|coat of arms||map|
View over the Bockfelsen to the upper town
|Residents :||119,215 (January 1, 2019)|
|Area :||51.5 km²|
|Population density :||2317 inhabitants / km²|
|Postal code :||1009-2999|
|Mayor:||Lydie Polfer ( DP )|
|Elective system :||Proportional representation|
The City of Luxembourg ( Luxembourg City Lëtzebuerg , French Ville de Luxembourg ) is the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg . With 125,000 inhabitants (as of February 8, 2021) it is the largest city in the country; almost 20 percent of the total population of Luxembourg live in the capital. Luxembourg is the administrative seat of the canton of the same name and was the same for the district of the same name until it was abolished on October 3, 2015. Luxembourgers usually only call their capital D'Stad ("the city").
In addition to Brussels and Strasbourg, the city of Luxembourg is the administrative seat of the European Union with the seat and conference venue of numerous European institutions. Luxembourg is also an important financial center .
The city is located in the south of the Grand Duchy (so-called Gutland or Bon Pays ) and is traversed by the Alzette . The national border is around 20 (driving) minutes away in the direction of France and Germany , and around 15 minutes in the direction of Belgium . The central location of Luxembourg "in the heart of Europe" is often emphasized: Cologne is 159 kilometers away, Strasbourg 164 kilometers, Brussels 186 kilometers, Frankfurt am Main 191 kilometers, Paris 287 kilometers.
Together with Metz (distance approx. 60 km), Saarbrücken (distance approx. 90 km) and Trier (distance approx. 50 km), Luxembourg is a center of the European and greater region of Saar-Lor-Lux , covering an area of 36,700 km² around 4.7 million people, and particularly by the coal and steel Community , the associated coal mining and the steel industry became more important. Since 2006, the four cities have formed a cross-border city network called QuattroPole , which cooperates with one another in a variety of ways.
The cityscape is shaped by the Petruss valley with the lower town. It is reserved for pedestrians and separates the upper town from the station district. To the east, the Alzette valley separates the upper town from the Kirchberg.
Luxembourg is divided into 24 quarter note (quarters) divided:
Beggen , Belair , Bouneweg-Nord / Verlorenkost, Bouneweg-Süd , Cents , Cessange (Zessingen), Clausen , Dommeldange (Dommeldingen), Eich , Gare (Bahnhofsviertel) , Gasperich , Grund , Hamm , Hollerich , Kirchberg , Limpertsberg , Merl , Mühlenbach , Neudorf / Weimershof , Pfaffenthal , Pulvermühl , Rollingergrund , Ville Haute (Oberstadt), Weimerskirch
With its northern, western and southern suburbs of Bereldingen , Walferdingen , Strassen and Howald, Luxembourg has grown together seamlessly. The metropolitan area forms a metropolitan agglomeration with more than 160,000 inhabitants.
Luxembourg City has a temperate climate, which is assigned to the oceanic climate (Cfb) in the Köppen-Geiger classification . It is influenced by Atlantic sea winds and is characterized by relatively mild winters and pleasant summers. However, Luxembourg is no longer in the area of the typically oceanic climate of coastal western French or Belgian cities such as Reims or Liège . The isolation from the North Sea by the low mountain range of the Ardennes also favors more continental influences.
The air is mostly mild and humid; the amount of precipitation is 782.2 mm; Average annual temperatures 9 ° C, in January 0.8 ° C, in July 17.5 ° C. The highest temperatures are usually recorded in July and August. At this time the average temperature is around 15 to 25 ° C, and it is not uncommon for 30 to 35 ° C to be reached.
Because the city of Luxembourg is built on hilly terrain, there are sometimes considerable differences in altitude (230–402 m) in a small area. This results in inner-city microclimates. It can therefore happen that valley areas remain in the fog in winter, while the sun is shining at high altitudes. The lower-lying plains in the south of the city are also less exposed to wind and are often warmer than the higher-lying areas in the north (e.g. the Kirchberg plateau ). As a rule, the data from the nearby airport weather station (Luxemburg-Findel) is used for Luxembourg City . Due to their exposed location at a height of 376 m outside the city, their measured values are only partially applicable to the conditions in the city center.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Luxembourg
Flora and fauna
The city of Luxembourg has extensive green spaces, which are designed as parks in the urban area, and mostly managed forests in the outskirts. Various non-native animals have settled here, benefiting from the mild climate.
Structure and development
The city of Luxembourg has 119,215 inhabitants (January 1, 2019). These include 33,302 native Luxembourgers and naturalized residents (29.19 percent) and 80,788 people with foreign nationality (70 percent).
People from many nations and cultures live in Luxembourg. The city is one of the most multicultural capitals in Europe. Its inhabitants come from a total of 163 countries, most of them from France (19,581), Portugal (13,024), Italy (7,821), Belgium (4,617) and Germany (3,925). The Cents district is the only one where the majority of residents are Luxembourgish. The station district has the highest proportion of foreigners at 84.39 percent.
Luxembourgers are usually fluent in Luxembourgish and German because of the national diglossia , and most of them can also speak French and English. However, French is very present in everyday life in the urban area due to the presence of many Francophone or Romanophone immigrants and cross-border commuters. Portuguese is widespread due to the strong Portuguese immigration. A lot of English can be heard in the city's financial and European districts.
Luxembourgish people speak Luxembourgish on a daily basis. Language plays an important role in terms of the national identity of Luxembourgers. For example, anyone who intends to acquire citizenship of the Grand Duchy must prove a certain national identity through knowledge of this language. Luxembourgish is the most widely spoken colloquial language in Luxembourg, with the exception of Luxembourg City. For example, anyone who visits a café or restaurant in the city is initially confronted with French, on the one hand because they are often run by immigrants, but also because Luxembourg gastronomy relies heavily on francophone cross-border commuters for service. The way of life in gastronomic matters is therefore rather French. In contrast, German is primarily the media language in the press and books.
Street names and other signs are mostly in French, whereby the Luxembourg equivalent is often given for the street names (e.g. Rue du marché-aux-herbes // Krautmaart ), and information is often bilingual (French-German) . For German-speaking visitors to Luxembourg City, basic knowledge of French or English is an advantage, although a person with knowledge of German can usually be found on request.
Celtic and Roman times
The first traces of settlement in the area of the city of Luxembourg go back to the Celts and date from the 2nd century BC. About a hundred years later, Romans invaded the country of Luxembourg when Caesar around 58 to 51 BC. Chr. Gaul and part of Germanien to Rhein limit captured. This made the area of what is now Luxembourg, including the city of Luxembourg, part of the Roman Empire .
In the 5th century AD - at the time of the Great Migration - the Germanic Franks pushed back the Romans. Wandering monks evangelized people to Christianity and built monasteries. The Echternach monastery was founded by the Anglo-Saxon missionary Willibrord in 698.
In Roman times, the area of Luxembourg City was crossed by two consular roads. At the intersection there was a fortified tower. Through an exchange with the Abbey of Sankt Maximin in Trier, the small fort came into the possession of Count Siegfried in 963 , a close relative of the kings of France and the German emperors. The founding legend of the city speaks of the mermaid Melusina , who caused Siegfried to build here and who later became his wife. Siegfried had his castle built on the "Bockfelsen", which was named Lucilinburhuc 'small castle or town' ( ahd. Luzzil 'small', burg 'castle, town') and is mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange act. From this name later the new German name "Luxemburg" developed later via Lützelburg (in Luxembourgish : Lëtzebuerg ).
In 987, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Erlöserkirche (later St. Michael's Church) in the outer bailey. In front of the church, at a Roman road crossing, a market was built around which the city developed.
At the end of the 11th century the castle had a residential tower. Below the castle, the counts founded their house monasteries in 1083 - the cathedral abbey, which housed the city school and which is the final resting place of those counts who named themselves counts of Luxembourg for the first time in the seal of the founding deed.
While a craftsmen's quarter was built below the castle on the Alzette river , in which a hospice was founded at the beginning of the 14th century, the upper town, which had been fortified by a protective wall since the 10th century, expanded to the west in the 12th century.
A district with its own market, the Novum Forum, was built around the new Nikolauskirche . In order to include this quarter in the city fortifications, the construction of a curtain wall was started at the end of the 12th century, which enclosed an urban area of 5 hectares.
During this time, the original castle settlement developed into a town that was granted freedom rights by Countess Ermesinde in 1244 . It was probably an extension of those rights and obligations to the entire city area that her father, Count Heinrich von Namur-Luxemburg , had originally promised orally to the residents of the new building district at the Nikolauskirche.
Around 1340, under the reign of John the Blind , construction began on the large medieval curtain wall, the course of which separated the upper town from the surrounding area until the 19th century.
Early modern age
From the 16th century onwards, the city was developed into one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, the “Gibraltar of the North”. After the siege of 1684 by Vauban , he strengthened the fortress after the conquest. In the fortress, Burgundians, Spaniards, French, then again Spaniards, Austrians, then again French and Prussians alternated. From 1714 it was part of the Austrian Netherlands; In the following 80 years the outer fortifications were further expanded to prevent a possible French attack. On June 6, 1795, the city surrendered in the first coalition war due to running out of supplies after seven months of siege before the French revolutionary troops.
From the 17th century the casemates and mine tunnels were built. These were corridors hewn or walled in the rock with a total length of 23 km and vaulted, bomb-proof rooms. They served as artillery positions, housed facilities to be protected from bombing and, in an emergency, allowed the more distant parts of the fortress to be reached underground. After the 16-year razing of the Luxembourg fortress, beginning in 1867, the casemates were reduced to a length of 17 km. They could not be completely destroyed, otherwise the settlement structure of the city would have been affected.
When Europe was reorganized by the Congress of Vienna , an enlarged Dutch state was created, which essentially comprised the present-day Netherlands and present-day Belgium. On the one hand, the Dutch king should be compensated for the colonies ceded to Great Britain; on the other hand, this new state should serve as a buffer zone against a possible re-strengthened France. Luxembourg received a special status as a Grand Duchy. It was ruled by the Dutch king in personal union, but officially belonged to the German Confederation as a militarily important region , so that the city could be expanded into a federal fortress and received a Prussian garrison.
From 1914 to 1918, as well as from 1940 to 1944, Luxembourg was occupied by German troops. After the German occupation on May 10, 1940, the Grand Duchy as a CdZ area of Luxembourg was subordinate to a head of civil administration appointed by Germany , Gauleiter and State Councilor Gustav Simon , who gradually subordinated Luxembourg to the German administration. On October 4, 1940, the renaming of all French-sounding street names in the city was announced, for example the Avenue de la Liberté leading to the train station was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Strasse . On December 1, 1940, the city of Luxembourg, as a German urban district, was subject to the German municipal code of January 30, 1935, which was valid in the Altreich , and was headed by a German mayor. On April 1, 1943 , the municipalities of Hesperingen (partially), Niederanven (partially), Strassen and Walferdingen were incorporated into the city district of Luxembourg from the district of Esch , the former district of Luxembourg . The German occupation ended with the liberation by US troops in September 1944. Nevertheless, the city of Luxembourg still suffered from acts of war: In December 1944, it was shot at from Lampaden near Trier with the so-called V3 retaliatory weapons .
Because of its location, its history, but also its size, Luxembourg, as one of the founding members of the European Union , is the seat of numerous important organs and authorities of the Union, which have settled in the Kirchberg district . The city is thus one of the capitals of the European Union. From the 1960s onwards, the city also developed into one of the largest international financial centers.
Since 1979 the city magazine Ons Stad has been published . After thirty years of existence, its entire archive is available online and thus represents a unique documentation of the city's history.
- life quality
According to studies, the city offers a high quality of life . In the city ranking of the consulting company Mercer , in which the quality of life in metropolises around the world is compared every year, the city of Luxembourg took 19th place out of 230 cities in 2015. In the study by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network , Luxembourg ranks in the Beta World Cities category on a par with Berlin , Rome , Dallas , Lisbon and other cities.
Culture and sights
European Capital of Culture 2007
The City of Luxembourg, together with the Greater Region and the Romanian City of Sibiu (Hermannstadt), was elected European Capital of Culture for 2007 (“Luxembourg and Greater Region - European Capital of Culture 2007”). Over 600 projects and individual events were created for this European year of culture in the entire greater region ( Luxembourg , Lorraine , Saarland , western Rhineland-Palatinate, only the region of Trier, Wallonia ) and offered during the year of culture. The focal point of the cultural year were two rotundas , which previously served as engine sheds and were converted into a new cultural and event center, especially for young people, for the festival year. The official logo of the year of culture was a “blue stag”, which pervaded the cityscape and the entire greater region in numerous variations.
The largest concert hall in the city is the Philharmonie Luxembourg on the Kirchberg plateau on the Place de l'Europe. The Philharmonie is also the residence of the Orchester Philharmonique du Luxembourg . The floor plan of the white main building has the shape of an eye, the steel and glass facade is optically dominated by 823 white columns 20 meters high and 30 centimeters in diameter. The large concert hall Salle de Concerts Grande-Duchesse Joséphine-Charlotte (Grand Auditorium) has up to 1500 seats.
Since opening in 2005, the Philharmonie has offered a recognized program of high artistic quality. Artists such as Lang Lang , Hélène Grimaud , the classical music interpreters Diana Damrau and Andreas Scholl come to Luxembourg, as do the conductors Muti, Mehta, Thielemann and Gergiev. In addition, orchestras such as the Vienna and New York Philharmonic, the Amsterdam Concertgebouw or the London Symphony and jazz performers such as Chick Corea and Brad Mehldau are guests in Luxembourg. The number of visitors to the Philharmonie is consistently above the 150,000 mark per year.
The so-called Espace Découverte is located in the basement of the Philharmonie . It is intended for electro-acoustic music, experimental art in the field of electronics, film or video or for interactive music workshops.
In the studio concerts are held by internationally renowned artists regularly.
Theater, opera and ballet
The largest and most modern theater in the city is the Grand théâtre de la ville de Luxembourg at rond-point Schuman in the direction of Kirchberg. It was built between 1960 and 1964 according to plans by the French architect Alain Bourbonnais . After extensive renovation and enlargement work (1999–2003), the house was reopened on September 26, 2003. Today's offerings at the Grand Théâtre range from operas and plays to poetry and dance performances.
Museums and exhibitions
Despite its modest size, the city of Luxembourg has a range of museums on an international level. The most important museum is the Musée d'Art Moderne Grand-Duc Jean on the Kirchberg plateau. This is a modern art museum that opened on July 1, 2006. In the first twelve months after the opening, more than 115,000 visitors were counted. The Fortress Museum of the City of Luxembourg is housed in a renovated and partly rebuilt section of Fort Thüngen ( Luxembourgish Dräi Eechelen ).
The Casino Luxembourg - Forum d'art contemporain organizes contemporary art exhibitions. An international program, based predominantly on young artists, enables a comprehensive insight into contemporary, artistic creation. In its artist residencies and exhibitions, the casino focuses on new trends in the arts.
The Villa Vauban - Musée d'Art de la Ville de Luxembourg - is the city's art gallery. It opened on May 1, 2010 after around five years of construction and contains works by Dutch and Flemish artists from the 17th and 18th centuries as well as by French, Belgian, Italian, German and Swiss painters from the 19th century.
The Musée de la Banque is located in the former counter hall of the central headquarters of the State Bank Banque et Caisse d'Epargne de l'Etat on Place de Metz . The exhibits and the interactive information pillars in the museum give an insight into the history of banking and the development of the banking profession.
There are also numerous other museums, including the National Museum of Natural History , the Luxembourg City History Museum , the National Museum of History and Art , the “Am Tunnel” art gallery or the memorial for the forced recruits and resettlement . Smaller museums are the Post and Telecommunications Museum and the Tram and Bus Museum .
The University of Luxembourg , founded in 2003, was based in Luxembourg-Limpertsberg until 2015, before the administration and several institutes moved to Esch-Belval . Some institutes are still located in Luxembourg City. It sees itself as a multilingual, international and research-oriented university with a personal atmosphere. The university maintains numerous collaborations with the EU institutions and the Luxembourg financial center. It has three faculties and two interdisciplinary centers. The languages of instruction are French, German and English.
The seat of the private, state-recognized eufom European University for Economics & Management Asbl is also in the city of Luxembourg on the Kirchberg plateau . The European-oriented course at eufom University is aimed at professionals and trainees in the Greater Region and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg who want to gain academic qualifications in addition to their entrepreneurial or business activities. The languages of instruction are German (Bachelor) and English (Master).
Numerous remains of the Luxembourg Fortress can be visited to this day, including Bock Casemates , Petrusse Casemates , Bockfelsen , Chemin de la Corniche , Rham Plateau , Heiliggeist Citadel , Spanish Towers , Three Towers, Vauban Towers , Fort Thüngen , Wenzels Wall , Hollow Tooth, Reduit Lambert, Archaeological Crypt, Bastion Beck or Plateau Bourbon. In 1994 these fortress remains and the old town of Luxembourg were added to the Unesco World Heritage List .
The Grand Ducal Palace with its Renaissance facade is the first town house, since 1856 the meeting place of the Luxembourg Parliament Chambre des Députés (Chamber of Deputies) and since 1890 the city residence of the Grand Ducal family. The building complex, the oldest parts of which date from the 13th century , was previously the town hall for more than 500 years and even the seat of government after 1815. Inside the palace, the monarchy comes across as genteel and reserved rather than ostentatious and ostentatious. Some of the foyers, halls and salons with their ornate stucco ceilings, furniture, tapestries and paintings can also be visited during the summer months. If the grand-duc is present, the national flag is hoisted and the armed palace guard parades with two soldiers instead of the usual one in front of the large main gate.
The most important religious building is the Notre-Dame de Luxembourg Cathedral (also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady ), the late Gothic episcopal church of the Archdiocese of Luxembourg . It was built by the Jesuits in 1613–1617 and elevated to the status of a cathedral in 1870. Every year the Octave of Our Lady is celebrated in it, a pilgrimage in honor of the Mother of God , the patron saint of Luxembourg City. Next to it is the baroque refuge of St. Maximin , the former branch of the Trier Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin , today the Foreign Ministry of the Grand Duchy . Other religious sites are the Herz-Jesu-Kirche (Sacré Coeur), the St. Michael Church , the St. Johann Church , the Quirinus Chapel , the Congregational Church and the Liebfrauenfriedhof.
Around the city of Luxembourg there is a large US and a large German military cemetery with graves of 15,989 soldiers who were killed during the Battle of the Bulge in World War II . The American military cemetery in Hamm consists of 5076 graves, which are set up in an arch in front of a memorial chapel. The commander of the III. US Army, General George S. Patton , was buried there at his request. The German military cemetery in Sandweiler consists of 10,913 graves. The cemetery was the first after the Second World War that the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge was able to establish outside Germany.
The Kirchberg plateau is the most modern part of Luxembourg City. The buildings of the European Court of Justice , the European Court of Auditors , the European Commission , the European Investment Bank and the Parliament of the European Union are all well worth seeing . The Kirchberg is therefore also known as the European Quarter. In addition, the European Conference and Congress Center , the Philharmonie Luxembourg and the Luxexpo trade fair are located on the Kirchberg .
- Gëlle Fra
- Neumünster Abbey
- Memorial of Luxembourg Solidarity ( Kanounenhiwwel )
- Tomb of the captain von Köpenick
- New synagogue
- Cité Judiciaire on the Holy Spirit Plateau
- Péiter Onrou , depiction of a saint who still performs magical rituals today.
The city of Luxembourg is characterized by its large bridges over deep, narrow valleys. They connect the different plateaus that make up the city:
- The passerelle , also known as the Old Bridge, crosses the Petruss Valley at a height of 45 meters and consists of 24 arches with spans of eight and 15 meters. The bridge piers are up to 30 meters high and the total length of the bridge is around 290 meters.
- The Grande-Duchesse Charlotte bridge, also known as the Red Bridge, connects the city center with the Europaviertel on the Kirchberg plateau. The bridge runs 74 meters above the Alzette. The length is 355 meters with a support width of 234 meters.
- The Adolphe Bridge , also known as the New Bridge, was built between 1900 and 1903. Other countries followed the construction of the Adolphe Bridge with great interest, as it had been the largest stone arch bridge in the world until then. The large double arch with a span of 85 meters crosses the Petruss valley at a height of 42 meters. The total length of the bridge is 153 meters.
Streets and squares
The most famous squares in the city are the Place Guillaume II (popularly also known as "Knuedler") with the equestrian statue of Wilhelm, the fish market , the parade square Place d'Armes (built in 1671, newly laid out in 1986 and a popular meeting place for young and old in summer ) with the adjacent city palace and Clairefontaine-Platz in the government district with the monument to Grand Duchess Charlotte . The sculpture “La grande Tempérance” by Niki de Saint Phalle was lifted from its concrete base at the bus station in front of the capital's Center Hamilius and is housed in a depot during the renovation of the square.
Avenue John Fitzgerald Kennedy (from Germany) and Route d'Arlon (from Belgium) are, together with the two southern motorways 3 and 4 (from France), the most frequented access roads into the city. The most important inner-city streets include the Boulevard Royal and the avenue de la Liberté, which leads south from the Adolphe Bridge to the train station.
In the city center, traffic from the south to the north is routed under the old town through the René Conen tunnel.
The above-mentioned squares are in the pedestrian zone as well as the shopping streets Groussgaass , Grand-Rue, Rue du Curé or Avenue Monterey. The capital is mostly crowded during the week, especially in April, June and October when the EU Council of Ministers meets, and during trade fairs and congresses (in May and June as well as in September and October).
The Center National Sportif et Culturel (D'Coque) on the Luxembourg Kirchberg is the largest sports center in the country. The hall construction was only built in the 1990s as an extension of the Piscine Olympique Luxembourg and its shape is reminiscent of a scallop . In addition to its function as a sports center, it is used for major events, concerts and as a conference center. The large hall covers 4,300 square meters and has 8,000 seats.
Football is the most popular sport in Luxembourg. The Stade Josy Barthel , the largest football stadium in the country (capacity: 8054 seats), is located in the Belair district . It is the venue for the home games of the Luxembourg national football team (national stadium). In addition, there is the Stade Achille Hammerel (5814 places), the Stade de Beggen (rue Henri Dunant, 4850 places), the Stade Camille Polfer (2740 places) and the Stade Hollerich (2120 places) in the urban area . The most successful football team in the city is Racing FC Union Luxembourg . After the merger in 2005 between Alliance, Spora and Union Luxemburg, the club can write 28 Luxembourg championships and 20 cup victories ( Coupe de Luxembourg ) to the Palmares, all of which were won by the previous clubs. The capital's oldest independent football club is FC Avenir Beggen (founded in 1915).
The Tour de Luxembourg stage cycle race , one of the first preparatory races for the Tour de France since 1935 , begins and ends in Luxembourg City. The race is part of the UCI Europe Tour . For the first time in three decades, Fränk Schleck was able to win the race again in 2009 for a boy from Luxembourg. One of the winners is Lance Armstrong , who was able to achieve his first success here after having overcome cancer.
In 1995 and 2013, the city of Luxembourg hosted the Games of the Small States of Europe , a biennial multi-sport event organized by the National Olympic Committees (NOC) of nine European small states and which has been taking place since 1985.
The JPMorgan City Jogging is an annual city run through the capital including walking, Nordic walking and kids jogging.
The Europe Marathon leads either as a marathon or as a half marathon from the banking and financial center of Kirchberg into the historic city center. It is - accompanied by torches and Bengali lighting - one of the few marathons that take place in the evening. Until 2010, the Europe Marathon took place in May; in 2011 it will be held for the first time in June. The course is considered attractive, but it is also wavy and winding and therefore not necessarily suitable for fastest times. Runners from 60 nations took part in the premiere. The largest group was made up of the locals with a good quarter of the participants, followed by Germans, French and Belgians.
The Luxembourg Euro Meet is the largest swimming event in Luxembourg and takes place annually in January on the Kirchberg in the Arena Coque.
The Grand Prix of Luxembourg was held from 1949 to 1952 on a motorsport racetrack in Findel just outside the city. In 1997 and 1998, the Formula One race at the nearby Nürburgring was also called the Grand Prix of Luxembourg. The name was chosen because in the 1997 season a German Grand Prix was held at the Hockenheimring and a European Grand Prix at the Circuito de Jerez in Jerez de la Frontera in Spain . The largest race track in the country, the Circuit Goodyear , is located a few kilometers north of the city in Colmar-Berg . The American tire manufacturer Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company operates a plant there with more than 3,600 employees. The Goodyear Trophy and Coupe Goodyear are also held annually .
The headquarters of Luxembourg's nightlife are the districts of Grund and Clausen. The Rives de Clausen around the former industrial site of the Mousel et Clausen brewery on Rue Emile Mousel is the nightlife district par excellence. The restaurant Le Sud, the Verso, the Ikki, the Bar Rock Box, the Agua de Coco, the King Wilma and the Space Bar form a cluster of trendy bars and restaurants there. The Rives are visited by several thousand people at night and are now one of the centers of Luxembourg's nightlife. Since the site opened in October 2008, more than 120 jobs have been created there.
In addition, various locations have settled in the rue de Hollerich and rue de Bouillon in the popular Hollerich district, including the Marx Bar (42–44 rue de Hollerich) and Atelier (54 rue de Hollerich). The Resto-Lounge-Bar Cat Club (18 Rue de l'Aciérie) is also popular. There are also two dozen discos and clubs in the city , including four large-capacity discos, each of which can accommodate more than 1,000 guests. The classics of Luxembourg nightlife are the historic old town around the Place d'Armes and the area around the train station. The scene is characterized by Irish and English bars. In the station quarter there are mainly multicultural restaurants and various cabarets.
There are two types of night buses: Every night the Night Rider , a collective bus - consisting of 70 sprinters - shuttles between two front doors, e.g. without a specific timetable and stops. B. the most popular places in Luxembourg's nightlife. Each trip costs at least 12 euros. On Fridays and Saturdays there is also the City Night Bus from 10 p.m. , which connects all major city districts, the Glacis and Bouillon car parks and the Hamilius Center on three lines every 15 or 30 minutes. The night bus is a free service from Luxembourg City.
In the urban area Luxembourg a valid from 3am curfew . Since this regularly leads to disturbances of the peace, long queues in parking garages and occasional overloading of the bus shuttle services, the curfew is up for discussion. An extension has already been approved in some parts of the city. Since then, the curfew has only been in effect from 6 a.m.
The Schobermesse ( lux. D'Schueberfouer , called d'Fouer ) is a large folk festival that is celebrated every year in late summer on the Champ du Glacis. It goes back to October 20, 1340 and will take place for the 678th time in 2018 - making the Schobermesse one of the oldest fairground events in Europe. With an average of two million visitors, it is also one of the largest of its kind. The so-called Schobermess Monday is sometimes a day off in Luxembourg City.
The Luxembourgers celebrate the country's national day on June 23 in the capital. There are patriotic street parades, gun salutes, church services, concerts and receptions. A military parade takes place on the avenue de la Liberté that day.
Live at Vauban is a rock festival that takes place in autumn in the Atelier concert hall, in the Conservatory of Music and in the Grand Théâtre de la Ville de Luxembourg at rond-point Schuman.
The Nuit des Musées has been an annual museum night since 2001 and is the main event in the series of events organized by the d'stater muséeën . The museum nights regularly attract more than 10,000 visitors. A varied program is then offered in the various houses.
The Luxembourg Christmas market takes place every year from the end of November to Christmas in the historic city center. Christmas trees, Christmas decorations, Luxembourg specialties and mulled wine are sold.
The Printemps Musical-Festival de Luxembourg takes place in spring and presents concerts of all musical genres from classical to jazz to chanson. The aim of the festival is to highlight the similarities between classical and modern music - especially with jazz - and to remove the outdated separation between so-called serious and popular music .
The Octave in May is a pilgrimage to Our Lady of Luxembourg : Catholics from the Grand Duchy and neighboring areas of Belgium, Germany and France have been making pilgrimages to Luxembourg since 1628. The octave market with its various food stalls and souvenir shops takes place in the square opposite the cathedral in the capital. The event traditionally ends with a solemn procession reflecting the country's religious tradition. The grand ducal family and ecclesiastical dignitaries from abroad usually attend.
In July, Luxembourg City also hosts the Blues'n Jazzrallye jazz festival . Around 20,000 music fans then come to the city. Furthermore, the Luxembourg International Military Tattoo takes place every two years in May .
In the election on October 8, 2017, of 34 399 voters (27 722 Luxembourgers and 6 677 foreigners), 25 479 voters cast valid ballot papers.
2 242 ballot papers were invalid or not filled out and of 687 033 possible votes (27 per ballot paper) 621 048 were given.
The DP and the CSV agreed on a coalition agreement and distributed the posts: Lydie Polfer as mayor and 3 aldermen each for the DP and the CSV.
See election diagram
In 2017, Luxembourg City recorded ordinary income (income) of 684.3 million euros and ordinary expenses (expenses) of 536.4 million euros. The extraordinary income amounts to 92.9 million euros and the extraordinary expenses to 324.2 million euros.
Luxembourg as a city or municipality
The Luxembourg City Council has 27 members. There are six lay judges.
Luxembourg as the capital
As the capital of the Grand Duchy, Luxembourg is the seat of all constitutional organs and numerous state administrations in the country. The Chambre des Députés (Parliament) , the Council of State , the Grand Duke and the government with all ministries are located in Luxembourg.
In addition, the country's judicial organs are based in the so-called Cité Judiciaire on the Holy Spirit Plateau in the capital. The institutions Zentrales Sozialdéngscht, Friddensgeriicht, Palais vum Ieweschte Geriichtshaff, Jugendgeriicht, Arrondissementgeriicht and Parquet vum Arrondissementgeriicht are located there.
Luxembourg as the EU administrative seat
- Seat of the European Court of Justice ,
- Seat of the European Court of Auditors ,
- Seat of the Secretariat of the European Parliament ,
- Headquarters of the European Investment Bank ,
- Headquarters of the services of the European Commission
- Headquarters of the European Financial Stability Facility
- The seat of the European Public Prosecutor
- Meeting place of the Council of the European Union .
Most of the institutions of the European Union are located on the Kirchberg plateau in the northeast of the city.
Luxembourg financial center
The economic structure of Luxembourg, which was formerly characterized by heavy industry and agriculture, has changed profoundly since the early 1970s. Before the foreseeable decline in the importance of heavy industry, the Luxembourg government had consciously and consistently pursued a policy of diversification since 1975, established new industries and developed the banking and insurance sector with great success.
With Frankfurt am Main , London , New York City , Zurich , Hong Kong and Singapore, the city of Luxembourg is one of the most important financial centers in the world today . It is the world's second largest center of excellence for investment funds after the United States , Europe's leading location for captive reinsurance and the largest private banking center in the Eurozone . The financial sector is thus the most important pillar of the Luxembourg economy. Overall, financial services and business-related services today generate almost half of Luxembourg's gross value added. 22 percent of employees work in the financial sector, most of them in the districts of Kirchberg and Oberstadt directly in the capital.
Construction is another important industry. It benefits from the settlement of new industries, banks and insurance companies as well as state construction projects to improve the infrastructure.
Luxembourg City is the administrative headquarters of the merged and world's largest steel manufacturer ArcelorMittal . It was created in 2007 through the merger of the once independent multinational steel company Arcelor and the British-Indian steel manufacturer Mittal Steel . Arcelor itself was created in 2002 through the merger of the steel companies Arbed (Luxembourg), Usinor (France) and Aceralia (Spain). Arbed has always been the largest private employer in Luxembourg. The former administrative headquarters of Arbed was located in a representative neoclassical building on Avenue de la Liberté, the largest boulevard in Luxembourg.
Due to the central location and the favorable economic environment, numerous IT groups have also settled in Luxembourg, such as Artec 3D , the manufacturer of high-end 3D scanning solutions. ITunes Sarl has been based there since 2004 and operates the European iTunes Store as a subsidiary of Apple Inc. The European subsidiary of Amazon.com is also based in Luxembourg.
The headquarters of the media company RTL Group is located in Luxembourg City , whose roots go back to the Compagnie luxembourgeoise de radiodiffusion , which has been running Radio Luxembourg from its broadcasting house, Villa Louvigny , in Luxembourg's city park since the 1930s .
Commuter volume and consequences
135,000 commuters come to the Grand Duchy every day, most of them directly to the capital. As a result, there are frequent traffic jams on numerous streets around the capital between 7:30 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. and between 5:00 p.m. and 6:30 p.m. Buses and trains are also heavily used during rush hour. They have been free since March 2020.
There is an extensive network of bus routes . They connect parts of the city with the city center, the train stations and the P + R areas in the periphery (Bouillon: 2600 spaces, Kockelscheuer: 600, South: 720, Kirchberg: 235, Beggen: 200).
The free City Night Bus runs on three lines on Fridays and Saturdays from 10 p.m. Line CN1 connects the Upper Town with the districts of Hollerich, Gare, Clausen, Neudorf and Cents and also goes to the Glacis and Bouillon car parks. Line CN2 connects the Center Hamilius with the districts of Bonnevoie, Gasperich and Zessingen. Line CN3 connects the Center Hamilius with the districts of Limpertsberg, Belair and Merl. The night bus is a free service from Luxembourg City. It runs every 15 or 30 minutes.
In 2015, the construction of the “Stater Tram” tram network began in Luxembourg City . The first part of the line opened on December 10, 2017 and first ran from Luxexpo to the Rout Bréck / Pafendall stop. After that, the line was extended in 2019 to strengh plaz / Étoile. Since the 2020–21 timetable change, it now also continues to the main train station via Hamilius. An extension to Luxembourg Airport should be completed by 2022. The aim of the project is to improve mobility between the city center and Kirchberg, where a significant number of commuters work. Calculations have shown that buses can no longer cope with the volume of traffic. A traditional type of tram (discontinued) existed in Luxembourg from 1875 to 1964.
The city has been running a car sharing project called Carloh with five stations since 2015 . This means that vehicles made available at certain locations can occasionally be borrowed. The aim is to have very low fixed costs - refueling, maintenance and care are included. The concept is aimed at both private individuals and companies.
The city's 22 multi-storey car parks, especially the Aldringen, Knuedler and Theater car parks, are often overloaded on weekdays. The dynamic parking guidance system introduced on July 29, 2005 provides information about the current occupancy rate. The inner-city parking limit of two hours is intended to ensure permanent rotation and counteract long-term parking. Different parking zones are planned as well as special permits for residents and other specific groups. Call2Park is a system that allows you to pay for parking tickets by mobile phone. Traffic information is available online.
The Luxembourg train station ( French Gare de Luxembourg ) is the central point of the 274 km long railway network in the Grand Duchy. There are also the train stations and stops Pafendall-Kierchbierg (Pfaffenthal-Kirchberg), Cents-Hamm, Hollerich, and Howald in the urban area. Passenger traffic is mainly operated by the Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois (CFL) . Here and there you can find a train of the SNCB, SNCF and also the Deutsche Bahn (EC or ECx Berlin-Luxembourg from December 2021) on the tracks.
The following railway lines come together here:
- Luxembourg – Bettembourg via Thionville to Metz in France
- Luxemburg – Kleinbettingen on to Arlon and Brussels in Belgium
- Luxembourg – Trois Ponts (on to Liège; north line )
- Luxemburg – Wasserbillig on to Trier Hbf, Cochem (Mosel) and Koblenz Hbf
- Pétange – Luxembourg , in Pétange there is a connection to France / Belgium
The station is connected to the high-speed network of the French State Railways (SNCF) via the LGV Est européenne route and has, among other things, a direct connection to Paris. Six TGV trains have been running on this line every day since 2009, with a journey time of 130 minutes. There is a half-hourly connection to Germany by local transport, which ends shortly after the border in Trier. It is operated jointly by CFL, DB and SNCF. It leads to Trier, Wittlich and Koblenz. Once a day from Koblenz as an IC to Düsseldorf. From December 2021 there will also be an EC and ECx, which will be operated jointly by CFL and DB. This then runs from Luxembourg via Wasserbillig, Trier, Wittlich, Bullay, Cochem, Koblenz, Andernach, Remagen, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Cologne / Bonn Airport, Cologne Central Station, Düsseldorf Central Station, Duisburg Central Station, Essen Central Station, Gelsenkirchen Central Station, Münster ( Westf.) Hbf, Osnabrück Hbf, Diepholz, Bremen Hbf, Hamburg-Harburg, Lüneburg, Uelzen, Stendal, Wittenberge, Neustadt (Dosse), Berlin Spandau, Berlin Zoologischer Garten, Berlin Hbf, Berlin Ostbahnhof to Berlin Lichtenberg. The travel time should be approximately 12 hours. Normally it takes about 13-17 hours for this route with 2–5 changes.
Since December 14, 2014, Luxembourg and Germany have been linked by a high-performance connection every hour between Luxembourg and Koblenz. To this end, the Luxembourg – Trier – Koblenz route between Igel and Igel-West was expanded over a distance of two kilometers. The Deutsche Bahn project was estimated at 23 million euros. Luxembourg contributed 8 million euros, although the affected section is entirely on German territory.
For a number of years, the so-called Eurocaprail has been planned as a high-speed link between the capitals of the European Union - Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg. On the Belgian side, line improvements are already under construction on some sections of the Brussels – Luxembourg route. The introduction of high-speed services is planned after the opening of the TGV line between Metz and Strasbourg.
The Luxembourg Airport ( French Aéroport de Luxembourg ) unofficially short, Findel called, is the central Luxembourg airport. It is particularly important in the freight business: Luxembourg ranks fifth in the list of the largest freight airports in Europe.
The airport is right outside the city gates, around six kilometers from the city center. It is the only international airport in the country and at the same time the only one with an asphalt runway (4000 × 60 m). A modern terminal with a capacity of around three million passengers was opened in 2008. In terms of passenger traffic, the airport is served by numerous airlines, including British Airways , KLM Royal Dutch Airlines , Lufthansa , Swiss and Scandinavian Airlines . The main user is Luxair . Cargolux is the largest customer in freight transport .
The establishment of several low-cost airports in the vicinity is being critically observed in Luxembourg: Frankfurt-Hahn , around 110 kilometers away, and Brussels-Charleroi , around 200 kilometers away, have taken more and more market shares from Luxembourg Airport in recent years. In 2009, more than 300,000 Luxembourg passengers were estimated on the Hahn alone. 15 buses commute between Luxembourg City and Hahn every day. The airline Ryanair has stationed its planes at both Frankfurt-Hahn Airport and Brussels-Charleroi Airport and is sometimes using aggressive advertising for more than 90 percent cheaper flight prices than Luxair can offer from Luxembourg Airport.
sons and daughters of the town
- Johann von Aldringen (1588–1634), imperial field marshal in the Thirty Years' War
- Alexandra of Luxembourg (* 1991), Princess of Luxembourg, Princess of Nassau and Bourbon-Parma
- Eugène Becker (1884 -?), Football player
- Lisa Berg (1978–2017), cellist and composer
- Jean Bernard (1907-1994), priest
- Xavier Bettel (* 1973), politician of the Democratic Party (DP); Prime Minister of Luxembourg since December 4, 2013
- Anne Brasseur (* 1950), politician (DP)
- Nico Braun (* 1950), soccer player
- Marc Conrad (* 1960), film producer, author and media manager
- Claude Dario Conter (* 1974), literary scholar
- Christophe d'Ansembourg (* 1963), Belgian racing driver
- Mady Delvaux-Stehres (* 1950), politician
- Marc Demuth (* 1978), jazz musician
- Thorunn Egilsdottir (* 1975), Luxembourgish-Icelandic singer and presenter
- Frank Engel (* 1975), politician (CSV) in Luxembourg and MEP (EPP)
- Félix of Luxembourg (* 1984); Prince of Luxembourg, Prince of Nassau and Bourbon-Parma
- Anne Fontaine (* 1959), French actress, film director and screenwriter
- Gaspard Théodore Ignace de la Fontaine (1787–1871), first head of government of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
- Hermann von François (1856–1933), Prussian general
- Bertrand Gachot (* 1962), Belgian-French racing driver
- Rodolphe Gasché (* 1938), literary scholar
- Lucien Gillen (1928-2010), racing cyclist
- Camille Gira (1958-2018), politician (Déi Gréng)
- Guillaume of Luxembourg (* 1981), Hereditary Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Hereditary Prince of Nassau and Prince of Bourbon-Parma
- Jean Hamilius (* 1927), athlete, politician
- Eric Hoffmann (* 1984), soccer player
- Frank Hoffmann (* 1954), director and general manager
- Elsy Jacobs (1933–1998), cyclist and 1958 first woman cycling world champion
- Josef Jakobs (1898–1941), German spy in World War II
- Alvin Jones (* 1978), American-Luxembourgish NBA player and Luxembourg national basketball player
- Alfred von Keßler (1833–1907), Prussian general
- Alex Kirsch (* 1992), racing cyclist
- Henri Koch-Kent (1905–1999), publicist
- Antoine Kohn (1933–2012), football player and coach
- Joseph Kohnen (1940–2015), Germanist
- Anne Kremer (* 1975), tennis player
- Vicky Krieps (born 1983), actress
- Claude Lenners (* 1956), composer
- Fons Leweck (* 1981), soccer player
- Viviane Loschetter (* 1959), politician (Déi Gréng)
- Christine Majerus (* 1987), racing cyclist
- Antoine Meyer (1801–1857), author and mathematician
- Jean-Pierre Müller (1904–1979), Roman Catholic clergyman, historian of philosophy and university professor
- Gustav Nimax (1848–1906), engineer and industrialist
- Benno von Platen (1846–1926), Prussian major general
- Lydie Polfer (* 1952), politician of the Democratic Party and Mayor of Luxembourg City
- Thomas Rabe (* 1965), manager
- Martine Reicherts (* 1957), politician
- Léopold Reichling (1921–2009), botanist
- Michel Reis (* 1982), jazz musician
- André Reuter (* 1947), university professor and rector
- Édouard Rowlandson (* 1988), French volleyball and beach volleyball player
- Jeff Saibene (* 1968), soccer player and coach
- Jean Pierre Sauvage (1699–1780), Dutch portrait painter
- Jean-Marie Schaeffer (* 1952), French philosopher and university professor
- Claudine Schaul (* 1983), tennis player
- Mike Scheidweiler (* 1981), tennis player
- Pit Schlechter (* 1990), racing cyclist
- Gebrüder Fränk (* 1980) and Andy Schleck (* 1985), professional cyclists
- Robert Schuman (1886–1963), Prime Minister of France; Founding father of the European Union
- Marco Serafini (* 1956), television director
- Dean Spielmann (* 1962), legal scholar, President of the European Court of Human Rights
- Kurt Stenzel (1938–2012), German television journalist
- Jeff Strasser (* 1974), soccer player and coach
- Vincent Thill (* 2000), football player
- Amy Thompson (* 1994), soccer player
- Gaston Thorn (1928–2007), Prime Minister of Luxembourg
- Gilbert Trausch (1931–2018), historian
- Brigitte Urhausen (* 1980), actress and radio play speaker
- Sascha Wagener (1977–2011), political scientist and politician (Die Linke)
- Raymond de Waha (1877–1942), politician
- Lucien Wercollier (1908–2002), sculptor
- Michel Wolter (* 1962), politician (CSV)
- Ranga Yogeshwar (* 1959), science journalist, physicist; Editor and presenter at WDR
- Chris Zuidberg (* 1994), volleyball player
Other personalities associated with the city
- Helen Buchholtz (1877–1953), one of the first female composers in Luxembourg, lived in the city since 1921
- Carlo Hommel (1953-2006), cathedral organist
- Franz Liszt (1811–1886) gave his last concert here on July 19, 1886 on the occasion of a visit to his friend, the Hungarian painter Mihály Munkácsy , in the former casino
- Jean (1921–2019), Grand Duke of Luxembourg, Duke of Nassau, Prince of Bourbon-Parma, Count Palatine of the Rhine, Count of Sayn, Königstein, Katzenelnbogen and Diez, Burgrave of Hammerstein, Lord of Mahlberg, Wiesbaden, Idstein, Merenberg Limburg and Eppstein
- Heinrich Oberhoffer (1824–1885), composer, musicologist, instrumental pedagogue, cathedral organist
- Johann Peters (1831–1897), Catholic theologian, professor at the seminary, canon and member of the school commission
- Rainer Popp (* 1946), from 1983 to 1988 editor-in-chief of RTL-Radio and RTL-Fernsehen, founder and head of RTL's breakfast television and director of the German program for Radio Luxemburg
- Richard David Precht (* 1964 in Solingen ), German philosopher and publicist
- Friedrich Wilhelm Voigt (1849 in Tilsit; † 1922 in Luxemburg), alias the Captain von Köpenick , found his final resting place in the Liebfrauenfriedhof in Luxemburg-Limpertsberg.
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