Kingdom of the United Netherlands
|Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden (Dutch)
Royaume uni des Pays-Bas (French)
|United Kingdom of the Netherlands|
|1815-1830 / 39|
|Motto : Je maintiendrai (French: "I remain steadfast")|
|Official language||Dutch and French|
Amsterdam seat of
government alternately The Hague and Brussels
|Government system||Constitutional monarchy|
|Head of state||King Wilhelm I.|
|Head of government||Governing Minister|
|surface||approximately 65,000 km²|
|Population density||about 85 inhabitants per km²|
|resolution||1830 ( Belgian Revolution ), confirmed in the London Treaty of April 19, 1839|
|National anthem||Vienna Neêrlands Bloed|
|National holiday||June 18 ( Waterloodag , the day of the Battle of Waterloo )|
|province of the Netherlands and even belonged to the German Confederation.|
The Kingdom of the United Netherlands or United Kingdom of the Netherlands ( Dutch Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden , French Royaume uni des Pays-Bas ) existed from 1815 to 1831 (1839). The Kingdom of the United Netherlands, often simply called the “Kingdom of the Netherlands”, comprised the former Republic of the Seven United Provinces (1795–1806: Batavian Republic , 1806–1810: Kingdom of Holland ) in the north and the former Austrian Netherlands in the south.
The enlargement of the "old" Netherlands (the Republic of the Seven United Provinces) was intended to create a viable state north of France that would counterbalance any future French expansion attempts. The plans of the powers allied against Napoleon Bonaparte met the intentions and ambitions of the Prince of Orange to expand the Netherlands. The way for this was cleared by the Austrian Empire when the Austrian State Chancellor Klemens von Metternich declared in the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Chaumont of March 1, 1814 that Austria would forego the restoration of the Austrian Netherlands after the end of the war against Napoleon. In secret additional articles to the Chaumont Treaty, an "enlargement" of the Netherlands was agreed. On July 21, 1814, the Netherlands signed identical treaties with the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia and Russia, which gave the Netherlands the “Belgian provinces”. These agreements were confirmed at the Congress of Vienna . On May 31, 1815, the Netherlands signed a corresponding treaty with the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia and Russia. Its provisions were also included in the final act of the Congress of June 9, 1815. Since the decisions had already been made in 1814, Wilhelm I was able to be proclaimed “King of the United Netherlands” on March 16, 1815, before the end of the Congress of Vienna.
The Kingdom of the United Netherlands existed until the southern provinces separated in the Belgian Revolution of 1830 to create the state of Belgium . Belgian independence was not recognized by the north until 1839. After that, the northern states called themselves just the Kingdom of the Netherlands .
Personal union with Luxembourg
Luxembourg existed as an independent Grand Duchy from 1815 and was therefore not part of the Kingdom of the United Netherlands. However, it was ruled from 1815 to 1890 by the Dutch king, who was the grand duke of sovereign Luxembourg in personal union . He was also the German Federal Prince, as was the then British King for the State of Hanover (until 1837) and the Danish King for the Duchy of Holstein .
The personal union between the Netherlands and Luxembourg expired in 1890: after the death of King Wilhelm III. Wilhelmina succeeded him to the Dutch throne under the reign of her mother. In Luxembourg, on the other hand, the former Nassau Duke Adolf I became the new Grand Duke due to the Salian inheritance law applicable there , applying the provisions of the Nassau Hereditary Association .
According to the Fundemental Law of August 24, 1815, the Kingdom of the United Netherlands was divided into 17 provinces. The provincial borders were largely identical to the borders of the former departments of Napoleonic France , which in turn were mainly based on the former provincial divisions of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces and the Austrian Netherlands .
The States General consisted of two chambers. The first chamber consisted of a minimum of 40 and a maximum of 60 people who were appointed by the king on merit for life. The provinces were represented in the second chamber, which consisted of 110 members.
|province||emerged from the
|today part of||Later
|Antwerp||southern part of Deux-Nèthes||5||Belgium|
|Drenthe||southern part of Ems-Occidental||1||Netherlands|
|Groningen||northern part of Ems-Occidental||4th||Netherlands|
|Holland||Bouches-de-la-Meuse and the western part of Zuyderzée||22nd||Netherlands||1840 divided into the provinces of Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland|
|Limburg||Meuse Inférieure||4th||Belgium, Netherlands||In 1839 divided into the Belgian province of Limburg
and the Duchy of Limburg ,
from which the Dutch province of Limburg emerged in 1866 .
|Liege||largest part of Ourthe||6th||Belgium|
|Namur||western part of Sambre-et-Meuse , parts of Ardennes||2||Belgium|
|North Brabant||Bouches-du-Rhin , northern part of Deux-Nèthes , eastern part of Bouches-de-l'Escaut||7th||Netherlands|
|East Flanders||southern part of Escaut||10||Belgium|
|Zealand||western part of Bouches-de-l'Escaut and northern part of Escaut||3||Netherlands|
|South Brabant||Dyle||8th||Belgium||Renamed in 1831 to Province of Brabant , in
1995 divided into the provinces of Flemish Brabant
and Walloon Brabant
and the Brussels Capital Region
|Utrecht||eastern part of Zuyderzée||3||Netherlands|
- Herwig Katzer: March 16, 1815 - Founding of the Kingdom of the Netherlands WDR ZeitZeichen from March 16, 2015 (Podcast)
- Despite its literal equivalent, it is predominantly referred to in German-language literature as the Kingdom of the United Netherlands .
- Memorandum of the British Cabinet of December 26, 1813 with the instructions for the forthcoming peace negotiations. In: Harold Temperley : Foundations of British foreign policy from Pitt, 1792, to Salisbury, 1902 . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1938, pp. 29-34, here pp. 32-33.
- Horst Lademacher : History of the Netherlands. Politics - Constitution - Economy . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1983, ISBN 3-534-07082-8 , p. 229.
- Heinrich von Gagern : The life of General Friedrich von Gagern . Winter, Leipzig 1856, vol. 1, p. 142.
- Jean-Baptiste Nothomb : Historical-diplomatic presentation of the foundation of the Kingdom of Belgium under international law . Cotta, Stuttgart 1836, p. 7.
- Horst Lademacher: History of the Netherlands. Politics - Constitution - Economy . Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1983, ISBN 3-534-07082-8 , p. 232. See the eight articles of the contract in Johann Ludwig Klüber : Acts of the Vienna Congress in the years 1814 and 1815 , Vol. 6. Verlag JJ Palm and Ernst Enke, Erlangen 1816, pp. 175-178.
- Contract text in Johann Ludwig Klüber: Acts of the Vienna Congress in the years 1814 and 1815 , vol. 6. Verlag JJ Palm and Ernst Enke, Erlangen 1816, pp. 167-175.
- Johann Ludwig Klüber: Acts of the Vienna Congress in the years 1814 and 1815 , Vol. 6. Verlag JJ Palm and Ernst Enke, Erlangen 1816, pp. 62–68.
- Horst Lademacher: History of the Netherlands. Politics - Constitution - Economy . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1983, ISBN 3-534-07082-8 , p. 223.
- Karl Heinrich Ludwig Pölitz : The Constitutions of the European States since the Last 25 Years , Volume 2, Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1817, p. 495 ( Google Books )