|Historic region||Upper Carniola / Gorenjska|
|Statistical region||Osrednjeslovenska (Central Slovenia)|
|Population density||1,034 inhabitants per km²|
|Telephone code||(+386) 01|
|Structure and administration|
|Mayor :||Zoran Janković ( PS )|
name of the city
There are several explanations for the origin of the Slovenian name of the city: according to one, probably folk etymological explanation, it comes from the Slovenian ljubljena ("beloved city"), and the other from the Latin river name Aluviana . The city name was first mentioned in this form in 1146 as Luwigana .
In the German-speaking area, besides the name Ljubljana , the historical German name Laibach , originally derived from Slavic like the river name of the same name, has been retained , which today is mainly used in Austria . In German and Austrian diplomacy the city is officially referred to as Laibach. The German name of the city was mentioned for the first time in 1112–1125 as Leibach . This shape is also the oldest known mention of the city.
|Holy Roman Empire||Margraviate of Carniola
( Habsburg from 1278 )
|Duchy of Carniola
(1379 / 1411–1457 and
1564–1619 Inner Austria )
|Austria||Duchy of Carniola||1804-1809|
occupied by Austria.
|Kingdom of Illyria||1816-1849|
|Duchy of Carniola||1849-1867|
|Austria-Hungary||Duchy of Carniola
( Cisleithanien )
|SHS state / Yugoslavia||Slovenia Province||1918-1922|
|German Empire||Laibach Province formally
Italian, de facto under
German control ( OZAK ).
|Yugoslavia||People's Republic of Slovenia||1945–1963|
|Socialist. Rep. Slovenia||1963-1990|
|Republic of Slovenia||1990-1991|
|Slovenia||Municipality of Ljubljana||since 1991|
In the 1st century BC A military fortress was built by the Romans on the site of today's Ljubljana and in 14 the Roman settlement Emona or Aemona ( Colonia Aemona Iulia tribu Claudia ) was laid out. Although it was located on the site of today's Ljubljana, it was lost in the migration of peoples and is therefore only a predecessor of today's city.
Migration of peoples and the Franconian Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The city before the 13th century
In the East Franconian and later the Holy Roman Empire, the area around Ljubljana belonged to the Carniola region . The period between 1112 and 1125 is the time when the first written records of Laibach were made. The first documented mention of the city comes from the year 1144. The settlement founded by the Spanheimers was first called city around 1220, in 1243 its market rights and its city wall are on record, in 1280 the inhabitants were called "cives" (citizens).
Habsburg rule, Reformation and Counter-Reformation
In 1461 the Diocese of Ljubljana was founded ( see also: List of Bishops of Ljubljana ), and the Church of St. Nicholas became a cathedral . In 1504 the election of the first mayor took place. In 1511, Laibach experienced its first major earthquake .
The first Reformation sermon was delivered in 1523 at the latest. With the support of the Carniolan estates , Protestants established a professional Latin school in 1536 at the level of a grammar school . In addition to humanism , the Slovene reformer Primož Trubar (Primus Truber, 1508–1586) was particularly influential in the development of the Reformation through his Reformation sermons in the Slovene language. With his extensive written work in Slovene, he is considered the founder of the Slovene written language. In 2016, Ljubljana was awarded the honorary title “ City of the Reformation of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .
After the Jesuits arrived in Ljubljana in 1597 and built their own grammar school two years later, the Trubar Reformation in Slovenia came to an end in the first third of the 17th century. With the Counter-Reformation , the Ministry of Churches and Schools in Ljubljana was closed, evangelical preachers were expelled, a religious reformation commission was set up and the nobility, unwilling to convert, were expelled from the country. Churches were founded in Ljubljana in the middle of the 19th century - made possible by the Josephine Tolerance Patent of 1781; The Slovene Church AB ( Augsburg Confession ) has existed since 1945 .
In 1693 the Academia Operosum, an association of the most respected scholars, was founded, and in 1701 the Academia Philharmonicorum was founded.
In 1754 the population was 9,300. From 1773 to 1781 the Gruber Canal (Gruberjev Canal) and the Gruber Palace (Gruberjeva palača) were built. In 1797 the first daily newspaper was published in Slovenia .
Empire of Austria
In 1804, Laibach became part of the newly proclaimed Austrian Empire . After the Treaty of Schönbrunn , the city and the surrounding area had to be ceded to Napoleonic France, and the city became the capital of the Illyrian provinces of France under the name Laybach from 1809 to 1813 . In 1814/15 she returned to Austria with the Congress of Vienna .
In 1861 public gas lighting was introduced and in 1890 public water supply was built. After a devastating earthquake in 1895, Laibach committed itself to a modern look. In 1898, public electric lighting was introduced. Three years later, in 1901, the electric tram was introduced in Laibach.
In 1900 Ljubljana had 36,547 inhabitants including the garrison. Of these, 29,733 were Slovene (81%) and 5423 German (15%).
Before the First World War , Laibach was an Austro-Hungarian garrison town. In 1914 the following were stationed here in whole or in part: the staff of the kuk 28th Infantry Troop Division, the kuk Carniolan Infantry Regiment No. 17, the kuk Styrian Infantry Regiment No. 27, the kk Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 27 and the kuk Field cannon regiment No. 7. The strategic decisions for the Italian front , especially for the Isonzo front , were made by the army command in Ljubljana, where Field Marshal Boroević and the later Austrian Federal President Körner were among others .
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and Kingdom of Yugoslavia
At the end of October 1918, Ljubljana became part of the newly established Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes . In 1919 the University of Ljubljana was founded . In 1929, Ljubljana became the capital of the Dravska banovina in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia .
Italian annexation and German occupation
After the invasion of Yugoslavia in World War II Ljubljana on 3 May 1941, the former Yugoslav General Leon Rupnik as mayor under the name Lubiana capital of the annexed Italian Provincia di Lubiana . The majority of the Laibach Germans , around 2400, were resettled in the Greater German Reich in the winter of 1941/42 on the basis of an agreement between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini , the majority in Upper Carniola and Lower Styria .
In 1942, Italian troops sealed off the city with a barbed wire fence and watchtowers and then combed it several times as part of the Italian repression against the Slovenian resistance. By the time Italy surrendered in September 1943, about eighteen percent of the population of Lubiana had been deported to Italian concentration camps.
After the capitulation of Italy, it passed into German control ( SS- General Erwin Rösener and Friedrich Rainer as head of civil administration ), until the complete surrender of the Wehrmacht on May 8, 1945.
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
On May 9, 1945, the Provincia di Lubiana was formally dissolved . In 1945 the remaining Germans from Ljubljana had to leave the country as well as the other Slovenian Germans due to the AVNOJ resolutions . Numerous people were murdered.
Republic of Slovenia
In 1991 the city celebrated Slovenia's independence.
Just a few weeks after the discovery of a new mass grave with over 4,000 people murdered by Tito partisans in a Slovenian mine, the Ljubljana City Council, with the majority of left-wing parties, decided in April 2009 to name a street to Josip Broz Tito again, after the current one up until 1991 Slovenska cesta (Slovene Street) was named after him.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of Ljubljana shows a green , winged dragon on a tower over a city wall , both of which are pinned . The city gate has a portcullis . A green meadow below divides the upper field with red tinging .
Culture and sights
The city is famous for its architectural monuments planned by Jože Plečnik as well as for its well-preserved inner city, including:
- the old town (under monument protection),
- Buildings by Jože Plečnik, such as the Three Bridges ( Tromostovje ), NUK - the Slovenian National Library, the Žale cemetery , Kreuzlinge ( Križanke ), Tivoli Park
- the castle
- the Cathedral of St. Nicholas to the plans of the Roman Jesuit Andrea Pozzo ,
- the Archbishop's Palace
- the Franciscan Church of the Annunciation on Prešeren Square ( Prešernov trg, named after France Prešeren ),
- the town hall,
- the Serbian Orthodox Church of St. Cyril & Methodius ,
- National Gallery of Slovenia ,
- the Moderna Galerija art museum ,
- the Mestni muzej ,
- the National Museum of Contemporary History of Slovenia in Villa Cekin (formerly Museum of Liberation ).
On the one hand, Ljubljana resembles an Austrian city, but has a special Mediterranean flair thanks to its old town, the architecture that connects Plečnik's cultures, the many cafes on the river and the moderate climate. In summer, especially in August, various music events take place in the old town and at the castle. a. the Ljubljana Music Academy and an annual jazz festival since 1960.
To the south of Šentjakobski most (St. Jacob's Bridge between Zoisova cesta and Karlovška cesta streets) lie the Ljubljanica terraces on the western side of the river, a popular weekend meeting point.
The market around the cathedral is worth seeing, especially on Saturdays. Also worth mentioning are the fish market hidden under the colonnades and a special area in the building opposite the colonnades. On Saturdays there is an art flea market between the three bridges and the Čevljarski most (the shoemaker's bridge). Ljubljana also has a remarkable railway museum with an extensive collection of historic steam locomotives.
Metelkova is the center of the alternative cultural scene. Artists and students from the Academy for Theater, Radio, Film and Television live on the former barracks site , where exhibitions and other events take place. The "occupation" of the site, which has continued since 1993, is tolerated by the city of Ljubljana.
On the southern edge of the forest hill Rožnik is the Zoo , about 30 minutes walk from the city center.
Tourism has experienced a strong boom since 2004, and room prices have risen accordingly.
Since the High Middle Ages, the city's population consisted primarily of German speakers. After 1848 it functioned as the cultural center of the Slovenes. At the census in 1880, the 5,658 German speakers (23% of the population) were already a minority.
Slovenian is the only official language of the municipality of Ljubljana and was given as the mother tongue of 78.9% of the population in this census . Furthermore, according to their own information, 4.1% spoke Serbian , 3.9% Croatian , 3.9% Serbo-Croatian , 3.4% Bosnian and 1.9% other languages.
Ljubljana lies at Ljubljana Basin on the Ljubljanica ( Laibach ), which flows into the Save in the urban area . The Karst opens up to the south, and to the north the basin offers a clear view of the Karawanken and Steiner Alps .on the edge of the
Southwest, the plane of the partially drained extends Laibacher Moores ( Ljubljansko barje ).
The old town lies on a loop of the Ljubljanica around the castle hill. To make shipping easier at the time, this loop was cut through the Gruber Canal ( Gruberjev Prekop ) in 1750 .
For a long time Ljubljana consisted of five independent municipalities (Bežigrad, Ljubljana Center, Moste-Polje, Šiška and Vič-Rudnik). With the municipality reform in 1996, the municipality was subdivided into 17 municipal districts ( Slovene Četrtne skupnosti , Sg . : Četrtna skupnost ). The administrative offices of these city districts collect suggestions from citizens and forward them to the responsible offices of the city government. They also take part in the preparation and implementation of the activities of the city administration in their respective areas.
There are also a large number of historical districts, which are now usually counted as part of the core city (the respective German name in brackets):
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Ljubljana
Ljubljana is twinned with the following cities:
|Athens||Greece||March 1, 2000|
|Belgrade||Serbia||March 1, 2003|
|Bratislava||Slovakia||March 4th 1967|
|Chemnitz||Germany||17th October 1966|
|Cheng you||People's Republic of China||October 25, 1981|
|Leverkusen||Germany||August 30, 1979|
|Mardin||Turkey||April 8, 2003|
|Moscow||Russia||May 20, 2000|
|Parma||Italy||April 11, 1964|
|Pesaro||Italy||March 16, 1964|
|Rijeka||Croatia||October 23, 2001|
|Sarajevo||Bosnia and Herzegovina||January 24, 2002|
|Sousse||Tunisia||July 27, 1969|
|Tbilisi||Georgia||7th October 1977|
|Vienna||Austria||July 14, 1999|
|Wiesbaden||Germany||March 30, 1977|
|Zagreb||Croatia||February 21, 2001|
Economy and Infrastructure
Ljubljana is the main economic center of Slovenia, it is the seat of the Ljubljanska borza , the only stock exchange in the country, as well as most of the major companies in Slovenia such as Mercator , Petrol , Adria Airways , Lek and Telekom Slovenije .
In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Ljubljana was ranked 75th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.
Ljubljana has an important function as an international traffic junction south of the Alps for the traffic flows between Italy and Hungary as well as from Austria to Croatia and formed the beginning of the so-called autoput in Yugoslav times . Today there is a motorway ring and four motorways starting from it in a star shape (direction Karawankentunnel / Klagenfurt , Maribor , Zagreb and Koper / Triest ).
Ljubljana Central Station is the central railway junction in Slovenia and the most important public transport hub in the city. Ljubljana is on the double-track main line Maribor – Trieste (originally part of the Austrian Southern Railway ), a single-track main line leads via Jesenice ( Karawanken tunnel : border crossing with Austria) to Villach . Both routes are electrified and, beyond the cities mentioned, also enable daily long-distance connections to Belgrade , Frankfurt am Main , Munich , Prague , Pula , Rijeka , Salzburg , Stuttgart , Venice , Vienna , Zagreb and Zurich . There is also a non-electrified route to Karlovac (via Novo mesto ) and to Kamnik .
The urban transport is only with buses handled, popularly "Trola" named because it in the sixties trolley buses were (trolley buses). The tram ( Tramvaj ) built from 1901 was discontinued in 1961. Due to increasing traffic problems (traffic jams, lack of parking space), the reintroduction of a rail-based local transport system ( light rail ) is planned, but the relevant plans have not yet been implemented. (As of 2010)
The bicycle traffic is significant, but highly regulated in summer by the traffic planning. There is a bicycle ban on some important roads. The ban was lifted on some sections, mostly in connection with the construction of additional cycle paths - for example in 2016 on the southern section of Slovenska cesta , which was previously closed to bicycle traffic .
Since 2000 there has been a small urban association for everyday cyclists.
In 2012 the bike rental system BicikeLJ ( bicikel, colloquial expression for bike + LJ) was introduced. Registered users can use the Urbana city map to travel up to max. 60 minutes free of charge.
Since 2013, numerous streets where bicycle traffic was previously prohibited, including part of Slovenska cesta , one of the most important shopping streets in the center of the city, have been closed to individual car traffic and can only be reached by buses, bicycles and on foot.
In 2015, Ljubljana was classified as a bike-friendly city for the first time by the transport planning firm Copenhagenize Design Company .
science and education
Ljubljana is the seat of one of the four universities in Slovenia . The University of Ljubljana has more than 38,000 students spread across 22 faculties. This makes it the largest university in Slovenia. The state university in its current form has existed since 1919, although there were similar institutes before. The Ljubljana Music Academy , the Ljubljana Art Academy and the Academy for Theater, Radio, Film and Television (AGRFT) are now institutions and part of the University of Ljubljana.
The Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts is also located in Ljubljana. It was founded in 1938.
The Ljubljana Marathon has been held in October since 1996 , and now more than 10,000 runners, including the side competitions, take part.
- HDD Olimpija Ljubljana : 10-time Slovenian and 8-time Yugoslav ice hockey champion.
- NK Olimpija Ljubljana : football club
- KK Olimpija Ljubljana : most famous basketball club in Slovenia
- HK Slavija Ljubljana : Ice hockey club from the suburb of Zalog
- Rokometni Klub Krim (also: RK Krim ): Women's handball club
- Ljubljana was the name of a Yugoslav Belgrade-class warship , destroyed in 1943.
- The Ljubljana thermal power station covers almost 90% of the city's district heating needs.
- Paulo Coelho's novel Veronika Decides to Die is set in a mental hospital in Ljubljana.
- A band called Laibach has caused a sensation since 1980 with the German name of the city, martial appearance and provocative remarks. The group performed in North Korea in 2015 .
- The Kurešček , Polževo and Šmarna Gora transmitters are located near the city .
- Visit Ljubljana - Guide to Ljubljana and Central Slovenia (Slovenian, English, German, Italian, French)
- Official travel and tourism site
- German name according to the Federal Institute for Culture and History of Germans in Eastern Europe (BKGE)
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia
- Johann Jakob Egli : Nomina geographica. Language and factual explanation of 42,000 geographical names of all regions of the world. 2nd, increased and improved edition Friedrich Brandstetter, Leipzig 1893, , p. 521 f .; Reprint: Olms, Hildesheim and New York 1973, ISBN 3-487-04571-0 .
- Peter Štih, The Middle Ages between the Eastern Alps and the Northern Adriatic (Leiden 2010), p. 284
- “The dragon in the city's coat of arms goes back to a legend according to which the Greek hero Jason came to the source of the Ljubljanica river after stealing the Golden Fleece and there defeated a dragon in a fight. Jason is therefore regarded as the legendary first resident of L [jubljana] s, the dragon is the symbol of the city. ” Sabine Rutar: Ljubljana. (No longer available online.) In: eeo.uni-klu.ac.at. Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt , archived from the original on December 27, 2017 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 .
- Sabine Rutar: Ljubljana. (No longer available online.) In: eeo.uni-klu.ac.at. Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, archived from the original on December 27, 2017 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 .
- Miha Kosi (Laibach): City foundation and city development. Problems and examples from the Slovenian area. In: Pro Civitate Austriae. Information on urban history research in Austria. Edited by the Austrian Working Group for Urban History Research and the Association for the History of the City of Vienna. New series, issue 14, Linz 2009, , p. 7.
Ljubljana, the city of the Reformation. Slovenian Luther. In: reformation-cities.org, accessed on October 16, 2017.
Ljubljana. In: r2017.org, accessed on October 16, 2017.
- Special-Orts- Repertories of the kingdoms and countries represented in the Austrian Imperial Council. Edited by KK Central Statistical Commission. Volume VI: Krain, Hölder, Vienna 1883, , p. 2.
- Michael Portmann : Communist accounting with war criminals, collaborators, "enemies of the people" and "traitors" in Yugoslavia during the Second World War and immediately afterwards (1943–1950). Thesis. GRIN Verlag, Vienna 2002, ISBN 3-638-70864-0 , p. 20; 2007 2 , ISBN 978-3-638-70864-7 .
- Brunello Mantelli: The Italians in the Balkans 1941-1943. In: European social history. Festschrift for Wolfgang Schieder. Duncker & Humblot 2000, ISBN 3-428-09843-9 , p. 64 ff.
- Laibach honors Tito. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . April 27, 2009 ( online with registration , accessed July 13, 2016).
- AFP / Expatica: Slovenian capital to rename road after Tito. (No longer available online.) In: expatica.com. April 26, 2009, archived from the original on March 7, 2016 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (English).
- Ljubljana Jazz Festival 1960–2009. In: ljubljanajazz.si, accessed on December 28, 2017 ( PDF; 661 kB ).
- Tabela: Prebivalstvo po maternem jeziku, občine, Slovenija, Popis 2002.
- Ljubljana. The official Slovenian tourism information portal. (No longer available online.) In: slovenia.info. Archived from the original on October 13, 2016 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (German, English).
- Europe at a Glance - Slovenia - Tourism, Hotels. In: europa-auf-einen-blick.de, accessed on July 13, 2016.
- Osebna izkaznica KP ljubljansko barje / Ljubljana Marsh Nature Park Fact File. In: ljubljanskobarje.si, accessed on July 13, 2016 (Slovenian, English).
- Judith Imgrund, Christian Brünig: Industrial culture in Slovenia - a travel report (as of June 20, 2005). In: christian-bruenig.de, accessed on July 13, 2016.
- Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. In: stat.si, accessed on July 13, 2016 (English).
- Nove Jarše is a district that only emerged in the second half of the 20th century and therefore never had its own German name. The older village Jarše, from which the name is derived, had the German name Jarsche, cf. for example the Reambulančni kataster za Kranjsko (approx. 1869), sheets L88C ( L088A03 list A03 ).
- Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved August 18, 2018 .
- Mladina (July 17, 2000): Kolesarski zmaji ( Memento of January 9, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). In: mladina.si, accessed on July 13, 2016.
- Ljubljanska kolesarska mreža LKM (October 2010): Pobude za izboljšave v Ljubljanski kolesarski infrastructure ( Memento from August 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 2.0 MB; p. 2: Map with forbidden road sections). In: lkm.kolesarji.org, accessed July 13, 2016.
- Slovenska cesta - Spremenjen Prometni režim južnega dela. Projekti mestne občine Ljubljana 2016 . In: ljubljanski.projekti.si, accessed on May 20, 2016.
- Ljubljanska Kolesarska Mreža. (No longer available online.) In: lkm.kolesarji.org. Archived from the original on July 14, 2016 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (Slovenian).
- Preureditev Slovenske ceste. (No longer available online.) In: ljubljana.si. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (Slovenian).
- Janez Petkovšek: Vizija preobrazbe Slovenske ceste do leta 2020. Razstava idej štirih arhitekturnih birojev o preureditvi Slovenske ceste po odpravi osebnega prometa. (No longer available online.) In: delo.si. November 20, 2012, archived from the original on July 13, 2017 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (Slovenian).
- The Copenhagenize Index of Bicycle-Friendly Cities: Ljubljana. (No longer available online.) In: copenhagenize.eu. Archived from the original on April 25, 2017 ; accessed on January 31, 2019 (English).
- Univerza v Ljubljani: University in numbers. Retrieved May 22, 2020 (English).