A view of the old town
|Province (il) :||Mardin|
|Residents :||86,948 (2012)|
|Telephone code :||(+90) 482|
|Postal code :||47000-47901|
|License plate :||47|
|Structure and administration|
Februniye Akyol (Fabronia Benno) (Independent)
|Residents :||139,254 (2012)|
|Population density :||144 inhabitants per km²|
Mardin ( Arabic ماردين, DMG Mārdīn , Aramaic ܡܪܕܝܢ Merdô ; Kurmanji Mêrdîn ) is the capital of the Mardin province of the same name in the Turkish part of Mesopotamia . The ancient city is located in the Turkish region of Southeast Anatolia , around 20 km north of the border with Syria and not far from the border with Iraq .
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Mardin
The city was ruled successively by the Aramaeans , Hurrites , Hittites , Assyrians , Babylonians , Amorites , Persians , Parthians , Romans , Arabs , Kurds , Seljuks and Ottomans . In Assyrian times it was part of Izalla , which was reflected in the early Byzantine name Izala. The first mention under its current name comes from the fourth century by Ammianus Marcellinus , who mentions the two fortresses Maride and Lorne on the way from Amid ( Diyarbakır ) to Nisibis .
In 1915/16 most of the city's Arab , Aramaic and Armenian Christians without distinction were murdered in the course of the genocide of the Armenians and the Arameans . For the first time, on August 15, 1915, there was a public trade in Armenian women.
Population, languages and religions
The population of Mardin today consists of Turks , Kurds and Arabs as well as the largest Aramaic minority in the country. In addition to Muslims and Aramaic Christians, a few thousand Yazidi Kurds lived in the province of Mardin until a few decades ago . Most of them have now emigrated to Germany; but there is still a small Christian community in Mardin, which is also the bishopric. The Bishop of Mardin is also the abbot of the Deyrülzafarân monastery . The Syrian Orthodox Patriarch had his seat at Mardin from 1293. In 1924 he fled to the French mandate area. From 1850 until the genocide of the Aramaeans, Mardin was also the seat of the head of the Syrian Catholic Church. The building of the Patriarchal Church was used by the military after the genocide until the Ministry of Culture bought the building from the Syrian Catholic Church in 1988 and built the Mardin Museum there in 1995.
- 1915 - 50,000 inhabitants (27,000 Muslims, 20,000 Syrian Orthodox Arameans (Arabic-speaking), 500 Syrian Catholics, 300 Protestants, 100 members of the Chaldean Catholic Church)
- 1990 - 53,005 inhabitants
- 1997 - 61,529 inhabitants
- 2000 - 65,072 inhabitants
- 2010 - 79,947 inhabitants
Economy and Transport
The economy is based on agriculture and trade, and lately more and more on small craft workshops and handicrafts.
Mardin is linked to Adana by road via the E-90 and is the link between Turkey and the Middle East. Roads lead to Syria and Iraq. Mardin is also on the railway line to Syria.
The fortress of Mardin is called the Eagle's Nest and played a crucial role in the city. It rises around 500 meters above the plain.
- The Kasımiye Medrese was built in 1469 by order of Kasım Pasha. The madrasah also contains a mosque and accommodation.
- The Zinciriye madrasah was built in 1385 by Melik Necmettin Isa . With its striped domes and monumental main entrance, it is one of the most impressive buildings in Mardin.
- The Sıtti Radaviye Medrese was commissioned in 1177. In the mosque that belongs to the madrasah there is a footprint of the prophet Mohammed .
- The Great Mosque ( Ulu Cami ) is the oldest mosque in Mardin. The minaret has an inscription dated 1176, so the mosque is believed to have been built by the Ortoqid Kudbeddin Ilgazi in the 1160 / 1170s . According to an anonymous Syrian chronicle from 1234 , this mosque may have stood on the site of the Church of the Forty Martyrs, which was occupied by Muslims in 1170 .
- The Abdullatif Mosque was built by Abdullatif bin Abdullah during the reign of the Ortoqids in 1314. It contains fine examples of woodwork from that time.
- The Reyhaniye Mosque was rebuilt in 1756 by Ahmet Pasha's daughter Adile Hanım. The minarets are octagonal.
Monasteries and churches
There are several churches within the city that have been restored in recent years. This includes the Mort Şmuni.
The Zafaran Monastery is located about three kilometers outside the city . It was founded in AD 493 and is one of the religious centers of Tur Abdin , which for centuries was also the seat of the patriarchs or counter-patriarchs of the Syrian Orthodox Church who are buried here in the monastery. Due to the persecution of Christians in Turkey, the patriarchate was moved to Homs, Syria , in 1933 (and from there to Damascus in 1959 ).
The Mardin Museum in the former church of the former Syrian Catholic Patriarchate.
Since May 2007 the province of Mardin has had its own university, Mardin Artuklu Üniversitesi . The university is named after the Turkish dynasty of the Ortoqids (Turkish: Artuklu ). For the first time in the history of Turkey, chairs for the Kurdish , Syrian-Aramaic and Arabic languages, literature and history were set up at the Institute for Living Languages . In addition, Persian is to be added in the future.
In the 2014 municipal elections, Ahmet Türk was elected mayor by the BDP . Türk then authorized Februniye Akyol as his deputy because the BDP has the office of mayor carried out by a man and a woman together. Ahmet Türk was deposed on November 17, 2016 and the governor of Mardin Mustafa Yaman was appointed trustee. On November 24, 2016, Ahmet Türk was arrested for alleged terrorist offenses and was released in February 2017. Februniye Akyol was Turkey's first female Christian mayor.
sons and daughters of the town
- Elias Mellus (1831–1908), Chaldean Catholic Archbishop
- Ignatius Maloyan (1869–1915), Armenian Catholic Archbishop
- Jean Couzian (1874–1933), Armenian Catholic bishop
- Jacques Nessimian (1876–1960), Armenian Catholic Archbishop
- Philoxenos Yuhanon Dolabani (1885–1969), Syrian Orthodox metropolitan and author
- Nabia Abbott (1897–1981), American scholar of Islam, palaeographer and papyrologist
- Joseph Gennangi (1898–1981), Armenian Catholic bishop
- Iknadios Bedros XVI. Batanian (1899–1979), Patriarch of Cilicia
- Yousuf Karsh (1908–2002), Canadian photographer of Armenian origin
- Clément Ignace Mansourati (1917–1982), clergyman and auxiliary bishop in the Syrian Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch
- Gregorios Elias Tabé (* 1941), Syrian Catholic Archbishop of Damascus
- Muammer Guler (* 1949), politician
- Ergin Sezgin (* 1953), physicist
- Halil Altındere (* 1971), multimedia artist and publicist
- Cindi Tuncel (* 1977), German politician (Die Linke), Member of the Bundestag
- Ekrem Dağ (* 1980), Turkish-Austrian soccer player
- Okan Alkan (* 1992), Turkish football player
- Slovenia , Ljubljana
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- People's Republic of China , Golmud
- Ayşe Güç Işik: The Intercultural Engagement in Mardin. Religion, Culture and Identity. (Dissertation) School of Theology and Philosophy, Australian Catholic University, 2013
- V. Minorsky , CE Bosworth : Mārdīn. In: Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Volume 6, 1991, pp. 539b-542b
- Mardin 1915 (French)
- George Grigore: L'arabe parlé à Mardin - monographie d'un parler arabe périphérique (French)
- Turkish Institute for Statistics ( Memento from April 18, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ), accessed on January 28, 2013
- Jacques Rhétoré: Les chrétiens aux bêtes. Souvenirs de la guerre sainte proclamée par les Turcs contre les chrétiens en 1915 , Les éditions du cerf, Paris 2005, ISBN 2-204-07243-5 , page 13 ff.
- Yves Ternon: Mardin 1915. Mardin dans le génocide arménien . in: Revue d'Histoire Arménienne Contemporaine , Tome IV - 2002
- Hyacinth Simon: Death in the Name of Allah. The extermination of the Christian Armenians. Eyewitness reports , MM Verlag , Aachen 2005, ISBN 3-928272-70-5
- Raymond Kévorkian : Le Génocide des Arméniens , Odile Jacob, Paris 2006, ISBN 2-7381-1830-5 , page 459
- Ayşe Güç Işik, 2013, p. 52
- David Jacob: Minority Rights in Turkey . Mohr Siebeck, 2017, ISBN 978-3-16-154133-9 , pp. 100 .
- Mardin Museum. Retrieved November 8, 2018 (Turkish).
- Tom Sinclair: Early Artuqid Mosque Architecture. In: Julian Raby (ed.): The Art of Syria and the Jazīra, 1100–1250. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1985, p. 59
- Deniz Yücel: Turkey: only Christian mayor deposed . In: THE WORLD . November 20, 2016 ( welt.de [accessed September 20, 2018]).
- Court arrests former Mardin mayor Ahmet Türk. Accessed July 11, 2018 .
- Monika Maier-Albang: Upward Fighted, in: Süddeutsche Zeitung No. 166, July 22, 2015, p. 7.
- Monika Maier-Albang: Fought upwards . In: sueddeutsche.de . July 21, 2015, ISSN 0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed on September 20, 2018]).