (15%).

Before the First World War , Laibach was an Austro-Hungarian garrison town. In 1914 the following were stationed here in whole or in part: the staff of the kuk 28th Infantry Troop Division, the kuk Carniolan Infantry Regiment No. 17, the kuk Styrian Infantry Regiment No. 27, the kk Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 27 and the kuk Field cannon regiment No. 7. The strategic decisions for the Italian front , especially for the Isonzo front , were made by the army command in Ljubljana, where Field Marshal Boroević and the later Austrian Federal President Körner were among others .

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and Kingdom of Yugoslavia

At the end of October 1918, Ljubljana became part of the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes . In 1919 the University of Ljubljana was founded . In 1929, Ljubljana became the capital of the Dravska banovina in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia .

Italian annexation and German occupation

After the invasion of Yugoslavia in World War II Ljubljana on 3 May 1941, the former Yugoslav General Leon Rupnik as mayor under the name Lubiana capital of the annexed Italian Provincia di Lubiana . The majority of the Laibach Germans , around 2400, were resettled in the Greater German Reich in the winter of 1941/42 on the basis of an agreement between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini , the majority in Upper Carniola and Lower Styria .

In 1942, Italian troops sealed off the city with a barbed wire fence and watchtowers and then combed it several times as part of the Italian repression against the Slovenian resistance. By the time Italy surrendered in September 1943, about eighteen percent of the population of Lubiana had been deported to Italian concentration camps.

After the capitulation of Italy, it passed into German control ( SS- General Erwin Rösener and Friedrich Rainer as head of civil administration ), until the complete surrender of the Wehrmacht on May 8, 1945.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

On May 9, 1945, the Provincia di Lubiana was formally dissolved . In 1945 the remaining Germans from Ljubljana had to leave the country as well as the other Slovenian Germans due to the AVNOJ resolutions . Numerous people were murdered.

In 1945 Ljubljana became the capital of the People's Republic of Slovenia in the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia .

In 1958 the first Slovenian television station started broadcasting regularly and that year the tram was shut down. In 1980 the Yugoslav President Josip Broz Tito died in Ljubljana.

Republic of Slovenia

In 1991 the city celebrated Slovenia's independence.

In 2002 the Bush / Putin summit took place in Ljubljana.

Just a few weeks after the discovery of a new mass grave with over 4,000 people murdered by Tito partisans in a Slovenian mine, the Ljubljana City Council, with the majority of left-wing parties, decided in April 2009 to name a street to Josip Broz Tito again, after the current one up until 1991 Slovenska cesta (Slovene Street) was named after him.

coat of arms

The coat of arms of Ljubljana shows a green , winged dragon on a tower over a city ​​wall , both of which are pinned . The city gate has a portcullis . A green meadow below divides the upper field with red tinging .

Culture and sights

Prešeren Square in the old town
Restaurants on the banks of the Ljubljanica, with the castle behind

The city is famous for its architectural monuments planned by Jože Plečnik as well as for its well-preserved inner city, including:

On the one hand, Ljubljana resembles an Austrian city, but has a special Mediterranean flair thanks to its old town, the architecture that connects Plečnik's cultures, the many cafes on the river and the moderate climate. In summer, especially in August, various music events take place in the old town and at the castle. a. the Ljubljana Music Academy and an annual jazz festival since 1960.

To the south of Šentjakobski most (St. Jacob's Bridge between Zoisova cesta and Karlovška cesta streets) lie the Ljubljanica terraces on the western side of the river, a popular weekend meeting point.

The market around the cathedral is worth seeing, especially on Saturdays. Also worth mentioning are the fish market hidden under the colonnades and a special area in the building opposite the colonnades. On Saturdays there is an art flea market between the three bridges and the Čevljarski most (the shoemaker's bridge). Ljubljana also has a remarkable railway museum with an extensive collection of historic steam locomotives.

Metelkova is the center of the alternative cultural scene. Artists and students from the Academy for Theater, Radio, Film and Television live on the former barracks site , where exhibitions and other events take place. The "occupation" of the site, which has continued since 1993, is tolerated by the city of Ljubljana.

On the southern edge of the forest hill Rožnik is the Zoo , about 30 minutes walk from the city center.

On the Schlossberg above the city center is the Ljubljana Castle , which was built in the Middle Ages ( Slovenian Ljubljanski grad ).

Tourism has experienced a strong boom since 2004, and room prices have risen accordingly.


Since the High Middle Ages, the city's population consisted primarily of German speakers. After 1848 it functioned as the cultural center of the Slovenes. At the census in 1880, the 5,658 German speakers (23% of the population) were already a minority.

At the 2002 census , 84.1% of the residents of Ljubljana were Slovenian citizens, 7.5% Bosnians , 3.5% Croats , 3.2% Serbs , 0.7% EU citizens (then EU-15), 0, 6% Macedonians and 0.5% others.

Slovenian is the only official language of the municipality of Ljubljana and was given as the mother tongue of 78.9% of the population in this census . Furthermore, according to their own information, 4.1% spoke Serbian , 3.9% Croatian , 3.9% Serbo-Croatian , 3.4% Bosnian and 1.9% other languages.


Location description

Ljubljana lies at 298  m. i. J. on the edge of the Ljubljana Basin on the Ljubljanica ( Laibach ), which flows into the Save in the urban area . The Karst opens up to the south, and to the north the basin offers a clear view of the Karawanken and Steiner Alps .

Southwest, the plane of the partially drained extends Laibacher Moores ( Ljubljansko barje ).

The old town lies on a loop of the Ljubljanica around the castle hill. To make shipping easier at the time, this loop was cut through the Gruber Canal ( Gruberjev Prekop ) in 1750 .

City structure


For a long time Ljubljana consisted of five independent municipalities (Bežigrad, Ljubljana Center, Moste-Polje, Šiška and Vič-Rudnik). With the municipality reform in 1996, the municipality was subdivided into 17 municipal districts ( Slovene Četrtne skupnosti , Sg . : Četrtna skupnost ). The administrative offices of these city districts collect suggestions from citizens and forward them to the responsible offices of the city government. They also take part in the preparation and implementation of the activities of the city administration in their respective areas.

No. Četrtna skupnost
January 1, 2011
per km²
Districts of Ljubljana
1 Bežigrad 7.24 34,048 4703
2 center 5.07 24,809 4893
3 Črnuče 18.10 11,213 620
4th Dravlje 11.11 15,793 1422
5 Golovec 8.27 12,167 1471
6th Jarše 9.06 14.302 1579
7th Musts 3.40 22,292 6556
8th Polje 22.10 18,857 853
9 Posavje 9.05 9,405 1039
10 Rožnik 8.35 16,105 1929
11 Rudnik 25.48 13,044 512
12 Sostro 88.56 6,499 73
13 Šentvid 15.83 13,534 855
14th Šiška 7.36 32,958 4478
15th Šmarna gora 14.43 4,717 327
16 Trnovo 7.18 16,919 2356
17th Vič 14.38 13,478 937
Municipality of Ljubljana 274.97 280.140 1019

Historic districts

There are also a large number of historical districts, which are now usually counted as part of the core city (the respective German name in brackets):

  • Bežigrad (Beschigrad, Bezigrad)
  • Bizovik (Wisowik)
  • Breg (Breg)
  • Črnuče (Tschernutsch)
  • Dobrunje (Dobruine)
  • Fužine (Kaltenbrunn)
  • Glinice (Gleinitz)
  • Gunclje (Gunzle)
  • Hrušica (pear tree)
  • Ježica (Jeschitzach)
  • Kašelj (Kaschel)
  • Musts (bridges)
  • Nadgorica (Upper Hill)
  • Nove Jarše (not a German name)
  • Podgorica (lower hill)
  • Poljane (Pollan)
  • Polje (field)
  • Rakovnik (Steinbüchel)
  • Rožna Dolina (Blumenthal)
  • Rudnik (Rudnick)
  • Šentjakob (St. Jacob)
  • Šentvid (St. Vitus on the Save)
  • Šiška (Shishka)
  • Slape (slape)
  • Šmarna gora (Gallenberg, Kahlenberg)
  • Šmartno ob Savi (St. Martin on the Save)
  • Šmartno pod Šmarno goro (St. Martin under Gallenberg, St. Martin under Kahlenberg)
  • Sostro (Osterberg)
  • Štepanja vas (Stephansdorf)
  • Studenec (Brunndorf)
  • Tacen (paws)
  • Vevče (Josephsthal)
  • Vič (Weitsch)
  • Vižmarje (Schrottenthurn)
  • Zadobrova (Sadobrowa)
  • Zalog (Kaltenborn)


Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Ljubljana
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 1.4 4.9 10.2 15.6 20.2 24.0 26.4 25.7 21.8 15.0 7.7 3.1 O 14.7
Min. Temperature (° C) −4.7 −3.8 0.0 4.3 8.8 12.2 13.7 13.2 10.3 5.8 2.0 −2.0 O 5
Precipitation ( mm ) 89 89 76 98 121 134 116 126 143 150 131 114 Σ 1,387
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 1.5 2.7 4.0 5.3 6.6 7.3 8.1 7.4 5.1 3.4 1.4 0.9 O 4.5
Rainy days ( d ) 9 8th 8th 10 12 11 10 9 8th 10 11 10 Σ 116
Humidity ( % ) 88 83 79 77 77 77 77 80 84 87 89 91 O 82.4
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: wetterkontor.de

Town twinning

Town Hall (Mestna hiša or Rotovž) on Mestni trg, the town square in the old town

Ljubljana is twinned with the following cities:

city country since
Athens GreeceGreece Greece March 1, 2000
Belgrade SerbiaSerbia Serbia March 1, 2003
Bratislava SlovakiaSlovakia Slovakia March 4th 1967
Chemnitz GermanyGermany Germany 17th October 1966
Cheng you China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China October 25, 1981
Graz AustriaAustria Austria October 2001
Karlstad SwedenSweden Sweden ?
Leverkusen GermanyGermany Germany August 30, 1979
Mardin TurkeyTurkey Turkey April 8, 2003
Moscow RussiaRussia Russia May 20, 2000
Nottingham EnglandEngland England 1963
Odessa UkraineUkraine Ukraine ?
Parma ItalyItaly Italy April 11, 1964
Pesaro ItalyItaly Italy March 16, 1964
Rijeka CroatiaCroatia Croatia October 23, 2001
Sarajevo Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina January 24, 2002
Sousse TunisiaTunisia Tunisia July 27, 1969
Tbilisi GeorgiaGeorgia Georgia 7th October 1977
Vienna AustriaAustria Austria July 14, 1999
Wiesbaden GermanyGermany Germany March 30, 1977
Zagreb CroatiaCroatia Croatia February 21, 2001

Economy and Infrastructure


Ljubljana is the main economic center of Slovenia, it is the seat of the Ljubljanska borza , the only stock exchange in the country, as well as most of the major companies in Slovenia such as Mercator , Petrol , Adria Airways , Lek and Telekom Slovenije .

In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Ljubljana was ranked 75th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.


Central station with a central bus station in front of it
Bus for local public transport


Ljubljana has an important function as an international traffic junction south of the Alps for the traffic flows between Italy and Hungary as well as from Austria to Croatia and formed the beginning of the so-called autoput in Yugoslav times . Today there is a motorway ring and four motorways starting from it in a star shape (direction Karawankentunnel / Klagenfurt , Maribor , Zagreb and Koper / Triest ).

Air traffic

The international airport is 15 km north of the center near Brnik .

Rail transport

Ljubljana Central Station is the central railway junction in Slovenia and the most important public transport hub in the city. Ljubljana is on the double-track main line Maribor – Trieste (originally part of the Austrian Southern Railway ), a single-track main line leads via Jesenice ( Karawanken tunnel : border crossing with Austria) to Villach . Both routes are electrified and, beyond the cities mentioned, also enable daily long-distance connections to Belgrade , Frankfurt am Main , Munich , Prague , Pula , Rijeka , Salzburg , Stuttgart , Venice , Vienna , Zagreb and Zurich . There is also a non-electrified route to Karlovac (via Novo mesto ) and to Kamnik .

Public transport

The urban transport is only with buses handled, popularly "Trola" named because it in the sixties trolley buses were (trolley buses). The tram ( Tramvaj ) built from 1901 was discontinued in 1961. Due to increasing traffic problems (traffic jams, lack of parking space), the reintroduction of a rail-based local transport system ( light rail ) is planned, but the relevant plans have not yet been implemented. (As of 2010)


Bicikelj - automatic bike rental system Typical bike path.  Before the marking, cycling was also prohibited on this section
Bicikelj - automatic bike rental system
Typical bike path. Before the marking, cycling was also prohibited on this section

The bicycle traffic is significant, but highly regulated in summer by the traffic planning. There is a bicycle ban on some important roads. The ban was lifted on some sections, mostly in connection with the construction of additional cycle paths - for example in 2016 on the southern section of Slovenska cesta , which was previously closed to bicycle traffic .

Since 2000 there has been a small urban association for everyday cyclists.

In 2012 the bike rental system BicikeLJ ( bicikel, colloquial expression for bike + LJ) was introduced. Registered users can use the Urbana city ​​map to travel up to max. 60 minutes free of charge.

Since 2013, numerous streets where bicycle traffic was previously prohibited, including part of Slovenska cesta , one of the most important shopping streets in the center of the city, have been closed to individual car traffic and can only be reached by buses, bicycles and on foot.

In 2015, Ljubljana was classified as a bike-friendly city for the first time by the transport planning firm Copenhagenize Design Company .

science and education

Main building of the University of Ljubljana , founded in 1919, seat of the state parliament of the Duchy of
Carniola until 1918

Ljubljana is the seat of one of the four universities in Slovenia . The University of Ljubljana has more than 38,000 students spread across 22 faculties. This makes it the largest university in Slovenia. The state university in its current form has existed since 1919, although there were similar institutes before. The Ljubljana Music Academy , the Ljubljana Art Academy and the Academy for Theater, Radio, Film and Television (AGRFT) are now institutions and part of the University of Ljubljana.

The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts is also located in Ljubljana. It was founded in 1938.



The Ljubljana Marathon has been held in October since 1996 , and now more than 10,000 runners, including the side competitions, take part.

Well-known clubs



Web links

Commons : Ljubljana  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. German name according to the Federal Institute for Culture and History of Germans in Eastern Europe (BKGE)
  2. ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
  3. ^ Johann Jakob Egli : Nomina geographica. Language and factual explanation of 42,000 geographical names of all regions of the world. 2nd, increased and improved edition Friedrich Brandstetter, Leipzig 1893, DNB 579328538 , p. 521 f .; Reprint: Olms, Hildesheim and New York 1973, ISBN 3-487-04571-0 .
  4. https://laibach.diplo.de/
  5. https://www.bmeia.gv.at/oeb-laibach/
  6. ^ Peter Štih, The Middle Ages between the Eastern Alps and the Northern Adriatic (Leiden 2010), p. 284
  7. a b “The dragon in the city's coat of arms goes back to a legend according to which the Greek hero Jason came to the source of the Ljubljanica river after stealing the Golden Fleece and there defeated a dragon in a fight. Jason is therefore regarded as the legendary first resident of L [jubljana] s, the dragon is the symbol of the city. ” Sabine Rutar: Ljubljana. (No longer available online.) In: eeo.uni-klu.ac.at. Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt , archived from the original on December 27, 2017 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 .
  8. Sabine Rutar: Ljubljana. (No longer available online.) In: eeo.uni-klu.ac.at. Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, archived from the original on December 27, 2017 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 .
  9. Miha Kosi (Laibach): City foundation and city development. Problems and examples from the Slovenian area. In: Pro Civitate Austriae. Information on urban history research in Austria. Edited by the Austrian Working Group for Urban History Research and the Association for the History of the City of Vienna. New series, issue 14, Linz 2009, ISSN  1562-5346 , p. 7.
  10. a b c Ljubljana, the city of the Reformation. Slovenian Luther. In: reformation-cities.org, accessed on October 16, 2017.
    Ljubljana. In: r2017.org, accessed on October 16, 2017.
  11. Special-Orts- Repertories of the kingdoms and countries represented in the Austrian Imperial Council. Edited by KK Central Statistical Commission. Volume VI: Krain, Hölder, Vienna 1883, DNB 560932340 , p. 2.
  12. Michael Portmann : Communist accounting with war criminals, collaborators, "enemies of the people" and "traitors" in Yugoslavia during the Second World War and immediately afterwards (1943–1950). Thesis. GRIN Verlag, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-638-70864-0 , p. 20; 2007 2 , ISBN 978-3-638-70864-7 .
  13. ^ Brunello Mantelli: The Italians in the Balkans 1941-1943. In: European social history. Festschrift for Wolfgang Schieder. Duncker & Humblot 2000, ISBN 3-428-09843-9 , p. 64 ff.
  14. Laibach honors Tito. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . April 27, 2009 ( online with registration , accessed July 13, 2016).
  15. AFP / Expatica: Slovenian capital to rename road after Tito. (No longer available online.) In: expatica.com. April 26, 2009, archived from the original on March 7, 2016 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (English).
  16. ^ Ljubljana Jazz Festival 1960–2009. In: ljubljanajazz.si, accessed on December 28, 2017 ( PDF; 661 kB ).
  17. Tabela: Prebivalstvo po maternem jeziku, občine, Slovenija, Popis 2002.
  18. Ljubljana. The official Slovenian tourism information portal. (No longer available online.) In: slovenia.info. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (German, English).
  19. Europe at a Glance - Slovenia - Tourism, Hotels. In: europa-auf-einen-blick.de, accessed on July 13, 2016.
  20. Osebna izkaznica KP ljubljansko barje / Ljubljana Marsh Nature Park Fact File. In: ljubljanskobarje.si, accessed on July 13, 2016 (Slovenian, English).
  21. ^ Judith Imgrund, Christian Brünig: Industrial culture in Slovenia - a travel report (as of June 20, 2005). In: christian-bruenig.de, accessed on July 13, 2016.
  22. ^ Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. In: stat.si, accessed on July 13, 2016 (English).
  23. Nove Jarše is a district that only emerged in the second half of the 20th century and therefore never had its own German name. The older village Jarše, from which the name is derived, had the German name Jarsche, cf. for example the Reambulančni kataster za Kranjsko (approx. 1869), sheets L88C ( L088A03 list A03 ).
  24. Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved August 18, 2018 .
  25. Mladina (July 17, 2000): Kolesarski zmaji ( Memento of January 9, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In: mladina.si, accessed on July 13, 2016.
  26. Ljubljanska kolesarska mreža LKM (October 2010): Pobude za izboljšave v Ljubljanski kolesarski infrastructure ( Memento from August 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 2.0 MB; p. 2: Map with forbidden road sections). In: lkm.kolesarji.org, accessed July 13, 2016.
  27. Slovenska cesta - Spremenjen Prometni režim južnega dela. Projekti mestne občine Ljubljana 2016 . In: ljubljanski.projekti.si, accessed on May 20, 2016.
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