Luxembourg City

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Luxembourg city
coat of arms map
Luxembourg City Coat of Arms Location of Luxembourg City in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Basic data
View over the Bockfelsen to the upper town
View over the Bockfelsen to the upper town
State : LuxembourgLuxembourg Luxembourg
Coordinates : 49 ° 37 '  N , 6 ° 8'  E Coordinates: 49 ° 36 '41 "  N , 6 ° 7' 51"  E
Canton : Luxembourg
Residents : 119,215 (January 1, 2019)
Area : 51.5 km²
Population density : 2317 inhabitants / km²
Postal code : 1009-2999
Municipality number: 0304
Website: www.vdl.lu
politics
Mayor: Lydie Polfer ( DP )
Elective system : Proportional representation
Luxembourg city flag

The City of Luxembourg ( Luxembourg City Lëtzebuerg , French Ville de Luxembourg ) is the capital of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg . With 119,215 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2019) it is the largest city in the country; almost 20 percent of the total population of Luxembourg live in the capital. Luxembourg is the administrative seat of the canton of the same name and was the same for the district of the same name until it was abolished on October 3, 2015. Luxembourgers usually only call their capital D'Stad ("the city").

In addition to Brussels and Strasbourg, the city ​​of Luxembourg is the administrative seat of the European Union with the seat and conference venue of numerous European institutions. Luxembourg is also an important financial center .

As of December 31, 2016, 70 percent of the population were foreigners ; People from over 160 nationalities live in the capital.

geography

Luxembourg and the location of its districts

Geographical location

The city is located in the south of the Grand Duchy (so-called Gutland or Bon Pays ). The national border is around 20 (driving) minutes away in the direction of France and Germany and around 15 minutes in the direction of Belgium . The central location of Luxembourg "in the heart of Europe" is often emphasized: Cologne is 159 kilometers away, Strasbourg 164 kilometers, Brussels 186 kilometers, Frankfurt am Main 191 kilometers, Paris 287 kilometers.

Together with Metz (distance approx. 60 km), Saarbrücken (distance approx. 90 km) and Trier (distance approx. 50 km), Luxembourg is a center of the European and greater region Saar-Lor-Lux , in which on an area of ​​36,700 km² around 4.7 million people, and particularly by the coal and steel Community , the associated coal mining and the steel industry became more important. Since 2006, the four cities have formed a cross-border city network called QuattroPole , which cooperates with one another in a variety of ways.

City structure

The cityscape is shaped by the Petruss valley with the lower town. It is reserved for pedestrians and separates the upper town from the station district. To the east, the Alzette valley separates the upper town from the Kirchberg.

Luxembourg is divided into 24 quarter note (quarters) divided:

Beggen , Belair , Bouneweg-Nord / Verlorenkost, Bouneweg-Süd , Cents , Cessange (Zessingen), Clausen , Dommeldange (Dommeldingen), Eich , Gare (Bahnhofsviertel) , Gasperich , Grund , Hamm , Hollerich , Kirchberg , Limpertsberg , Merl , Mühlenbach , Neudorf / Weimershof , Pfaffenthal , Pulvermühl , Rollingergrund , Ville Haute (Oberstadt), Weimerskirch

With its northern, western and southern suburbs Bereldingen , Walferdingen , Strassen and Howald, Luxembourg has grown together seamlessly. The greater area forms a metropolitan agglomeration with more than 160,000 inhabitants.

climate

Luxembourg City has a moderate climate, which is assigned to the oceanic climate (Cfb) in the Köppen-Geiger classification . It is influenced by Atlantic sea winds and is characterized by relatively mild winters and pleasant summers. However, Luxembourg is no longer in the area of ​​the typically oceanic climate of coastal west French or Belgian cities such as Reims or Liège . The isolation from the North Sea by the low mountain range of the Ardennes also favors more continental influences.

The air is mostly mild and humid; the amount of precipitation is 782.2 mm; Average annual temperatures 9 ° C, in January 0.8 ° C, in July 17.5 ° C. The highest temperatures are usually recorded in July and August. At this time the average temperature is around 15 to 25 ° C, and it is not uncommon for 30 to 35 ° C to be reached.

Because the city of Luxembourg is built on hilly terrain, there are sometimes considerable differences in height (230–402 m) in a small area. This results in inner-city microclimates. It can therefore happen that valley locations remain in the fog in winter, while the sun shines in higher areas. The lower plains in the south of the city are also less exposed to wind and are often warmer than the higher-lying areas in the north (e.g. the Kirchberg plateau ). As a rule, the data from the nearby airport weather station (Luxemburg-Findel) is used for Luxembourg City . Due to their exposed location at a height of 376 m outside the city, their measured values ​​are only partially applicable to the conditions in the city center.

Luxembourg
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
77
 
3
-2
 
 
63
 
5
-1
 
 
69
 
9
2
 
 
58
 
13
4th
 
 
79
 
18th
8th
 
 
80
 
21st
11
 
 
71
 
23
13
 
 
75
 
23
13
 
 
76
 
18th
10
 
 
87
 
13
6th
 
 
76
 
7th
2
 
 
87
 
4th
-1
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source:
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Luxembourg
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 3.1 4.7 9.1 13.3 17.8 20.7 23.2 22.8 18.4 13.1 7.3 3.9 O 13.2
Min. Temperature (° C) −1.6 −1.3 1.6 4.4 8.4 11.1 13.3 13.0 10.0 6.3 2.2 −0.5 O 5.6
Precipitation ( mm ) 76.6 62.5 69.1 58.2 78.5 79.9 71.0 75.4 76.3 86.8 76.0 86.7 Σ 897
Rainy days ( d ) 17.0 14.3 16.1 13.7 14.4 13.9 13.0 13.1 13.0 15.4 17.2 16.9 Σ 178
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
3.1
−1.6
4.7
−1.3
9.1
1.6
13.3
4.4
17.8
8.4
20.7
11.1
23.2
13.3
22.8
13.0
18.4
10.0
13.1
6.3
7.3
2.2
3.9
−0.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
76.6
62.5
69.1
58.2
78.5
79.9
71.0
75.4
76.3
86.8
76.0
86.7
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source:

Flora and fauna

The city of Luxembourg has extensive green areas, which are designed as parks in the urban area, and mostly managed forests in the outskirts. Various non-native animals have settled here, benefiting from the mild climate.

population

Structure and development

The city of Luxembourg has 119,215 inhabitants (January 1, 2019). These include 33,302 native Luxembourgers and naturalized residents (29.19 percent) as well as 80,788 people with foreign citizenship (70 percent).

People from many nations and cultures live in Luxembourg. The city is one of the most multicultural capitals in Europe. Its inhabitants come from a total of 163 countries, most of them from France (19,581), Portugal (13,024), Italy (7,821), Belgium (4,617) and Germany (3,925). The Cents neighborhood is the only one where the majority of residents are Luxembourg nationals. The station district has the highest proportion of foreigners at 84.39 percent.

Population development in Luxembourg
year Residents
1984 76,705
1985 76,354
1986 76,436
1987 75,979
1988 75,938
1989 76,045
1990 75.902
1991 75,544
1992 75,605
1993 75,589
year Residents
1994 75.213
1995 75,852
1996 76.281
1997 77,042
1998 78.020
1999 78.713
2000 79,713
2001 80,939
2002 81,659
2003 82,489
year Residents
2004 083.226
2005 085,100
2006 085.908
2007 086,977
2008 088.194
2009 090.991
2010 093,865
2011 096,750
2012 100,390
2013 103.943
year Residents
2014 107,340
2015 110,499
2016 114.090

languages

Bilingual street sign at the Krautmarkt

Luxembourgers usually speak Luxembourgish and German fluently because of the national diglossia , most of them can also speak French and English. However, French is very present in everyday life in the urban area due to the presence of many Francophone or Romanophone immigrants and cross-border commuters. Portuguese is widespread due to the strong Portuguese immigration. A lot of English can be heard in the city's financial and European districts.

Luxembourgish people speak Luxembourgish every day. Language plays an important role in terms of the national identity of Luxembourgers. For example, anyone who intends to acquire citizenship of the Grand Duchy must prove a certain national identity through knowledge of this language. Luxembourgish is the most widely spoken colloquial language in Luxembourg, with the exception of Luxembourg City. For example, those who visit a café or restaurant in the city are initially confronted with French, on the one hand because they are often run by immigrants, but also because Luxembourg gastronomy relies heavily on francophone cross-border commuters for service. The way of life in gastronomic matters is therefore more French. In contrast, German is primarily the media language in the press and books.

Street names and other signs are mostly in French, whereby the Luxembourg equivalent is often given for the street names (e.g. Rue du marché-aux-herbes // Krautmaart ), and information is often bilingual (French-German) . For German-speaking visitors to Luxembourg City, basic knowledge of French or English is an advantage, although a person with knowledge of German can usually be found on request.

history

The Bockfelsen in Luxembourg City, which Count Siegfried acquired in 963

Celtic and Roman times

The first traces of settlement in the area of ​​Luxembourg City go back to the Celts and date from the 2nd century BC. About a hundred years later, the Romans invaded the country of Luxembourg when Caesar around 58 to 51 BC. Chr. Gaul and part of Germanien to Rhein limit captured. The area of ​​what is now Luxembourg, including the city of Luxembourg, became part of the Roman Empire .

middle Ages

Lützelburg (third from last coat of arms) in the quaternion eagle by Jost de Negker , 1510

In the 5th century AD - at the time of the Great Migration - the Germanic Franks pushed back the Romans. Wandering monks evangelized people to Christianity and built monasteries. The Echternach monastery was founded by the Anglo-Saxon missionary Willibrord in 698.

In Roman times, the area of ​​the City of Luxembourg was crossed by two consular roads. At the intersection there was a fortified tower. Through an exchange with the Abbey of Sankt Maximin in Trier, the small fort came into the possession of Count Siegfried in 963 , a close relative of the kings of France and the German emperors. The founding legend of the city speaks of the mermaid Melusina who caused Siegfried to build here and who later became his wife. Siegfried had his castle built on the "Bockfelsen", which was named Lucilinburhuc 'small castle or town' ( ahd. Luzzil 'small', burg 'castle, town') and is mentioned for the first time in the aforementioned exchange act. From this name later the new German name "Luxemburg" developed via Lützelburg (in Luxembourgish : Lëtzebuerg ).

In the outer bailey, Archbishop Egbert of Trier consecrated five altars in the Erlöserkirche (later Michaelskirche) in 987. In front of the church, at a Roman road junction, a market was built around which the city developed.

At the end of the 11th century the castle had a residential tower. Below the castle, the counts founded their house monasteries in 1083 - the cathedral abbey, which housed the city school and which is the final resting place of those counts who named themselves counts of Luxembourg for the first time in the seal of the founding deed.

While a craftsmen's quarter was built below the castle on the Alzette river , in which a hospice was founded at the beginning of the 14th century, the upper town, which had been fortified by a protective wall since the 10th century, expanded to the west in the 12th century.

A district with its own market, the Novum Forum, was built around the new Nikolauskirche . In order to include this quarter in the city fortifications, the construction of a curtain wall was started at the end of the 12th century, which enclosed an urban area of ​​5 hectares.

During this time, the original castle settlement developed into a town that was granted freedom by Countess Ermesinde in 1244 . It was probably an extension of those rights and obligations to the entire city area that her father, Count Heinrich von Namur-Luxemburg , had originally promised orally to the residents of the new building district at the Nikolauskirche.

Around 1340, under the reign of John the Blind , construction began on the large medieval curtain wall, the course of which separated the upper town from the surrounding area until the 19th century.

In 1354 Luxembourg became a duchy . In 1443 the city was taken by the Burgundian troops under Philip the Good . Luxembourg became part of the Burgundian , later the Spanish and Austrian Netherlands .

Early modern age

Luxembourg, 1560
Luxembourg, 1794

From the 16th century onwards, the city became one of the strongest fortresses in Europe, the "Gibraltar of the North". After the siege of 1684 by Vauban , he strengthened the fortress after the conquest. In the fortress, Burgundians, Spaniards, French, then again Spaniards, Austrians, then again French and Prussians alternated. From 1714 it was part of the Austrian Netherlands; In the following 80 years the outer fortifications were further expanded to prevent a possible French attack. On June 6, 1795, the city surrendered in the first coalition war due to running out of supplies after seven months of siege by the French revolutionary troops.

The casemates and mine tunnels were built from the 17th century . These were corridors hewn or walled in the rock with a total length of 23 km and vaulted, bomb-proof rooms. They served as artillery positions, housed facilities to be protected from bombing and made it possible to reach the more distant parts of the fortress underground in an emergency. After the 16-year razing of the Luxembourg fortress, beginning in 1867, the casemates were reduced to a length of 17 km. They could not be completely destroyed, otherwise the settlement structure of the city would have been affected.

Modern times

Place d'Armes in the old town
Luxembourg city

During the reorganization of Europe by the Congress of Vienna , an enlarged Dutch state was created, which essentially comprised the present-day Netherlands and present-day Belgium. On the one hand, the Dutch king should be compensated for the colonies ceded to Great Britain; on the other hand, this new state should serve as a buffer zone against a possible re-strengthened France. Luxembourg received a special status as a Grand Duchy. It was ruled by the Dutch king in personal union, but officially belonged to the German Confederation as a militarily important region , so that the city could be expanded into a federal fortress and received a Prussian garrison.

The London conference declared Luxembourg neutral after the Luxembourg crisis in 1867, the Prussian troops withdrew and the fortress was razed.

From 1914 to 1918 as well as from 1940 to 1944, Luxembourg was occupied by German troops. After the German occupation on May 10, 1940, the Grand Duchy as a CdZ area of ​​Luxembourg was subordinate to a chief of civil administration appointed by Germany , Gauleiter and State Councilor Gustav Simon , who gradually subordinated Luxembourg to the German administration. On October 4, 1940, the renaming of all streets in the city was announced, for example the Avenue de la Liberté leading to the train station was renamed Adolf-Hitler-Strasse . On December 1, 1940, the city of Luxembourg, as a German urban district, was subject to the German municipal code of January 30, 1935, which was valid in the Altreich , and was headed by a German Lord Mayor. On April 1, 1943 , the municipalities of Hesperingen (partly), Niederanven (partly), Strassen and Walferdingen were incorporated into the Luxembourg city district from the district of Esch , the former district of Luxembourg . The German occupation ended with the liberation by US troops in September 1944. Nevertheless, the city of Luxembourg still suffered from acts of war: In December 1944 it was shot at from Lampaden near Trier with the so-called V3 retaliatory weapons .

Because of its location, its history, but also its size, Luxembourg, as one of the founding members of the European Union , is the seat of numerous important organs and authorities of the Union that have settled in the Kirchberg district . The city is thus considered one of the capitals of the European Union. From the 1960s onwards, the city also developed into one of the largest international financial centers.

Since 1979 the city magazine Ons Stad has been published . After thirty years of existence, its entire archive is available online and thus represents a unique documentation of the city's history.

life quality

According to studies, the city offers a high quality of life . In the city ranking of the consulting company Mercer , in which the quality of life in metropolises around the world is compared annually, the city of Luxembourg took 19th place out of 230 cities in 2015. In the study by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network , Luxembourg ranks in the Beta World Cities category on a par with Berlin , Rome , Dallas , Lisbon and other cities.

Culture and sights

The Petruss valley with the lower town of Luxembourg

European Capital of Culture 2007

The City of Luxembourg, together with the Greater Region and the Romanian City of Sibiu (Hermannstadt), was elected European Capital of Culture for 2007 (“Luxembourg and Greater Region - European Capital of Culture 2007”). Over 600 projects and individual events were created for this European year of culture in the entire greater region ( Luxembourg , Lorraine , Saarland , western Rhineland-Palatinate, only the region of Trier, Wallonia ) and offered in the course of the year of culture. The focal point of the year of culture were two rotundas , which previously served as engine sheds and were converted into a new culture and event center, especially for young people, for the festival year. The official logo of the year of culture was a “blue stag”, which pervaded the cityscape and the entire greater region in numerous variations.

Concert halls

Philharmonic Luxembourg

The largest concert hall in the city is the Philharmonie Luxembourg on the Kirchberg plateau on the Place de l'Europe. The Philharmonie is also the residence of the Orchester Philharmonique du Luxembourg . The floor plan of the white main building is shaped like an eye, the steel and glass facade is optically dominated by 823 white columns 20 meters high and 30 centimeters in diameter. The large concert hall Salle de Concerts Grande-Duchesse Joséphine-Charlotte (Grand Auditorium) has up to 1500 seats.

Since opening in 2005, the Philharmonie has offered a recognized program of high artistic quality. Artists like Lang Lang , Hélène Grimaud , the classical music interpreters Diana Damrau and Andreas Scholl come to Luxembourg, as well as the conductors Muti, Mehta, Thielemann and Gergiev. In addition, orchestras such as the Vienna and New York Philharmonic, the Amsterdam Concertgebouw or the London Symphony and jazz interpreters such as Chick Corea and Brad Mehldau are guests in Luxembourg. The number of visitors to the Philharmonie is consistently above the 150,000 mark per year.

The so-called Espace Découverte is located in the basement of the Philharmonie . It is intended for electro-acoustic music, experimental art in the field of electronics, film or video or for interactive music workshops.

In the studio concerts are held by internationally renowned artists regularly.

Theater, opera and ballet

The largest and most modern theater in the city is the Grand théâtre de la ville de Luxembourg at rond-point Schuman in the direction of Kirchberg. It was built between 1960 and 1964 according to plans by the French architect Alain Bourbonnais . After extensive renovation and expansion work (1999–2003), the house was reopened on September 26, 2003. Today's offerings at the Grand Théâtre range from operas and plays to poetry and dance performances.

The city also has other theaters, including the Théâtre National du Luxembourg , the Théâtre ouvert Luxembourg , the Traffik Theater and the Théâtre des capucins .

Museums and exhibitions

Musée Dräi Eechelen in Fort Thüngen
Musee de la Banque

Despite its modest size, the city of Luxembourg has a range of museums on an international level. The most important museum is the Musée d'Art Moderne Grand-Duc Jean on the Kirchberg plateau. It is a modern art museum that opened on July 1, 2006. In the first twelve months after the opening, more than 115,000 visitors were counted. The fortress museum of the city of Luxembourg is housed in a renovated and partly rebuilt section of Fort Thüngen ( Luxembourgish Dräi Eechelen ).

The Casino Luxembourg - Forum d'art contemporain organizes contemporary art exhibitions. An international program, based predominantly on young artists, enables extensive insight into contemporary, artistic creation. In its artist residencies and exhibitions, the casino focuses on new trends in the arts.

The Villa Vauban  - Musée d'Art de la Ville de Luxembourg  - is the city's art gallery. It was opened on May 1, 2010 after around five years of construction and contains works by Dutch and Flemish artists from the 17th and 18th centuries as well as by French, Belgian, Italian, German and Swiss painters from the 19th century.

The Musée de la Banque is located in the former counter hall of the central headquarters of the State Bank Banque et Caisse d'Epargne de l'Etat on Place de Metz . The exhibits and the interactive information pillars in the museum give an insight into the history of banking and the development of the banking profession.

In addition, there are numerous other museums, including the National Museum of Natural History , the Historical Museum of the City of Luxembourg , the National Museum of History and Art , the Art Gallery "Am Tunnel" or Memorial of forced conscription and the resettlement . Smaller museums are the Post and Telecommunications Museum and the Tram and Bus Museum .

Universities

The University of Luxembourg , founded in 2003, was based in Luxembourg-Limpertsberg until 2015, before the administration and several institutes moved to Esch-Belval . Some institutes are still located in Luxembourg City. It sees itself as a multilingual, international and research-oriented university with a personal atmosphere. The university maintains numerous collaborations with the EU institutions and the Luxembourg financial center. It has three faculties and two interdisciplinary centers. The languages ​​of instruction are French, German and English.

The seat of the private, state-recognized eufom European University for Economics & Management Asbl is also located in Luxembourg City on the Kirchberg Plateau . The European-oriented course at eufom University is aimed at professionals and trainees in the Greater Region and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg who want to gain academic qualifications in addition to their entrepreneurial or business activities. The languages ​​of instruction are German (Bachelor) and English (Master).

Buildings

Fortress with Bastion Beck, Monument du souvenir (Gëlle Fra) and Pétrussetal

Numerous remains of the Luxembourg Fortress can be visited to this day, including Bock Casemates , Petrusse Casemates , Bockfelsen , Chemin de la Corniche , Rham Plateau , Heiliggeist Citadel , Spanish Towers , Three Towers, Vauban Towers , Fort Thüngen , Wenzels Wall , Hollow Tooth, Reduit Lambert, Archaeological Crypt, Bastion Beck or Plateau Bourbon. In 1994 these fortress remains and the old town of Luxembourg were added to the Unesco World Heritage List .

Palace of the Grand Duke

The Grand Ducal Palace with its Renaissance facade is the first town house, since 1856 the meeting place of the Luxembourg Parliament Chambre des Députés (Chamber of Deputies) and since 1890 the town residence of the Grand Ducal family. The building complex, the oldest parts of which date from the 13th century , was previously the town hall for more than 500 years and even the seat of government after 1815. Inside the palace, the monarchy comes across as genteel and reserved rather than ostentatious and ostentatious. Some of the foyers, halls and salons with their ornate stucco ceilings, furniture, tapestries and paintings can also be visited during the summer months. If the grand-duc is present, the national flag is hoisted and the armed palace guard paraded with two soldiers instead of the usual one in front of the large main gate.

Choir of the Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Luxembourg

The most important religious building is the Notre-Dame de Luxembourg Cathedral (also known as the Cathedral of Our Lady ), the late Gothic episcopal church of the Archdiocese of Luxembourg . It was built by the Jesuits in 1613–1617 and elevated to a cathedral in 1870. The Octave of Our Lady is celebrated here every year , a pilgrimage in honor of the Mother of God , the patron saint of Luxembourg City. Next to it is the baroque refuge of St. Maximin , the former branch of the Trier Imperial Abbey of St. Maximin , today the Foreign Ministry of the Grand Duchy . Other religious sites are the Herz-Jesu-Kirche (Sacré Coeur), the St. Michael church , the St. Johann church , the Quirinuskapelle , the congregation church and the Liebfrauenfriedhof.

Luxembourg American Cemetery and Memorial

Around the city of Luxembourg there is a large US and a large German military cemetery with graves of 15,989 soldiers who perished during the Battle of the Bulge in World War II . The American military cemetery in Hamm consists of 5076 graves, which are set up in an arch in front of a memorial chapel. The commander of the III. US Army, General George S. Patton , was buried there at his request. The German military cemetery in Sandweiler consists of 10,913 graves. The cemetery was the first after the Second World War that the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge was able to establish outside Germany.

European conference and congress center

The Kirchberg plateau is the most modern part of Luxembourg City. The buildings of the European Court of Justice , the European Court of Auditors , the European Commission , the European Investment Bank and the Parliament of the European Union are all well worth seeing . The Kirchberg is therefore also known as the European Quarter. In addition, the European Conference and Congress Center , the Philharmonie Luxembourg and the Luxexpo trade fair are located on the Kirchberg .

Other sights:

bridges

Passerelle
The Adolphe Bridge connects the old town and fortress with the station district

The city of Luxembourg is characterized by its large bridges over deep, narrow valleys. They connect the different plateaus that make up the city:

  • The passerelle , also known as the Old Bridge, crosses the Petruss Valley at a height of 45 meters and consists of 24 arches with spans of eight and 15 meters. The bridge piers are up to 30 meters high and the total length of the bridge is around 290 meters.
  • The Grande-Duchesse Charlotte bridge, also known as the Red Bridge, connects the city center with the Europaviertel on the Kirchberg plateau. The bridge runs 74 meters above the Alzette. The length is 355 meters with a support width of 234 meters.
  • The Adolphe Bridge , also known as the New Bridge, was built between 1900 and 1903. Other countries followed the construction of the Adolphe Bridge with great interest, as it had been the largest stone arch bridge in the world up to that point. The large double arch with a span of 85 meters crosses the Petruss valley at a height of 42 meters. The total length of the bridge is 153 meters.

Streets and squares

Boulevard Royal
Hotel de Ville, Place Guillaume II.
Avenue John Fitzgerald Kennedy

The most famous squares in the city are the Place Guillaume II (popularly also known as "Knuedler") with the equestrian statue of Wilhelm, the fish market , the parade square Place d'Armes (built in 1671, newly laid out in 1986 and a popular meeting place for young and old in summer ) with the adjoining City Palace and Clairefontaine Square in the government district with the monument to Grand Duchess Charlotte . The sculpture “La grande Tempérance” by Niki de Saint Phalle was lifted from its concrete base at the bus station in front of the capital's Center Hamilius and is housed in a depot during the renovation of the square.

Avenue John Fitzgerald Kennedy (from Germany) and Route d'Arlon (from Belgium) are, together with the two southern motorways 3 and 4 (from France), the most frequented roads into the city. The most important inner-city streets include the Boulevard Royal and the avenue de la Liberté, which leads from the Adolphe Bridge in a southerly direction to the train station.

In the city center, traffic from the south to the north is routed under the old town through the René Conen tunnel.

The above-mentioned squares are in the pedestrian zone, as are the shopping streets Groussgaass , Grand-Rue, Rue du Curé or Avenue Monterey, among others . The capital is mostly crowded during the week, especially in April, June and October when the EU Council of Ministers meets, and during trade fairs and congresses (in May and June as well as in September and October).

Sports

D'Coque

The Center National Sportif et Culturel (D'Coque) on the Luxembourg Kirchberg is the largest sports center in the country. The hall construction was only built in the 1990s as an extension of the Piscine Olympique Luxembourg and its shape is reminiscent of a scallop . In addition to its function as a sports center, it is used for major events, concerts and as a conference center. The large hall covers 4,300 square meters and has 8,000 seats.

Football is the most popular sport in Luxembourg. The Stade Josy Barthel , the largest football stadium in the country (capacity: 8054 seats), is located in the Belair district . It is the venue for the home games of the Luxembourg national football team (national stadium). In addition, there is the Stade Achille Hammerel (5814 places), the Stade de Beggen (rue Henri Dunant, 4850 places), the Stade Camille Polfer (2740 places) and the Stade Hollerich (2120 places) in the urban area . The most successful football team in the city is Racing FC Union Luxembourg . After the merger in 2005 between Alliance, Spora and Union Luxemburg, the club can write 28 Luxembourg championships and 20 cup victories ( Coupe de Luxembourg ) to the Palmares, all of which were won by the previous clubs. The capital's oldest independent football club is FC Avenir Beggen (founded in 1915).

The Tour de Luxembourg stage cycle race , one of the first preparatory races for the Tour de France since 1935 , begins and ends in Luxembourg City. The race is part of the UCI Europe Tour . In 2009, for the first time in three decades, Fränk Schleck was able to win the race again. One of the winners is Lance Armstrong , who was able to achieve his first success here after having overcome cancer.

In 1995 and 2013, the City of Luxembourg hosted the Games of the Small States of Europe , a biennial multi-sport event organized by the National Olympic Committees (NOC) of nine European small states and which has been taking place since 1985.

The JPMorgan City Jogging is an annual city run through the capital, including walking, Nordic walking and jogging kids.

The Europe Marathon leads either as a marathon or as a half marathon from the banking and financial center of Kirchberg into the historic city center. It is - accompanied by torches and Bengali lighting - one of the few marathons that take place in the evening. Until 2010 the Europe Marathon took place in May, in 2011 it will be held for the first time in June. The course is considered attractive, but it is also wavy and angled and therefore not necessarily suitable for fastest times. Runners from 60 nations took part in the premiere. The largest group was made up of the locals with a good quarter of the participants, followed by Germans, French and Belgians.

The Luxembourg Euro Meet is the largest swimming event in Luxembourg and takes place annually in January on the Kirchberg in the Arena Coque.

The Grand Prix of Luxembourg was held from 1949 to 1952 on a motorsport racetrack in Findel right outside the city gates. In 1997 and 1998, the Formula One race at the nearby Nürburgring was also called the Grand Prix of Luxembourg. The name was chosen because a German Grand Prix was held at the Hockenheimring and a European Grand Prix at the Circuito de Jerez in Jerez de la Frontera in Spain in the 1997 season . The largest race track in the country, the Circuit Goodyear , is located a few kilometers north of the city in Colmar-Berg . The American tire manufacturer Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company operates a plant there with more than 3,600 employees. The Goodyear Trophy and Coupe Goodyear are also held annually .

nightlife

Station district

The headquarters of Luxembourg's nightlife are the districts of Grund and Clausen. The Rives de Clausen around the former industrial site of the Mousel et Clausen brewery on Rue Emile Mousel is the nightlife district par excellence. The restaurant Le Sud, the Verso, the Ikki, the Bar Rock Box, the Agua de Coco, the King Wilma and the Space Bar form a cluster of trendy bars and restaurants there. The Rives are visited by several thousand people at night and are now one of the centers of Luxembourg's nightlife. Since the site opened in October 2008, more than 120 jobs have been created there.

In addition, various localities have settled on Rue de Hollerich and Rue de Bouillon in the popular Hollerich district, including the Marx Bar (42–44 Rue de Hollerich) and Atelier (54 Rue de Hollerich). The Resto-Lounge-Bar Cat Club (18 Rue de l'Aciérie) is also popular. There are also two dozen discos and clubs in the city , including four large-capacity discos that can each accommodate more than 1,000 guests. The classics of Luxembourg's nightlife are the historic old town around Place d'Armes and the area around the train station. The scene is characterized by Irish and English bars. In the station district there are mainly multicultural restaurants and various cabarets.

There are two types of night buses: Every night the Night Rider , a collective bus - consisting of 70 sprinters  - shuttles between two front doors, e.g. without a specific timetable and stops. B. the most popular places in Luxembourg's nightlife. Each trip costs at least 12 euros. On Fridays and Saturdays there is also the City Night Bus from 10 p.m. , which connects all major city districts, the Glacis and Bouillon car parks and the Hamilius Center on three lines every 15 or 30 minutes. The night bus is a free service from Luxembourg City.

In the urban area Luxembourg a valid from 3am curfew . Since this regularly leads to disturbances of the peace, long queues in parking garages and occasional overloading of the bus shuttle service, the curfew is up for discussion. An extension has already been approved in some parts of the city. Since then, the curfew has only been in effect from 6 a.m.

Regular events

Schueberfouer, Champ du Glacis

The Schobermesse ( lux. D'Schueberfouer , known as d'Fouer ) is a large folk festival that is celebrated every year in late summer on the Champ du Glacis. It goes back to October 20, 1340 and will take place for the 678th time in 2018 - making the Schobermesse one of the oldest fairground events in Europe. With an average of two million visitors, it is also one of the largest of its kind. In Luxembourg City, the so-called Schobermess Monday is sometimes a day off.

The Luxembourgers celebrate the national day of the country on June 23 in the capital. There are patriotic street parades, gun salutes, church services, concerts and receptions. A military parade takes place on the avenue de la Liberté that day.

Live at Vauban is a rock festival that takes place in autumn in the Atelier concert hall, the Conservatory of Music and the Grand Théâtre de la Ville de Luxembourg at rond-point Schuman.

The Nuit des Musées has been an annual museum night since 2001 and is the main event in the series of events organized by the d'stater muséeën . The museum nights regularly attract more than 10,000 visitors. A varied program is then offered in the various houses.

The Luxembourg Christmas market takes place every year from the end of November until Christmas in the historic city center. Christmas trees, Christmas decorations, Luxembourg specialties and mulled wine are sold.

The Printemps Musical-Festival de Luxembourg takes place in spring and presents concerts of all musical genres, from classical to jazz to chanson. The aim of the festival is to highlight the commonalities between classical and modern music - especially with jazz - and to remove the outdated separation between so-called serious and popular music .

The Octave in May is a pilgrimage to Our Lady of Luxembourg : Catholics from the Grand Duchy and neighboring areas of Belgium, Germany and France have been making pilgrimages to Luxembourg since 1628. The Octave Market with its various food stalls and souvenir shops takes place on the square opposite the cathedral in the capital. The event traditionally ends with a solemn procession that reflects the country's religious tradition. The grand ducal family and spiritual dignitaries from abroad usually attend.

In July, Luxembourg City also hosts the Blues'n Jazzrallye jazz festival . Around 20,000 music fans then come to the city. Furthermore, the Luxembourg International Military Tattoo takes place every two years in May .

politics

Cité Judiciaire on the Holy Spirit Plateau
Cercle Municipal on the Place d'Armes

City council

City council election 2019
 %
40
30th
20th
10
0
30.04
25.03
19.26
11.09
6.79
4.4
3.48
Otherwise.
Gains and losses
compared to
 % p
   6th
   4th
   2
   0
  -2
  -4
  -6
-3.61
+5.98
+0.81
-4.84
+0.34
-0.62
+3.48
Otherwise.
2
3
5
9
7th
1
7th 
A total of 27 seats

household

In 2017, Luxembourg City recorded ordinary income (income) of EUR 684.3 million and ordinary expenses (expenses) of EUR 536.4 million. The extraordinary income amounts to 92.9 million euros and the extraordinary expenses to 324.2 million euros.

Luxembourg as a city or municipality

The city or municipal council of Luxembourg has 27 members. There are five lay judges.

Lydie Polfer (DP) has been the mayor since December 2013 , as her predecessor Xavier Bettel (DP) took over the post of Prime Minister of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

Luxembourg as the capital

As the capital of the Grand Duchy, Luxembourg is the seat of all constitutional organs and numerous state administrations in the country. The Chambre des Députés (Parliament) , the Council of State , the Grand Duke and the government with all ministries are located in Luxembourg.

In addition, the country's judicial organs are based in the so-called Cité Judiciaire on the Holy Spirit Plateau in the capital. The institutions Zentrales Sozialdéngscht, Friddensgeriicht, Palais vum Ieweschte Geriichtshaff, Jugendgeriicht, Arrondissementgeriicht and Parquet vum Arrondissementgeriicht are located there.

Luxembourg as the EU administrative seat

Luxembourg City is the administrative seat of the European Union (next to Brussels and Strasbourg ) and

The institutions of the European Union are mainly located on the Kirchberg plateau in the northeast of the city.

economy

Luxembourg financial center

Seat of the bank "Dexia" in Luxemburg-Hollerich

The economic structure of Luxembourg, which was formerly characterized by heavy industry and agriculture, has changed profoundly since the early 1970s. Before the foreseeable decline in the importance of heavy industry, the Luxembourg government has consciously and consistently pursued a policy of diversification since 1975, established new industries and, with great success, developed the banking and insurance sector in particular.

With Frankfurt am Main , London , New York City , Zurich , Hong Kong and Singapore, the city of Luxembourg is one of the most important financial centers in the world today . It is the world's second largest center of excellence for investment funds after the United States , Europe's leading location for captive reinsurance and the largest private banking center in the euro zone . The financial sector is thus the most important pillar of the Luxembourg economy. Overall, financial services and business-related services now generate almost half of Luxembourg's gross value added. 22 percent of employees work in the financial sector, most of them in the districts of Kirchberg and Oberstadt directly in the capital.

construction industry

Construction is another important industry. It benefits from the settlement of new industries, banks and insurance companies, as well as state construction projects to improve the infrastructure.

Industry

Former headquarters of Arbed, the forerunner of the world's largest steel manufacturer ArcelorMittal on avenue de la Liberté in Luxembourg City

Luxembourg City is the administrative headquarters of the merged and world's largest steel manufacturer ArcelorMittal . It was created in 2007 through the merger of the once independent multinational steel company Arcelor and the British-Indian steel manufacturer Mittal Steel . Arcelor itself was created in 2002 through the merger of the steel companies Arbed (Luxembourg), Usinor (France) and Aceralia (Spain). Arbed has always been the largest private employer in Luxembourg. The former administrative headquarters of Arbed was located in a representative neoclassical building on Avenue de la Liberté, the largest boulevard in Luxembourg.

Information technology

Due to the central location and the favorable economic environment, numerous IT groups have also settled in Luxembourg, such as Artec 3D , the manufacturer of high-end 3D scanning solutions. ITunes Sarl has been based there since 2004 and operates the European iTunes Store as a subsidiary of Apple Inc. The European subsidiary of Amazon.com is also based in Luxembourg.

media

The headquarters of the media company RTL Group is located in Luxembourg City , whose roots go back to the Compagnie luxembourgeoise de radiodiffusion , which has been running Radio Luxembourg from its broadcasting house, Villa Louvigny , in Luxembourg's city park since the 1930s .

traffic

Commuter volume and consequences

135,000 commuters come to the Grand Duchy every day, most of them directly to the capital. Therefore, there is frequent traffic jams on numerous streets around the capital between 7:30 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. and between 5:00 p.m. and 6:30 p.m. Buses and trains are also heavily used during rush hour. They have been free since March 2020.

Public transport

There is an extensive network of bus routes . They connect parts of the city with the city center, the train stations and the P + R spaces in the periphery (Bouillon: 2,600 spaces, Kockelscheuer: 600, South: 720, Kirchberg: 235, Beggen: 200).

On Fridays and Saturdays, the free City Night Bus runs on three lines from 10 p.m. Line CN1 connects the Upper Town with the districts of Hollerich, Gare, Clausen, Neudorf and Cents and also goes to the Glacis and Bouillon car parks. Line CN2 connects the Center Hamilius with the districts of Bonnevoie, Gasperich and Zessingen. Line CN3 connects the Center Hamilius with the districts of Limpertsberg, Belair and Merl. The night bus is a free service from Luxembourg City. It runs every 15 or 30 minutes.

In 2015, the construction of the “Stater Tram” tram network began in Luxembourg City . The first part of the line opened on December 10, 2017 and runs from the main train station through the city center via Place de l'Etoile and Glacis to Kirchberg with the LuxExpo exhibition center as the terminus. An extension to Luxembourg Airport should be completed by 2021. The aim of the project is to improve mobility between the city center and Kirchberg, where a significant number of commuters work. Calculations have shown that the traffic volume can no longer be dealt with by buses. A traditional type of tram (discontinued) existed in Luxembourg from 1875 to 1964.

The city has been running a car sharing project called Carloh with five stations since 2015 . This means that vehicles made available at certain locations can occasionally be borrowed. The aim is to have very low fixed costs - refueling, maintenance and care are included. The concept is aimed at both private individuals and companies.

Road traffic

Boulevard Roosevelt

The city's 22 multi-storey car parks, especially the Aldringen, Knuedler and Theater car parks, are often overloaded on weekdays. The dynamic parking guidance system introduced on July 29, 2005 provides information about the current occupancy rate. The inner-city parking limit of two hours is intended to ensure permanent rotation and counteract long-term parking. Different parking zones are planned as well as special permits for residents and other specific groups. Call2Park is a system that allows you to pay for parking tickets by mobile phone. Traffic information is available online.

Rail transport

Station building
French TGV in Luxembourg station

The Luxembourg train station ( French Gare de Luxembourg ) is the central point of the 274 km long railway network in the Grand Duchy. In addition, there are the train stations and stops in Kirchberg-Pfaffenthal, Cents-Hamm, Hollerich, and Howald in the urban area. Passenger traffic is mainly operated by the Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Luxembourgeois (CFL) .

The following railway lines come together here:

The station is connected to the high-speed network of the French State Railways (SNCF) via the LGV Est européenne route and has, among other things, a direct connection to Paris. Six TGV trains have been running on this line every day since 2009, with a journey time of 130 minutes. There is an hourly connection to Germany by local transport, which ends shortly after the border in Trier. It is operated jointly by CFL and DB.

Since December 14, 2014, Luxembourg and Germany have been linked by an efficient hourly connection between Luxembourg and Koblenz. To this end, the Luxembourg – Trier – Koblenz route between Igel and Igel-West was expanded over a distance of two kilometers. The Deutsche Bahn project was estimated at 23 million euros. Luxembourg contributed 8 million euros, although the affected section is entirely on German territory. In the long term, plans are also being made to connect Luxembourg City to Germany's high-speed network .

For a number of years, the so-called Eurocaprail has been planned as a high-speed link between the capitals of the European Union - Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg. On the Belgian side, line improvements are already under construction on some sections of the Brussels – Luxembourg route. The introduction of high-speed traffic is planned after the opening of the TGV line between Metz and Strasbourg.

air traffic

The Luxembourg Airport ( French Aéroport de Luxembourg ) unofficially short, Findel called, is the central Luxembourg airport. It is particularly important in the freight business: Luxembourg ranks fifth in the list of the largest freight airports in Europe.

The airport is right outside the city gates, around six kilometers from the city center. It is the only international airport in the country and at the same time the only one with an asphalt runway (4000 × 60 m). A modern terminal with a capacity of around three million passengers was opened in 2008. In terms of passenger traffic, the airport is served by numerous airlines, including British Airways , KLM Royal Dutch Airlines , Lufthansa , Swiss and Scandinavian Airlines . The main user is Luxair . Cargolux is the largest customer in freight transport .

The establishment of several low-cost airports in the vicinity is being critically observed in Luxembourg: Frankfurt-Hahn , around 110 kilometers away, and Brussels-Charleroi , around 200 kilometers away, have taken more and more market shares from Luxembourg Airport in recent years. In 2009, more than 300,000 Luxembourg passengers were estimated on the Hahn alone. 15 buses commute between Luxembourg City and Hahn every day. The airline Ryanair has stationed its planes at both Frankfurt-Hahn Airport and Brussels-Charleroi Airport and is sometimes using aggressive advertising for air fares that are more than 90 percent cheaper than Luxair can offer from Luxembourg Airport.

Personalities

sons and daughters of the town

Other personalities associated with the city

  • Carlo Hommel (1953-2006), cathedral organist
  • Franz Liszt (1811–1886) gave his last concert here on July 19, 1886 on the occasion of a visit to his friend, the Hungarian painter Mihály Munkácsy , in the former casino
  • Heinrich Oberhoffer (1824–1885), composer, musicologist, instrumental pedagogue, cathedral organist
  • Johann Peters (1831–1897), Catholic theologian, professor at the seminary, canon and member of the school commission
  • Richard David Precht (born December 8, 1964 in Solingen ), German philosopher and publicist
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Voigt (born February 13, 1849 in Tilsit; † January 3, 1922 in Luxemburg), alias the Captain of Köpenick , found his final resting place in the Liebfrauenfriedhof in Luxemburg-Limpertsberg.

Town twinning

Luxembourg is also a member of the Federation of European Napoleonic Cities and belongs to the trinational city network QuattroPole .

literature

  • Ville de Luxembourg, Photothèque, ed .: La Ville de Luxembourg et son passé recent. Exhibition catalogs, 3 episodes, pictures since 1868 from the city by well-known photographers. Luxemburg 1989, 1991, 1994 (without ISBN; explanatory texts in French).

Web links

Commons : Luxembourg City  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Luxembourg City  - Travel Guide

Individual evidence

  1. STATEC Luxembourg - Population par canton et commune 1821–2019 (French)
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  3. multiplicity. In: vdl.lu. Administration communale de la Ville de Luxembourg, accessed on July 23, 2017 (French).
  4. Les 24 quartiers de la Ville. In: vdl.lu. Administration communale de la Ville de Luxembourg, accessed on July 23, 2017 (French).
  5. Climate-data.org Climate of the City of Luxembourg
  6. meteolux.lu Findel weather station
  7. ^ World Weather Information Service. Retrieved July 16, 2019 .
  8. ^ Luxembourg municipality: 65 percent share of foreigners. Wort.lu, accessed on February 8, 2015 .
  9. reference date July 1st; Source: Statistics from the Luxembourg City Registration Office
  10. http://www.statistiques.public.lu/catalogue-publications/RP2011-premiers-resultats/2013/17-13-FR.pdf
  11. ^ French Revolutionary Wars . In: Brockhaus Konversations-Lexikon 1894-1896, 7th volume, pp. 186-196 (page 188).
  12. ^ Luxembourg City Tourist Office (ed.): The casemates . Luxembourg 2012 (information brochure).
  13. Guy May: The street names of the city of Luxembourg under German occupation (1940-1944) ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  14. Live in Luxembourg. Luxembourg for Finance , archived from the original on December 16, 2010 ; Retrieved April 14, 2011 .
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  16. ^ The World According to GaWC 2012. GaWC, accessed February 15, 2016 .
  17. Lots of big names, lots of little fans. volksfreund.de , accessed on April 14, 2011 .
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  20. "Villa Vauban" - Classical art in a modern shell. Wort.lu, accessed February 8, 2015 .
  21. The banking museum. bcee.lu, archived from the original on June 14, 2011 ; Retrieved April 15, 2011 .
  22. Sights. lcto.lu, accessed January 16, 2014 .
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  27. Closure only in the event of a flagrant violation of the rules. tageblatt.lu, accessed on April 15, 2011 .
  28. a b c Nightlife. lcto.lu, accessed January 16, 2014 .
  29. 30 new buses for the “Night Rider”. Wort.lu, accessed on February 8, 2015 .
  30. Tomorrow opens 669th Schueberfouer in Luxembourg. brf.be, accessed April 15, 2011 .
  31. Budget 2017. In: vdl.lu. Administration communale de la Ville de Luxembourg, accessed on July 23, 2017 (French).
  32. a b Luxembourg - Economic Policy. Federal Foreign Office, accessed on April 21, 2011 .
  33. ^ The Luxembourg financial center. Luxembourg for Finance , archived from the original on December 15, 2010 ; Retrieved April 14, 2011 .
  34. ^ Private Company Information. In: BusinessWeek . Bloomberg, accessed January 14, 2013 .
  35. Konrad Lischka: Amazon and Apple rely on the Luxembourg trick. In: Spiegel Online . May 1, 2012, accessed January 14, 2013 .
  36. Luxembourg travel guide: Be out and about at rush hour. Marcopolo, accessed on April 14, 2011 .
  37. A cable car for the "Roud Bréck". Wort.lu, June 13, 2012, accessed June 15, 2012 .
  38. Car sharing project started. Wort.lu, accessed on February 15, 2016 .
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  40. Guidage parking. Ville de Luxembourg, accessed April 14, 2011 (French).
  41. New train and bus timetables. Wort.lu, accessed on December 16, 2014 .
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